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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date June 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Introduction to the issue on optoelectronic materials and processing

    Page(s): 709 - 711
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • In Situ Monitoring And Control For MBE Growth Of Optoelectronic Devices

    Page(s): 831 - 835
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    Self-organized CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots (QD's) were fabricated on the cleavage-induced GaAs (110) surface in ultra high vacuum (UHV) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). CdSe layer showed the Stranski??Krastanow (S-K) growth mode. QW's and QD's emissions originated from the wetting layer and island structures, respectively, were observed in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. This is a evidence of S-K type where island structures are self-formed on the two-dimensional wetting layer as a result of the transition of the growth mode. The state filling effect in the QD's was also observed by employing excitation power dependence on the PL intensity. By using the microscopic PL spectroscopy, the broad PL peak of QD's was resolved into a number of sharp peaks. These peaks are attributed to the recombination of excitons localized at the individual QD's indicating that the fabricated CdSe islands have quasi-zero-dimensional δ-function like density of states. View full abstract»

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  • Electrooptic coefficient variation in proton exchanged and annealed lithium niobate samples

    Page(s): 796 - 807
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    A new technique to measure relative changes in the electrooptic (EO) coefficient of a material is presented. It is used to measure the spatial variation of the EO coefficient in x-cut lithium niobate caused by the annealed proton exchange technique. The lithium niobate samples are proton exchanged at different temperatures for varying times. The measurements presented indicate significant degradation of the EO coefficient immediately after the proton exchange process. The samples are annealed at 375°C to enable recovery of the EO coefficient. Samples processed in benzoic acid for 30 min at a temperature of 240°C show immediate recovery of the EO coefficient upon thermal annealing. Samples processed in benzoic acid for 5 h at a temperature of 180°C show a slower recovery of the EO coefficients requiring longer periods of thermal annealing even though the diffusion depth is the same as in the previous case. Samples processed in benzoic acid for 5 h at a temperature of 240°C exhibit significant cracking which worsens progressively upon thermal annealing. The EO coefficient cannot be restored in all areas even after a long 8-h anneal step View full abstract»

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  • Hydride vapor phase epitaxy revisited

    Page(s): 749 - 767
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    The salient features of hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HYPE) process in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices are demonstrated by combining the state of the art results of several groups working in this field View full abstract»

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  • InGaN-based blue laser diodes

    Page(s): 712 - 718
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    The continuous-wave (CW) operation of InGaN multiquantum-well (MQW) structure laser diodes (LDs) was demonstrated at room temperature (RT) with a lifetime of 100 h. The threshold current and the voltage of the LDs were 50 mA and 5 V, respectively. The threshold current density was 8.8 kA/cm2. The carrier lifetime and the threshold carrier density were estimated to be 3.5 ns and 1.8×1020/cm3, respectively. The Stokes shift of the energy difference between the absorption and the emission energy of the InGaN MQW LD's were 140 meV. Both spontaneous and stimulated emission of the LD's originated from this deep localized energy state which is equivalent to a quantum dot-like state. From the measurements of gain spectra and an external differential quantum efficiency dependence on the cavity length, the differential gain coefficient, the transparent carrier density, threshold gain and internal loss were estimated to be 5.8×10-17 cm2, 9.3×10 19 cm-3, 5200 cm-1, and 43 cm-1 respectively View full abstract»

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  • Design and fabrication of VCSELs with AlxOy-GaAs DBRs

    Page(s): 905 - 915
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    A procedure for fabricating vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is presented. An in-depth analysis of parameters and behavior unique to oxide VCSELs determines the device design. The development cycle time for these devices is reduced through development of a method for post-growth analysis of the epitaxial stack reflectivity before device processing. Threshold currents as low as 160 μA and resistances as low as 80 Ω are demonstrated using different device designs. The total optical loss of low-doped oxide VCSEL structures is 0.163% which is comparable to VCSEL designs based on all-semiconductor DBRs. The thermal resistance of an 8×8 μm VCSEL is measured to be 2.8°C/mW, demonstrating that the presence of oxide layers does not act as a barrier to heat flow out of the active region View full abstract»

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  • Well-width dependent studies of InGaN-GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques

    Page(s): 731 - 738
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    We present a well-width-dependent study of InGaN-GaN single-quantum wells using a time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) technique. At room temperature (RT), carrier recombination was found to be dominated by interface-related nonradiative processes. The dominant radiative recombination at RT was through band-to-band free carriers. For the sample grown at a higher growth rate, we observed a longer luminescence lifetime, which was attributed to an improved quantum-well (QW) interface. At low temperatures, the carrier recombination was found to be dominated by radiative recombination through a combination of free excitons, bound excitons, and free carriers. A decrease of radiative exciton lifetime was observed with decreased QW thickness View full abstract»

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  • CW and mode-locked integrated extended cavity lasers fabricated using impurity free vacancy disordering

    Page(s): 885 - 892
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    A phosphorus-doped silica (P:SiO2) cap containing 5 wt% P has been demonstrated to inhibit the bandgap shifts of p-i-n and n-i-p GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well laser structures during rapid thermal processing. Bandgap shift differences as large as 100 meV have been observed between samples capped with SiO2 and with P:SiO2. The technique has been used to fabricate GaAs-AlGaAs ridge lasers with integrated transparent waveguides. With a selective differential blue-shift of 30 nm in the absorption edge, devices with 400 μm/2.73-mm-long active/passive sections exhibited an average threshold current of 9 mA in continuous-wave (CW) operation, only 2.2 mA higher than that of discrete lasers of the same active length and from the same chip. Extended cavity mode-locked lasers were also investigated and compared to all active devices. For the extended cavity device, the threshold current is a factor of 3-5 lower, the pulsewidth is reduced from 10.3 to 3.5 ps and there is a decrease in the free-running jitter level from 15 ps (measurement bandwidth 10 kHz-10 MHz) to 6 ps. In addition, the extended cavity lasers do not exhibit any self-pulsing modulation of the mode-locked pulse train, unlike the all-active lasers, and the optical spectra indicate that the pulses are more linearly chirped View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs integrated twin-guide corner reflector lasers using in situ laser reflectometry

    Page(s): 854 - 861
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    We have fabricated integrated twin-guide (ITG) corner reflector (CR) InGaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs laser diodes for the wavelength of 980 mn. In an ITG laser diode, the coupling between active layer and output waveguide is very strong so that the operation of the ITG laser diode is sensitive to variations in epitaxial growth structures and material parameters. We have investigated the dependencies of ITG-CR lasers on these parameters. An in situ laser reflectometry system was used to control epitaxial thickness and etching depth, precisely. Optical dispersion parameters based on Afromowitz's formula was applied to in situ laser reflectometry, View full abstract»

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  • Wafer fusion: materials issues and device results

    Page(s): 943 - 951
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    A large number of novel devices have been recently demonstrated using wafer fusion to integrate materials with different lattice constants. In many cases, devices created using this technique have shown dramatic improvements over those which maintain a single lattice constant. We present device results and characterizations of the fused interface between several groups of materials View full abstract»

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  • In situ monitoring and control for MBE growth of optoelectronic devices

    Page(s): 836 - 844
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    Improved control over layer thickness has been realized using optical interference techniques such as reflectance spectroscopy. It is now common to observe spectra of distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) mirrors during growth to make corrections for growth rate drifts. Real-time optical flux monitoring (OFM) by atomic absorption allows precise layer control by measuring group III fluxes continuously during growth. The flux information can be used to operate growth shutters and to control effusion cell heaters in a feedback loop. Improved substrate temperature measurement by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) allows precise measurement of substrate temperature. DRS is not subject to the same errors encountered in pyrometer or thermocouple measurements of substrate temperature View full abstract»

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  • Spot-size converter integrated laser diodes (SS-LDs)

    Page(s): 968 - 974
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    A laser diode integrated with a spot-size converter has been developed for low cost optical modules. This device involves a mechanism that matches its optical field with fiber or planar lightwave circuits (PLC). This improves the alignment tolerance of the optical coupling and allows for an easy passive alignment approach. This device was fabricated on a 2-in substrate using MOVPE for crystal growth, stepper for photolithography and dry etching for mesa formation, which were all fit for mass production. Thus, the cost of the device is reduced. This device offers high coupling efficiency with single-mode fibers and high reliability, so that it can be widely implemented in coming advanced optical networks View full abstract»

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  • The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth and properties of InAsSb mid-infrared (3-6-μm) lasers and LEDs

    Page(s): 739 - 748
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    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of AlAs1-xSbx cladding layers and InAsSb-InAs multiple-quantum well (MQW) and InAsSb-InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. The AlAs1-xSbx cladding layers were successfully doped p- or n-type using diethylzinc or tetraethyltin, respectively. By changing the layer thickness and composition of SLSs and MQWs, we have prepared structures with low temperature (<20 K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 μm. We have made gain-guided injection lasers using undoped p-type AlAs0.16Sb0.84 for optical confinement and both strained InAsSb-InAs MQW and InAsSb-InAsP SLS active regions. The lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs) utilize the semi-metal properties of a GaAsSb(p)-InAs(n) heterojunction as a source for electrons injected into active regions. A multiple-stage LED utilizing this semi-metal injection scheme is reported. Gain-guided, injected lasers with a strained InAsSb-InAs MQW active region operated up to 210 K in pulsed mode with an emission wavelength of 3.8-3.9 μm and a characteristic temperature of 29-40 K. We also present results for both optically pumped and injection lasers with InAsSb-InAsP SLS active regions. The maximum operating temperature of an optically pumped 3.7-μm strained-layer superlattice (SLS) laser was 240 K. An SLS LED emitted at 4.0 μm with 80 μW of power at 300 K View full abstract»

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  • Low-threshold vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on oxide-confinement and high contrast distributed Bragg reflectors

    Page(s): 893 - 904
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    The interest in low-threshold vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) is increased by the demonstration of the small size, low loss optical mode due to oxide-confinement in the Fabry-Perot microcavity laser. Intense recent work in this area has resulted in numerous record breaking demonstrations of low-threshold current, high wall-plug efficiency, and high speed. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the dielectric cavity design to enhance control of the optical mode. We argue that high contrast dielectric mirrors can become an important design approach, especially for small apertures limited by diffraction loss. Experimental results are compared for different types of mirror and aperture designs View full abstract»

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  • Optical intensity induced shutter in photochromic-doped sol-gel gel-glass waveguides

    Page(s): 780 - 788
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    The dynamic response, modeling and performance of a new optical intensity induced shutter have been studied. Hybrid optical waveguides made of optical fibers and photochromic doped gel-glass have been prepared by sol-gel process. A novel theoretical model explaining their behavior is shown, Experimental validation of the model is also shown. Design parameters of the devices, optical tunability and their application as extrinsic fiber optic intensity induced shutter (EFIS) are theoretically and experimentally demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • GaInNAs: a novel material for long-wavelength semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 719 - 730
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    GaInNAs was proposed and created in 1995 by the authors. It can be grown pseudomorphically on a GaAs substrate and is a light-emitting material having a bandgap energy suitable for long-wavelength laser diodes (1.3-1.55 μm and longer wavelengths). By combining GaInNAs with GaAs or other wide-gap materials that can be grown on a GaAs substrate, a type-I band lineup is achieved and, thus, very deep quantum wells can be fabricated, especially in the conduction band. Since the electron overflow from the wells to the barrier layers at high temperatures can he suppressed, the novel material of GaInNAs is very attractive to overcome the poor temperature characteristics of conventional long-wavelength laser diodes used for optical fiber communication systems. GaInNAs with excellent crystallinity was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy in which a nitrogen radical was used as the nitrogen source. GaInNAs was applied in both edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the long-wavelength range. In edge-emitting laser diodes, operation under room temperature continuous-wave (CW) conditions with record high temperature performance (T0=126 K) was achieved. The optical and physical parameters, such as quantum efficiency and gain constant, are also systematically investigated to confirm the applicability of GaInNAs to laser diodes for optical fiber communications. In a VCSEL, successful lasing action was obtained under room-temperature (RT) CW conditions by photopumping with a low threshold pump intensity and a lasing wavelength of 1.22 μm View full abstract»

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  • Total in situ etching and regrowth in an MBE system: application to buried heterostructure lasers

    Page(s): 845 - 853
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    A new chlorine-based chemical beam etching technique (CBET) has been combined with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to prepare InP-InGaAsP buried heterostructures in a total in situ etching and regrowth process for the first time. This novel processing technology, combining two techniques in the same MBE growth chamber, is very attractive for the realization of high-performance discrete or integrated optoelectronic devices. The different aspects of the etching process optimization are reviewed in the case of InP-InGaAsP heterostructures, and a first application to buried heterostructure laser fabrication is presented. The results obtained for buried ridge stripe (BRS) lasers are very promising and compare favorably to the state-of-the-art lasers. This first device application passes a milestone in the development of this new technology and demonstrates its potential for further applications to the fabrication of optoelectronic devices View full abstract»

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  • Broad-band tunable electroabsorption modulated laser for WDM application

    Page(s): 960 - 967
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    Design and fabrication of the first 1.55-μm wavelength tunable electroabsorption modulated laser integrated with a bent waveguide distributed-feedback (DFB) laser is reported. A low-threshold high-efficiency and stable single-longitudinal-mode operation is obtained when the electrodes of the bent DFB waveguide were uniformly pumped. In a normal configuration where the modulator part is used as an intensity modulator (i.e., AR coating on the modulator side and HR coating on the DFB side), stable single longitudinal mode output power close to 40 mW in free space is obtained with a 0-V bias to the modulator and an extinction ratio of up to 15 dB at 2.5 V. This single mode stability is due to the continuously distributed phase shift implemented in the structure thus reducing the photon pile-up inside the laser cavity as compared to an abruptly quarter-wave phase shifted DFB laser. With a nonuniform injection in the multiple electrodes, it was possible to select one particular single longitudinal mode out of the three neighboring modes inside the broad reflection band of the reflector. A wavelength tuning range of about 3.5 nm was obtained while maintaining an optical output power of more than 2 dBm from each mode. The device has a very low chirp (0.01-nm peak-to-peak) when modulated with a 2.5 Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence (PRES) data stream and an error-free transmission over 200 km of non-DSF fiber has been demonstrated for all four wavelength channels separated by 100-GHz spacing. Also, when the modulator part of the structure is used as a phase tuning element (i.e., antireflective (AR) coating on the DFB side and HR coating on the modulator side), we have successfully demonstrated high-speed optical packet switching with a fast and wide tunable wavelength range. The optical packets can be modulated at 2.5 Gb/s and may be switched among four wavelength channels in less than one bit period View full abstract»

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  • Origin of high-speed modification of refractive index in fused quartz by vacuum ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Page(s): 789 - 795
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    We report on high-speed modification and a large change of the refractive index on the order of 10-2 of fused quartz upon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser irradiation. The origin of the large refractive index change is discussed based on the laser-induced color center and surface morphology changes. The VUV-UV absorption spectrum of modified samples indicates the formation of a color center at around 163 nm (≡Si-Si≡defect), which is attributed to bond scission of fused quartz by VUV laser-induced electron excitation. On the other hand, simultaneous UV laser irradiation in our present experimental scheme is responsible for the generation of a surface damage at the large number of pulses, which causes scattering and deterioration of the optical properties of the irradiated regions View full abstract»

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  • Progress in InGaAs-GaAs selective-area MOCVD toward photonic integrated circuits

    Page(s): 874 - 884
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    The progress toward integrated photonic devices by selective-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is reviewed. Processing steps involved with fabricating buried heterostructures (BHs) by a three-step technique are outlined, and a computational model is presented that predicts the enhancement behavior of selective-area MOCVD. Results are reviewed for several discrete and integrated photonic devices. These include low-threshold BH lasers, laser diodes integrated with either intracavity or external cavity modulators, dual-channel emitters integrated with both modulators and passive y-junction waveguides, and broad-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs) View full abstract»

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  • Study of 1.3-μm tapered waveguide spotsize transformers

    Page(s): 975 - 979
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    Laterally tapered waveguide structures have been fabricated using a novel, though simple fabrication technique to achieve spot-size transformation. The effect of mesa shape on the far-field pattern and the coupling efficiency to a single-mode fiber (SMF) is reported. A tapered active region having both tensile and compressive quantum wells has been used and dual polarization characteristics are observed for the first time. An experimental analysis of the waveguide losses due to the taper has also been shown View full abstract»

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  • Photonic crystals and microdisk cavities based on GaInAsP-InP system

    Page(s): 808 - 830
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    This paper presents a preliminary guide to realize microcavity semiconductor lasers exhibiting spontaneous emission control effects. It includes: 1) theoretical consideration on the effects; 2) processing techniques for semiconductor microcavities; and 3) some demonstrations of photonic crystal and microdisk cavity. It was shown that, even with a spectral broadening of electron transition, thresholdless lasing operation and alternation of spontaneous emission rate are expected in a cavity satisfying the single mode condition that only one mode is allowed in the transition spectrum. An ideal three-dimensional (3-D) photonic crystal has the potentiality for realizing this condition. In two-dimensional (2-D) crystals and microdisk cavities, thresholdless operation is also expected, but the alternation of spontaneous emission rate may be negligible due to the insufficient optical confinement. In the experiment, some processing techniques for GaInAsP-InP system were investigated and methane-based reactive ion beam etching was selected because of the smooth sidewalls and adaptability to arbitrary structures. A GaInAsP-InP 2-D photonic crystal constructed by submicron columns was fabricated using this method. Owing to the slow surface recombination of this material, a polarized photoluminescence and peculiar transmission spectra were observed at room temperature (RT), which can be explained by a photonic band calculation. However, some technical improvement is necessary for clear demonstration of photonic bandgap, which is minimally required for device applications. In contrast to this, a GaInAsP-InP microdisk cavity of 2 μm in diameter, which corresponds to the cavity volume 2.5 times the single-mode condition, has achieved RT lasing with threshold current as low as 0.2 mA. Further reduction of diameter and realization of continuous-wave (CW) operation will provide a significant regime for the observation of spontaneous emission control effects View full abstract»

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  • Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys

    Page(s): 916 - 926
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    We review the chemistry, microstructure, and processing of buried oxides converted from AlGaAs layers using wet oxidation. Hydrogen is shown to have a central role in the oxidation reaction as the oxidizing agent and to reduce the intermediate predict As2O3 to As. The stable oxide is amorphous (AlxGa1-x) 2O3 which has no defects along the oxide/semiconductor interfaces but can exhibit strain at the oxide terminus due to volume shrinkage. The influence of gas flow, gas composition, temperature, Al-content, and layer thickness on the oxidation rate are characterized to establish a reproducible process. Linear oxidation rates with Arrhenius activation energies which strongly depend upon AlAs mole fraction are found. The latter produces strong oxidation selectivity between AlGaAs layers with slightly differing Al-content. Oxidation selectivity to thickness is also shown for layer thickness <60 nm. Differences between the properties of buried oxides converted from AlGaAs and AlAs layers and the impact on selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser lifetime are reported View full abstract»

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  • Grating overgrowth and defect structures in distributed-feedback-buried heterostructure laser diodes

    Page(s): 862 - 873
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    Distributed-feedback (DFB)-buried heterostructure lasers incorporating a substrate grating require epitaxy of waveguide layers over the corrugated grating surfaces. Unlike epitaxy on planar (100) substrate, the corrugated substrate surface contains undesirable crystal facets which lead to an uncontrollable variation in local composition during epitaxy, and thereby results in strong localized misfit stresses. These localized misfit stresses further affect the subsequent growth of high quality layers which constitute the active device structures. To address the general issue of epitaxy on a corrugated surface, a thermodynamic analysis is performed for surface mass transport on a grating surface at normal growth temperature to show that grating wash-out is a thermodynamically favorable process. However, growth on a perfectly preserved grating is undesirable due to the composition shift on groove facets. A systematic study of substrate orientation dependent composition variation of quaternary layers indicates a composition shift generally toward In and P rich directions for orientations from (100)-(111). Conditions for a strain free waveguide layer growth are demonstrated. The commonly observed imperfections associated with a grating overgrowth are summarized, and their effects on device reliability are discussed View full abstract»

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  • The integration of III-V optoelectronics with silicon circuitry

    Page(s): 952 - 959
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    The integration of III-V optoelectronics with silicon circuitry provides the potential for fabricating dense parallel optical interconnects with data links capable of Terabit aggregate data rates. This paper reviews many of the current approaches used for the fabrication of integrated optoelectronic devices and then highlights the performance results. Finally, the applied method is reviewed in greater detail with recent results on VCSEL, MESFET, and photodiode integration presented View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University