By Topic

Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 6 • Date Nov.-Dec. 1997

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • A clinical description of the IMPROVE data library

    Page(s): 21 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB)  

    IMPROVE (IMPROVing control of patient status in critical carE) was a concerted action project of the Biomed-1 programme of the European Union. Its main goal was to develop methods of biosignal processing and interpretation in order to detect disorders of oxygen delivery to vital tissues early enough for effective treatment to improve patient outcome. As the first step, a prospective survey of the incidence of potentially dangerous disorders of oxygen delivery was carried out in the intensive-care units (ICUs) of three of the participating hospitals. The four most common and significant types of disorders were defined (hypovolaemia, cardiac failure, high blood-flow state and oxygen-content-related problems) and their incidence measured and compared among the three sites. In the second phase, a data library (DL) was obtained from episodes of 24 hours of intensive observation in patients at risk of developing one of the four most frequent disorders observed in the first survey. This data collection was performed in the Department of Intensive Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. The objective of the IMPROVE project was that the DL should include data from 60 patient days, that it should include evidence of the evolution and resolution of the disorders, and that it should be unique in as much as the physiological data trends would be put in clear clinical context by a comprehensive process of clinical annotation. This annotation was seen as the key to making the DL suitable for biosignal processing and interpretation tasks, and to facilitate the development of diagnostic trend analysis tools. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Signal processing in prolonged EEG recordings during intensive care

    Page(s): 56 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1730 KB)  

    Methods for analyzing and displaying EEG signals are discussed. The increasing availability and affordability of powerful computer equipment makes possible the use of ever more sophisticated signal processing techniques, which extract relevant (but not readily discernible) information from long-term EEG recordings and can easily identify important features in the EEG. Whether these techniques are actually taken up in clinical practice is heavily dependent on how well they match clinical requirements. This article concentrates on requirements set in the context of long-term recordings in the ICU that demand the ability to process short-term discrete events as well as long-term trend information. A huge range of potentially useful signal processing techniques exists. This article illustrates the value of some of these techniques for ICU signals using the EEG recordings collected during the IMPROVE project. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evaluating time-varying heart-rate variability power spectral density

    Page(s): 76 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (867 KB)  

    A multiple weighted-least-square (WLS) identification process is presented for recognizing changes in ICU patient status. An adaptive scheme for the WLS is proposed in which the forgetting factor is automatically driven by the signal characteristics. Generally, adaptive algorithms are more complex and time-consuming than standard WLS, but they show a high tracking performance combined with the benefit of parameter smoothing. Nevertheless, the use of parameter-explicit filtering significantly reduces the computation time. This is a relevant advantage for real-time implementation. This adaptive approach also provides additional information to identify the signal variation speed, which can be used to localize transient phenomena. This article presents the algorithm performance in individuating and tracking the modifications of the cardiac autonomic control. To make data interpretation easier, the time-frequency distributions obtained are displayed as spectrograms. In addition, the signal speed variation is used to draw the attention of the physician to transient episodes. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Relative and intermittent cardiorespiratory coordination

    Page(s): 97 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (957 KB)  

    We investigate the hypothesis that the cardiorespiratory interactions are based on relative coordinations which, in particular, incorporate intermittencies at the boundary between stability and flexibility. In order to evaluate the autonomic and voluntary mechanisms, corresponding phase relations are investigated during spontaneous and metronome-controlled breathing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Bowel-sound signal enhancement using adaptive filtering

    Page(s): 105 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1661 KB)  

    We hypothesized that computerized analysis of gastrointestinal acoustic phenomena (GAP) may provide an accurate, rapid, safe, and inexpensive method of diagnosing a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions. Adaptive filters (AFs) and other conventional signal-processing techniques were employed for heart-sound (HS) cancellation. The objective was to remove HSs with minimum GAP distortion. After an overview of AF applications in biomedicine, we review our methods for HS removal in the laboratory and we discuss the results of the study. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Patenting biotechnology: ethical and philosophical issues

    Page(s): 118 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    Allowing for-profit companies to patent particular genetic manipulations raises many ethical, legal, and policy questions and has generated much critical comment in the United States and Europe. The main areas of concern are: a) negative environmental consequences; b) harm to humans who consume transgenic foods; c) abuse of animals; and d) misuse of human genetic engineering. It is impossible in a short article to do justice to the wide range of issues associated with patenting genetic technology. My approach is to select some of the major concerns, explore the deeper philosophical assumptions that underlie them, and discuss their implications for patenting genetic technology. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Whitaker foundation funds genome-related research

    Page(s): 121 - 122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB)  

    The Whitaker Foundation views biomedical engineering broadly as the application of engineering principles and techniques to solve medical and biological problems and improve human health. But the days in which a traditionally trained engineer can effectively undertake complex problems in the life sciences are fading. Engineering and medicine have converged at the molecular level, demanding a specialized knowledge of the principles and processes common to both. Collaboration between groups of engineers, scientists, and physicians remains a hallmark of biomedical engineering research. Increasingly, however, the biomedical engineer is also an expert in the life sciences. The Whitaker Foundation supports basic and applied research over the whole range of biomedical engineering, including genomics. Three examples of genome-related research supported by the foundation are described. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Collecting EEG signals in the IMPROVE data library

    Page(s): 33 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1728 KB)  

    One of the key issues for the IMPROVE (IMPROVing control of patient status in critical carE) project was to define and build a data library (DL) of annotated data acquired in the intensive-care unit (ICU), with particular reference to problems of mismatch between oxygen utilisation and supply. An additional aim of the IMPROVE study was to test the feasibility and clinical value of including limited monitoring of high-quality long-term EEG signals with the main DL in a restricted number of patients. Such an EEG DL would form a useful basis for testing the applicability and validity of different signal processing and interpretation methods in ICU monitoring, and also demonstrate the degree to which useful information could be obtained by a degree of fusion between systemic and cerebral variables. In this article, we describe the setup for collection of the EEG DL, the tools developed to facilitate visual analysis of the EEG together with simultaneous data from other non-EEG variables, data concerning quality control, and some preliminary observations from detailed visual assessment of EEG patterns in relation to other ICU events View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Using artificial neural networks for classifying ICU patient states

    Page(s): 41 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1464 KB)  

    The rapid accurate diagnosis of critical disorders is an essential component of intensive care. Traditional diagnostic techniques have relied on physician experience, which is based on a data set chosen from his or her personal preferences, rather than from scientific merit. In this article, we show that there are alternative methods of selecting clinical variables on which to base a diagnosis. We suggest that a model-based technique utilizing artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to investigate alternative, objectively chosen data input sets. Traditionally, ANNs have been used for diagnosis or prediction tasks; however, this article introduces a novel method of exploring the inner structure of suitably trained ANNs to determine a set of key variables for each clinical state defined. Two different ANN techniques are proposed: self-organizing maps and backpropagation networks. We do not claim that these techniques provide the optimal data set for decision making, but we do show that other combinations of data exist that may be an improvement over the physician methods currently used View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Monitoring the autonomic nervous system in the ICU through cardiovascular variability signals

    Page(s): 64 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1784 KB)  

    Studies the usefulness of cardiovascular variability parameters for monitoring intensive-care unit (ICU) patients, and discusses assessing ICU patient status using spectral analysis parameters. Both short-term and long-term spectral parameters were employed for the assessment of patient status in the ICU. Short-term parameters were sensitive to the airway suction (AWS) and may also be employed to monitor the response to different therapeutic interventions. Long-term parameters showed significantly increased α-slope values in nonsurviving patients. This result suggests that the α-slope value on 24-hour RR spectra obtained from the ECG signal may be a relevant prognostic index View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Data fusion of electrophysiological and haemodynamic signals for ventricular rhythm tracking

    Page(s): 48 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB)  

    Demonstrates how the cause of the ventricular contraction (VC), reflected by its electrophysiological precursors (ECG), and its related effect on the haemodynamic system [characterized by the systemic arterial pressure (SAP), sometimes called the mean systolic arterial pressure (MSAP)] can be fused together for a ventricular rhythm (VR) tracking purpose. Data fusion of heterogeneous signals, such as ECG and SAP, appears to be an interesting alternative to overcome the relative drawbacks of signal processing on univariate channels. Behind the clinical aim of providing a more robust VR signal, this article exemplifies how to manage such heterogeneous data when asynchronous events represent the same VC. From an engineering perspective, the main objectives of this article are, firstly, to present a formal representation of the problem of VR tracking and, secondly, to introduce a novel signal processing architecture that is able to manage and fuse cardiovascular data that are both asynchronous and heterogeneous. The evaluation of the performance of this signal processing system uses a very noisy data set extracted from the IMPROVE data library View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Building the IMPROVE data library

    Page(s): 25 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1588 KB)  

    Well-characterized and comprehensive test data sets are essential in the development and evaluation of biosignal interpretation methods for intensive-care patient monitoring. The IMPROVE (IMPROVing control of patient status in critical carE) data library is an annotated data library that contains practically all the monitored and other clinical data from critically ill patients at high risk of oxygen-transport-related problems. The data, collected at the Intensive Care Unit of the Kuopio University Hospital, is supported by continuous patient-state assessments carried out by a bedside physician and includes 59 patient records, each having a typical duration of 24 hours. In this article, we describe the technical setup of the system, including what signals and parameters were collected and how the annotations were done. We also discuss the lessons learned from the data collection process View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Locomotion and steering aspects in automation of colonoscopy. I. A literature review

    Page(s): 85 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2052 KB)  

    Automation of colonoscopy can be broken down into two aspects: locomotion and steerable distal end. The problems of locomotion are concerned with activation systems and the control sequencing of actuator elements within an environment that is slippery and has a highly varied anatomy. Steerable tips have difficulties associated with the need for remote activation and the need to negotiate tight radii without penetrating the colon wall. This literature survey gives a critical review of research in these areas. The results of some of the researchers seem very promising. In vitro and in vivo experimentations have been carried out to prove the possibilities of a robot moving along a patient's colon, treating polyps as they are encountered. The authors believe that conventional colonoscopy will shortly be revolutionized View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A portable monitor for fetal heart rate and uterine contraction

    Page(s): 80 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB)  

    The authors describe a low-power lightweight device for long-term ambulatory monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. The portable instrument was developed to monitor fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) continuously. It can record the abnormal FHR and UC, and it alerts pregnant women when to go to the hospital to see a physician. The abnormal FHR and UC recorded by the monitor can be analyzed by the associated system, which provides valuable data for the physician as an aid to diagnosis and treatment. The monitor is miniaturized for ambulatory monitoring and is powered by a commercial alkaline 9 V battery View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope