IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

Issue 3 • May/Jun 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Toward an empirical approach to evaluating the knowledge base of an expert system

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):658 - 662
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    A general approach is described to the test and evaluation of an expert system knowledge base that involves the use of a representative set of randomly selected test problems and the application of well-defined statistical measures of accuracy and bias for each node in an inference network. Using the analogy that each node can be treated as a signal detector, some elements of a mathematics consist... View full abstract»

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  • Schema-based knowledge elicitation for planning and situation assessment aids

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):473 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (988 KB)

    Issues important to schema-based knowledge elicitation are discussed. The author briefly reviews key features of schema theory and the situation assessment system. He then discusses criteria for the design of a knowledge elicitation tool, and illustrates the mechanics for eliciting information with the schema-based knowledge elicitation tool developed at his organization. Observations concerning v... View full abstract»

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  • Expert systems should be more accurate than human experts: evaluation procedures from human judgement and decision making

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):647 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)

    Two procedures for the evaluation of the performances of expert systems are illustrated: one procedure evaluates predictive accuracy; the other procedure is complementary in that it uncovers the factors that contribute to predictive accuracy. Using these procedures, it is argued that expert systems should be more accurate than human experts in two senses. One sense is that expert systems must be m... View full abstract»

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  • Critical decision method for eliciting knowledge

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):462 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (294)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1076 KB)

    A critical decision method is described for modeling tasks in naturalistic environments characterized by high time pressure, high information content, and changing conditions. The method is a variant of a J.C. Flanagan's (1954) critical incident technique extended to include probes that elicit aspects of expertise such as the basis for making perceptual discriminations, conceptual discriminations,... View full abstract»

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  • Toward AI research methodology: three case studies in evaluation

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):634 - 646
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB)

    The roles of evaluation in empirical artificial intelligence (AI) research are described, in an idealized cyclic model and in the context of three case studies. The case studies illustrate the pitfalls in evaluation and the contributions of evaluation at all stages of the research cycle. Evaluation methods are contrasted with those of the behavioral sciences, and it is concluded that AI must defin... View full abstract»

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  • A declarative representation of control knowledge

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):546 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB)

    An explicit representation of control called strategy frames is described. The control of several well-known expert systems can be described in terms of strategy frames, although their control is actually encoded in an interpreter. One advantage of strategy frames is that complex control strategies emerge from their interaction, so complex interpreters are not necessary. This idea is illustrated i... View full abstract»

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  • Eliciting knowledge for analytical representation

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):448 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1424 KB)

    One large class of intelligent systems attempts to represent expert knowledge in terms of an analytical language. If experts can express themselves in terms of that language, then its analytical power allows sophisticated manipulation of their knowledge, perhaps leading to inferences that they could not have made reliably without the help of such a cognitive aid. In addition, these languages allow... View full abstract»

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  • The knowledge acquisition activity matrix: a systems engineering conceptual framework

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):586 - 597
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB)

    An overview is presented of the knowledge acquisition challenges posed by operational artificial intelligence (AI) system development, and limitations in current knowledge acquisition approaches are identified. The authors present a systems engineering conceptual framework that views knowledge acquisition as consisting of unique knowledge acquisition steps in such system engineering phases as prob... View full abstract»

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  • Worlds of knowing and nonmonotonic reasoning

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):626 - 633
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)

    The project of formalizing nonmonotonic reasoning on the basis of historical and contemporary philosophical reflections on reasoning and knowing is examined. Some paradigmatic accounts of the prospects of formalizing reasoning, from the ancient beginnings of western epistemology up to contemporary debate about the reasonableness of scientific development, are reviewed. Implications of these histor... View full abstract»

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  • Representing and eliciting knowledge about uncertain evidence and its implications

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):536 - 545
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB)

    A reasoning system and associated assessment methodology built on a natural schema for an evidential argument are discussed. This argument schema is based on the underlying causal chains linking conclusions and evidence. The framework couples a probabilistic calculus with qualitative approaches to evidential reasoning. The resulting knowledge structure leads to a natural assessment methodology in ... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated design teams: knowledge engineering for large scale commercial expert system development

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):443 - 447
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    In order to build expert systems effectively, the organizational framework for knowledge engineering may itself need to be reengineered to meet these requirements. The author focuses on one such case. He describes an integrated design team approach evolved to support knowledge engineering for two generic expert system products. After discussing the reasons for choosing this approach, the author de... View full abstract»

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  • A framework for the credit-apportionment process in rule-based systems

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):489 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    A framework for the credit-apportionment process is described. Such a framework is vital in studying the credit-apportionment problem because it provides a formal basis for the problem analysis and algorithm design. The framework includes: a system-environment model, which integrates the effects of payoffs with other relevant parts of a rule-based system to model various internal and external acti... View full abstract»

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  • Persistence and probabilistic projection

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):574 - 585
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1052 KB)

    Predicting the future is an essential component of decision-making. In most situations, however, there is not enough information to make accurate predictions. A theory of causal reasoning for predictive inference under uncertainty is developed. A common type of prediction that involves reasoning about persistence is emphasized: whether or not a proposition once made true remains true at some later... View full abstract»

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  • Experts' estimation of uncertain quantities and its implications for knowledge acquisition

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):616 - 625
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)

    The elicitation and encoding of expert judgments for machine use has been justified on the basis of different models of human expert performance that have very different implications for how this knowledge should be encoded and used. Studies of expert problem-solving in well-defined problem domains typically indicate that an expert's conceptualization of the problem and the solution processes it s... View full abstract»

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  • The partitioned support network for expert system justification

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):528 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)

    A knowledge representation used to capture support knowledge necessary for expert system justification, a kind of explanation, is discussed. A system is also presented that is being designed as a preliminary testbed for a technique of expert system explanation called knowledge-based explanation. Previous support knowledge representations in expert systems are reviewed and contrasted to the partiti... View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge acquisition for expert systems: some pitfalls and suggestions

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):435 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)

    The interdisciplinary anthropological study of knowledge elicitation (ASKE) project is introduced. The choice of anthropological methodology for the project is discussed, and the relevance of anthropology to knowledge engineering in general is pointed out. Examples are given of pitfalls observed in the knowledge elicitation process, including problems related to both interviewing technique and con... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement issues in knowledge engineering

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):483 - 488
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)

    There are five sources (or determinants) of knowledge base quality: domain experts, knowledge engineers, knowledge representation schemes, knowledge elicitation methods, and problem domains. The knowledge base for many expert systems is developed for a problem domain using one domain expert, one knowledge engineer, one knowledge representation scheme, and one elicitation method. Since there is min... View full abstract»

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  • On capturing human skills and knowledge; algorithmic approaches to model identification

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):558 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1684 KB)

    Algorithmic identification of models of human skills and knowledge is considered. Alternative representational forms are discussed in terms of variables, relationships among variables, and parameters within relationships. A key distinction is between models of signal processing and models of symbol processing. Methods of identification for these two classes of models are discussed and contrasted. ... View full abstract»

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  • A system development methodology for knowledge-based systems

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):598 - 605
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    Phased linear system-development methodologies inadequately address the problems of knowledge acquisition and engineering. A different approach, detailed and systematic, to building knowledge-based systems is presented, namely a knowledge-based system development life cycle. This specially tailored prototyping methodology replaces traditional phases and stages with `processes'. Processes are activ... View full abstract»

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  • A framework for knowledge acquisition through techniques of concept learning

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):499 - 512
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1384 KB)

    An integrative framework is developed for describing concept learning techniques that makes it possible to evaluate their relevance to knowledge engineering. The framework provides a general basis for relating concept learning to knowledge acquisition and is a starting point for the development of formal design rules. First, concept learning is framed in the context of knowledge acquisition. Then ... View full abstract»

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  • Expert decision-making in evolving situations

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):606 - 615
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    The extent to which cognitive biases are found in realistic expert decision problems is examined empirically. Army intelligence analysts were given a realistic battlefield scenario and asked to make preliminary decisions about the most likely enemy avenue of approach and to give their confidence level. Subsequently they were asked to reconsider their decisions in the light of updated intelligence ... View full abstract»

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  • Acquiring and managing knowledge using a conceptual structures approach: introduction and framework

    Publication Year: 1989, Page(s):513 - 527
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1432 KB)

    One powerful representational system-conceptual structures that continue the trend towards knowledge programming-is examined. J.F. Sowa's conceptual structures approach (Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison-Wesley, NY, 1984), a graph-based semantic network, is a general representational system with a natural-language expressivity. This allows problem-domain is... View full abstract»

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