Issue 2 • Date June 1997
The validation of intelligent systems is an important task to perform. Typically, the results of the validation analysis are used to verify whether or not the system satisfies the initial design requirements, and to acquire new knowledge and/or refine the knowledge already acquired. In practice, the validation of intelligent systems usually requires the application of several different techniques (e.g. retrospective, prospective and quantitative). In this paper, the authors present the methodology devised to validate PATRICIA: an intelligent monitoring system designed to advise clinicians on the management of patients who are dependent on mechanical ventilation. The application of this methodology requires that appropriate validation paradigms are selected, depending on both the application domain and the characteristics of the intelligent system. The article also presents and discusses validation results. View full abstract»
Applying object-oriented technologies in modeling and querying temporally oriented clinical databases dealing with temporal granularity and indeterminacyPage(s): 100 - 127
The need to manage temporal information given at different levels of granularity or with indeterminacy is common to many application areas. Among them, we focus on clinical data management. Different time granularities and indeterminacy are also needed in querying temporal databases. In this paper, we describe GCH-OSQL (Granular Clinical History-Object Structured Query Language), an object-oriented/temporally-oriented extension of SQL. GCH-OSQL is based on an object-oriented temporal data model, GCH-OODM. GCH-OODM allows storage of clinical information at different and mixed granularities or with temporal indeterminacy. GCH-OSQL deals with the valid time of clinical information. The temporal extension of the SELECT construct includes the addition of the TIME-SLICE and MOVING WINDOW clauses, and the capability to reference the temporal dimension of objects in the WHERE and SELECT clauses. Using object-oriented technologies, a system prototype for GCH-OSQL and GCH-OODM has been implemented and applied to data management of follow-up patients after coronary angioplasty intervention. View full abstract»
A computer-aided detection system for tissue cell nuclei in histological sections is introduced and validated as part of the Biopsy Analysis Support System (BASS). Cell nuclei are selectively stained with monoclonal antibodies, such as the anti-estrogen receptor antibodies, which are widely applied as part of assessing patient prognosis in breast cancer. The detection system uses a receptive field filter to enhance negatively and positively stained cell nuclei and a squashing function to label each pixel value as belonging to the background or a nucleus. In this study, the detection system assessed all biopsies in an automated fashion. Detection and classification of individual nuclei as well as biopsy grading performance was shown to be promising as compared to that of two experts. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were measured to be 83% and 67.4%, respectively. One major advantage of BASS stems from the fact that the system simulates the assessment procedures routinely employed by human experts; thus it can be used as an additional independent expert. Moreover, the system allows the efficient accumulation of data from large numbers of nuclei in a short time span. Therefore, the potential for accurate quantitative assessments is increased and a platform for more standardized evaluations is provided. View full abstract»
The presence of microcalcification clusters in mammograms contributes evidence for the diagnosis of early stages of breast cancer. In many cases, microcalcifications are subtle and their detection can benefit from an automated system serving as a diagnostic aid. The potential contribution of such a system may become more significant as the number of mammograms screened increases to levels that challenge the capacity of radiology clinics. Many techniques for detecting microcalcifications start with a segmentation algorithm that indicates all candidate structures for the subsequent phases. Most algorithms used to segment microcalcifications have aspects that might raise operational difficulties, such as thresholds or windows that must be selected, or parametric models of the data. We present a new segmentation algorithm and compare it to two other algorithms: the multi-tolerance region-growing algorithm, which operates without the aspects mentioned above, and the active contour model, which has not been applied previously to segment microcalcifications. The new algorithm operates without threshold or window selection or parametric data models, and it is more than an order of magnitude faster than the other two. View full abstract»
The paper presents a microcontroller based underwater acoustic telemetry system for digital transmission of the electrocardiogram (ECG). The system is designed for the real time, throughwater transmission of data representing any parameter, and it was used initially for transmitting in multiplexed format the heart rate, breathing rate and depth of a diver using self contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). Here, it is used to monitor cardiovascular reflexes during diving and swimming. The programmable capability of the system provides an effective solution to the problem of transmitting data in the presence of multipath interference. An important feature of the paper is a comparative performance analysis of two encoding methods: pulse code modulation (PCM) and pulse position modulation (PPM). View full abstract»
Aims & Scope
The IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine publishes basic and applied papers of information technology applications in health, healthcare and biomedicine.
This Transaction ceased publication in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.
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