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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Introduction To The Feature Issue On Recent Advances In Lithium Niobate Optical Technology

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1626
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Stable and widely tunable dual-wavelength continuous-wave operation of a semiconductor laser in a novel Fabry-Perot grating-lens external cavity

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1832 - 1838
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an external-cavity configuration for a 1.5-μm InGaAsP semiconductor laser to generate tunable dual-wavelength optical output over a wavelength range of 60.8 nm. The Fabry-Perot (FP) grating-lens external cavity consists of a FP filter, a diffraction grating, a converging lens, and a totally reflecting mirror. The dual wavelength CW output has a spectral separation of 0.9 nm and a side-mode-suppression ratio of over 25 dB throughout the tuning range. The relative intensity variation between the two lasing wavelengths is smaller than 1.2 dB without any observable mode hopping View full abstract»

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  • Time-dependent modeling of erbium-doped waveguide lasers in lithium niobate pumped at 980 and 1480 nm

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1647 - 1662
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    We have developed a rigorous phenomenological model for analyzing rare-earth doped waveguide lasers. The model is based on time-dependent laser rate equations for an arbitrary rare-earth-doped laser host with multiple energy levels. The rate equations are coupled with the laser signal and pump photon flux equations that have time-dependent boundary conditions. The formulation results in a large and stiff set of transcendental and coupled differential equations that are solved using finite difference discretization and the method of lines. Solutions for the laser signal power, pump power, and populations of ion energy levels as functions of space and time are obtained for waveguide lasers. We have used the model to predict the CW characteristics and Q-switched performance of waveguide lasers in lithium niobate pumped by a 980-nm source. Our analysis shows that hole burning can occur in erbium-doped lithium niobate lasers because of the intensity variation across guided transverse modes. We have predicted that Q-switch pulse peak powers can exceed 1 kW with pulsewidths less than 1 ns. Moreover, we have compared the CW and Q-switched performance of 980-nm pumped waveguide lasers and 1480 nm pumped waveguide lasers. An analysis of the effects of host- and fabrication-dependent parameters on CW 980-nm pumped lasers is included. These parameters include cooperative upconversion, excited state absorption, doping concentration, excess waveguide loss, cavity length, and mirror reflectance values. We demonstrate good quantitative agreement with waveguide laser experimental data obtained in our laboratory and with results from the literature View full abstract»

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  • Diode-pumped and packaged acoustooptically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1636 - 1641
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    Design, fabrication, and properties of an acoustooptically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of up to 31-nm tuning range in the wavelength band 1530 nm<λ<1575 nm are discussed. The laser cavity is formed by an Au mirror and a dielectric mirror as output coupler, both vacuum-deposited on the polished waveguide endfaces. As tunable intracavity wavelength filter with zero frequency shift, two monolithically integrated single-stage acoustooptical TE-TM-mode converters are used together with two polarization splitters operated as TE- and TM-pass polarizers, respectively. The minimum threshold of about 54 mW (coupled) pump power is obtained at λ≈1561-nm emission wavelength for diode laser pumping at λp≈1480 nm. With about 110-mW coupled pump power, up to 320-μW output power is achieved; the emission linewidth is 0.3 nm View full abstract»

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  • Effects of electric field on the exciton linewidth broadening due to scattering by free carriers in semiconducting quantum-well structures

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1774 - 1778
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    The effects of an applied electric field perpendicular to the well layers on the broadening of the exciton linewidth due to scattering by free carriers in semiconducting quantum well (QW) structures is theoretically investigated based on a finite confining potential model. The dependence of the free carrier-exciton linewidth broadening on carrier concentration, temperature, and well width are calculated and discussed for various electric field strengths. It is found that the influence of the electric field on the linewidth broadening is appreciable in wide wells, while in narrow wells little change is shown even in the presence of a strong electric field View full abstract»

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  • Periodically poled lithium niobate and quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1663 - 1672
    Cited by:  Papers (91)
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    Since their introduction two years ago, quasi-phase-matched (QPM) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have moved into the mainstream of OPO research. This has been made possible by continuing improvements and availability of the microstructured nonlinear material periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Demonstrations of PPLN OPOs now span the range of pulse formats and power levels. The most significant area of development is low-peak-power devices where operation with conventional materials is difficult. In this paper, we describe the current state of this research, including OPOs pumped by high-repetition-rate (>30 kHz) Q-switched diode-pumped solid state lasers, and CW singly resonant OPOs with >3-W output power in the 3-4-μm range View full abstract»

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  • Transverse mode characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers buried in amorphous GaAs antiguide layer

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1794 - 1800
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    We report the transverse mode characteristics of InGaAs-GaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) buried in a low-temperature-deposited amorphous GaAs (a-GaAs) layer. The maximum current maintaining a stable fundamental transverse mode is increased by the antiguide effect of the a-GaAs clad with a high refractive index. For 10- and 15-μm-diameter devices, we attain a stable single-mode emission over a wide range of current. The antiguide effects and transverse mode profiles in vertical cavity lasers buried in the high refractive index clad are calculated using a two-dimensional beam propagation method View full abstract»

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  • Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1706 - 1716
    Cited by:  Papers (222)  |  Patents (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    The mechanisms of ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of materials are discussed, and the differences to that of long laser pulses are emphasized. Ultrashort laser pulses offer both high laser intensity and precise laser-induced breakdown threshold with reduced laser fluence. The ablation of materials with ultrashort pulses has a very limited heat-affected volume. The advantages of ultrashort laser pulses are applied in precision micromachining of various materials. Some femtosecond laser pulse micromachining results, including comparison with long pulses, are presented. Ultrashort-pulse laser micromachining may have a wide range of applications where micrometer and submicrometer feature sizes are required View full abstract»

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  • Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO3 soliton source

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1642 - 1646
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB)  

    Efficient diode-pumped and harmonically mode-locked operation of a fully packaged Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser at 1562- (TE) and 1575-nm (TM) wavelength has been demonstrated. The mode-locked pulses have been characterized in terms of time-bandwidth product, fine tuning, and stability. Noise suppression of 42 dB at the relaxation oscillation frequency has been achieved by feedback-controlled pumping. An external amplitude modulator has been used for encoding of the mode-locked pulse train with different bit sequences. Bit error rates of 10-10 for a 1-0-1-0-bit sequence has been observed for more than half an hour View full abstract»

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  • Measuring the quantum-limited linewidth of a laser by using the Zeeman effect

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1767 - 1773
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    We explore Zeeman operation of a laser as a way to measure its quantum phase noise. We measure the differential phase diffusion of a σ+ and a σ- mode; the degeneracy of these modes is lifted by a longitudinal magnetic field. Experiments are performed on a high-gain HeXe gas laser, comparing quantum linewidths measured using this technique with measurements on the same laser using the well-established self-heterodyne technique. The two methods are found to be equivalent when the magnetic field used in the Zeeman technique is sufficiently large. The advantages of the Zeeman technique as compared to the self-heterodyne technique are its extreme simplicity and very modest laser-power requirement View full abstract»

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  • Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1810 - 1824
    Cited by:  Papers (91)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    This paper discusses the issues involving the design and fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). A review of the basic experimental structures is given, with emphasis on recent developments in distributed Bragg reflectors, gain media, as well as current and optical confinement techniques. The paper describes present VCSEL performance, in particular, those involving selective oxidation and visible wavelength operation View full abstract»

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  • Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1749 - 1755
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    We use a novel picosecond source (a seeded optical parametric amplifier tunable near 3 μm) to pump a type-11 ZnGeP2 traveling-wave optical parametric generator, With a rather simplified two-pass arrangement, the tunability of the driving Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier is extended continuously up to 11 μm. As a result of the short pulse pumping and the pulse compression accompanying the parametric amplification, nearly bandwidth-limited pulses could be generated for the first time with this crystal. We report microjoule output energies with 20% quantum efficiency and unprecedentedly low (<100 MW/cm2 for a crystal length of only 1 cm) parametric gain thresholds View full abstract»

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  • Cr:LiSAF thin slab zigzag laser

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1864 - 1868
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    We report on a Cr:LiSAF zigzag thin slab laser in which single-pulse output energy of 1.8 J was achieved at a record specific energy output of 1.5 J/cm3 of Cr:LiSAF. A Cr:LiSAF laser model was developed which, when compared with data, gives good agreement with energy and temporal laser output measurements. The device is in a configuration which can be scaled to high average power View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of DSF- and SOA-based phase conjugators by incorporating noise-suppressing fiber gratings

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1694 - 1698
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB)  

    We compare the performance of dispersion-shifted-fiber (DSF) and semiconductor-optical-amplifier (SOA) based laser phase conjugators for a 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero system with respect to conversion efficiency, noise figure, and distortion. Fiber gratings are used for signal extraction and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression, allowing closer wavelength spacing and reducing the conjugation noise figure by up to 12 dB. Despite the higher SOA conversion efficiency, both conjugators give similar noise figures with ASE suppression. However, the DSF-based conjugator has the advantage of distortion tolerance at higher input power View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of excited and ground-state species during burst-mode excitation of a barium vapor laser

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1717 - 1726
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    We have studied the development of steady-state prepulse conditions in the barium vapor laser (BVL) and the factors that influence steady-state laser output using the “hook” method. The ground-state and excited-state Ba and Ba+ species were measured during the afterglow, and the Ba1P1 upper laser level during the excitation phase, of selected pulses in a burst of excitation pulses at 8 kHz. Results show that large depletion of the prepulse Ba1S0 ground-state density from the axial region of the tube occurs during the burst, and proportional decreases in the peak upper-laser-level density occur during the excitation phase. The prepulse electron density (inferred from the total Ba+ density) and lower-laser-level densities do not accumulate during the burst, and it is concluded that ground-state depletion is primarily responsible for the decrease in laser pulse energy that occurs during a burst as reported by Pask and Piper (1994). We observe significantly greater depletion of the ground-state density on-axis in the presence of neon buffer gas than helium, which we attribute primarily to the high ionization observed in neon and the corresponding increase in the effects of ambipolar diffusion. The results highlight the influence of buffer-gas composition on the establishment of steady-state prepulse conditions (and therefore the steady-state laser pulse characteristics). The results have implications to metal vapor lasers in general, including those operating with buffer-gas additives View full abstract»

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  • Temperature sensitivity of 1.54-μm vertical-cavity lasers with an InP-based Bragg reflector

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1839 - 1845
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    We fabricated 1.54-μm laser diodes that employ one integrated GaInAsP-InP and one Si-SiO2 mirror in combination with a strain-compensated GaInAsP multiquantum-well active layer. Considerable care has to be taken of the temperature performance of the devices. Here, an important parameter is the gain offset between the gain peak wavelength and the cavity resonance. This offset is related to the experimentally accessible photoluminescence (PL) offset between the PL-peak wavelength and the emission wavelength. Vertical-cavity laser (VCL) characteristics such as threshold current and quantum efficiency show an extremely sensitive dependence on this parameter. In this paper, we focus on the temperature performance of our VCL's as a function of the cavity tuning. VCL's designed for PL-offset values between +17 and -16 mm are fabricated and characterized, As expected, the threshold current of all lasers shows a pronounced minimum at low temperatures. The position of this minimum depends on the offset at room temperature (RT) as a parameter. However, it turns out that the minimum threshold current is not obtained by matching gain peak and cavity wavelength for that temperature. The observed behavior is described well by calculations, taking into account the temperature dependence of the optical gain, of the cavity resonance, and of the cavity losses. The model is a valuable tool to tune the lasers for example low threshold current or reduced temperature sensitivity View full abstract»

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  • Optimum design of Er3+-Yb3+ codoped fibers for large-signal high-pump-power applications

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1699 - 1705
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    A comprehensive numerical fiber amplifier model has been used to optimize Er3+-Yb3+ codoped active fiber for maximum gain and quantum conversion efficiency (QCE) at large signal operation. The optimum cutoff wavelength of the LP11 mode has been found to increase from 800 mm at low pump powers (≈50 mW) to 1400 mn at pump powers higher than 500 mW. While at low pump powers fibers with higher numerical aperture give higher QCE, at high pump levels better large signal performance is achieved with fibers having lower numerical aperture View full abstract»

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  • Investigations of the spectral characteristics of 980-nm InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1801 - 1809
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    Semiconductor quantum-well (QW) lasers at 980 nm exhibit unique spontaneous emission spectra with a periodic envelope of approximately 2~3-nm wavelength. This phenomenon has been observed in both front facet and side spontaneous emission. The modulation is modeled in terms of coupling between the laser waveguide and the substrate waveguide which is transparent to 980-nm light. Modal gain spectra of the entire waveguide structure including substrate are calculated numerically by a transfer matrix method. The gain spectra in the active stripe and loss spectra in the unpumped QW exhibit modulation. This results in modulation of the emission spectra. An analytical approach based on coupled mode equations is developed to explain and clarify the results of the numerical modeling. The interesting case of a coupling length that is small by comparison with the gain/loss length is examined in detail. Front facet and side spontaneous emission spectra calculated using the modal gain spectra are in good agreement with the measured spectra. The results presented make it possible to interpret the unique modal characteristics of 980-nm lasers quantitatively and relate them to the physical structural parameters View full abstract»

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  • Stability analysis of semiconductor laser with phase-conjugate feedback

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1825 - 1831
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    The stability of the output power of a semiconductor laser with phase-conjugate feedback (PCF) is studied by numerical simulations based on the rate equations. We investigated the critical reflectivity at which the stable fixed output power evolves into periodic oscillation. As a result, we found that the critical reflectivity shows a periodic structure against the external cavity length and the stability is much enhanced at the periodic peak positions. The stability and dynamic behavior of a semiconductor laser with PCF are compared with those for conventional optical feedback. It is also found that the periods of the nearby peaks correspond to the frequency of the laser relaxation oscillation frequency and the stable peaks for the PCF are located at external lengths completely out of phase from those for the conventional feedback. Linear stability analysis using the rate equations is performed and the theoretical background for the stability is also given View full abstract»

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  • Raman oscillation with intracavity second harmonic generation

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1743 - 1748
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    We use a plane-wave analysis to examine a Raman oscillator containing an intracavity second harmonic interaction that frequency doubles the circulating first-order Stokes radiation. We find that there is an optimum ratio between the nonlinear coupling in the Raman medium and the nonlinear coupling in the frequency doubler. We also find that higher order Stokes radiation should be suppressed with the optimum choice of nonlinear coupling in the frequency doubler. We present numerical integration results that model the stimulated Raman scattering and second harmonic generation in three spatial dimensions. Quantum efficiencies as large as 48% are predicted from planewave theory and 43% are obtained from numerical integration of the equations containing transverse effects View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of a high-average-power flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire laser and amplifier

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1850 - 1863
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    Design, performance and characterization of a high average-power flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator and amplifier are presented. The extensive design study, which covers the whole excitation process of the laser, focused on efficient laser operation at high average powers but also took into consideration the practicability of the laser device. For the first time, pumplight-induced absorptions in Ti:sapphire and their avoidance by appropriate filtering were investigated. The laser performance could be improved, firstly, due to the proper design of the discharge circuit, which resulted in an increased spectral overlap of the flashlamp-emission with the Ti:sapphire absorption. Secondly, the insight into the consequences of the flashlamp plasma reabsorption in conjunction with a small-spectral-band-transmitting pump-light filter led to a simple, experimentally confirmed transfer-efficiency reflector model and, based on this, to an improved reflector shape. As a result of the study, average powers of up to 220 W at a total laser efficiency of 2.25% have been achieved, Also, a single-pass small-signal gain of 3.1 and a total stored energy in the laser rod of 690 mJ at 100-Hz repetition rate could be demonstrated. This significant improvement over former flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire lasers and amplifiers for the first time opens up the possibility of femtosecond-pulse amplification to high average powers at 100 Hz repetition rate View full abstract»

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  • A compact Cherenkov laser with a Bragg cavity composed of dielectric gratings

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1687 - 1693
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    The growth and saturation characteristics of a Cherenkov laser with a Bragg cavity composed of dielectric gratings are investigated in detail with the aid of numerical simulation based upon the fluid model of the electron beam, For the analysis of the problem, a two-dimensional (2-D) model of the Cherenkov laser is considered which consists of a planar relativistic electron beam and a parallel plate waveguide, one plate of which is loaded with a dielectric sheet. For confinement and extraction of the electromagnetic wave, a Bragg cavity is formed by dielectric gratings fabricated at both ends of a dielectric-loaded parallel plate waveguide. The result of numerical simulation shows that a compact Cherenkov laser, the longitudinal dimension of which is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the corresponding single-pass Cherenkov laser, can be realized by using a Bragg cavity composed of dielectric gratings View full abstract»

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  • Formulations for calculating the eigenmodes of vertical-cavity laser arrays

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1756 - 1762
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    Laser resonators, with laterally patterned end mirrors, are considered, and their modes are calculated based on two different approaches. In one approach, developed recently, the modes of individual cavities are coupled via mirror perturbations to yield the array modes. An alternative approach employs the mirror's background reflectivity to construct a background cavity. The background cavity eigenmodes, or any complete set of functions in this structure, are used to find the eigenmodes and eigenvalues of the vertical-cavity laser array. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Ferroelectric integrated optics: recent developments

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1627 - 1635
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    Advances in rare-earth-doped waveguide lasers in LiNbO3, waveguided second harmonic generation through quasi-phase-matching in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3, and pulsed laser epitaxial growth of LiNbO3 on Sapphire are reported. Efficient lasers operating in CW, Q-switch, and mode-lock modes were fabricated in Nd:LiNbO3. In order to assess the potential of bulk-doped Er:LiNbO3 samples, spectroscopic measurements have been carried out, the main limiting mechanism identified, the corresponding up-conversion coefficient evaluated, and a comprehensive gain model developed. First lasing action in this material, when pumped at 1.48 μm, is described. Quasi-phase-matched generation of blue light with conversion efficiencies up to 150%/Wcm2 is also demonstrated, and finally we present the fabrication of low-loss LiNbO3 single-crystal waveguiding layers View full abstract»

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  • Confinement factors and gain in optical amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1763 - 1766
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    A new identity is derived which relates the gain and the field distribution (or confinement factor) in a dielectric waveguide with complex refractive indices. This identity is valid for any guided mode of waveguides with an arbitrary cross section. It provides a new check of the accuracy of mode solvers. Also, it can be used in a variational approach to predict the gain or loss of a guided mode based on knowledge of confinement factors. It is shown that a previous analysis that is often used, is not correct. In addition, approximate expressions for the gain in slab waveguides are presented View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University