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Computer

Issue 6 • Date June 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Software Modems: A New Way To Communicate

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 20
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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  • A 'crystal ball' for software liability

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 29 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB)  

    Software developers are living in a liability grace period, but it won't last. To adequately insure themselves against potential liability, developers need tools to identify worst-case scenarios and help them quantify the risks associated with a piece of software. For assessing such risks associated with software, the authors recommend fault injection, which provides worst-case predictions about how badly a piece of code might behave and how frequently it might behave that way. By contrast, software testing states how good software is. But even correct code can have "bad days", when external influences keep it from working as desired. Fault injection is arguably the next best thing to having a crystal ball, and it certainly beats facing the future with no predictions at all. It should be a regular part of risk assessment. The greatest benefit from fault injection occurs when a piece of software does not tolerate injected anomalies. False optimism gives way to the only honest claim-that the software presents risks. View full abstract»

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  • Java And Beyond: Executable Content

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 49 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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  • Essence of the capability maturity model

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 112 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The CMM (Capability Maturity Model) wasn't intended to be all things to all people or cover all possible aspects of software and systems development. CMM was intended to provide one set of guidelines for managing software development projects and making improvements over time. This set of guidelines was based on best practices, software engineering discipline, real world experience and extrapolation from other industries. These guidelines were only meant to be tailored and applied within the culture and context of each unique organization. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture for a Web-accessible simulation environment

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 88 - 91
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    Despite the dynamic and interactive nature of the language underlying applets, the typical applet still performs a fixed set of operations. Users cannot easily reconfigure such a system to perform “what if” experiments or gather statistical or timing information for an experiment. Thus, while Java and the Web support dynamic interactions and enable exciting capabilities in educational software, few applications built on them exploit these capabilities. The article describes CSLab, a proof-of-concept prototype of a simulation environment that is easy to use, dynamic, and Web-accessible. It is designed from the ground up to exploit the inherent dynamic behavior of Java and the Web and to let end users capitalize on this behavior. The authors' goal was to build a framework within which to create, configure, and execute experiments, but instead of the physical sciences they focused on experimental algorithmics. The CSLab executable is a framework for creating various simulation experiments using available modules View full abstract»

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  • SQL Test Suite goes online

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
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    Does your relational database speak SQL fluently? It's easy to find out, because the SQL (Structured Query Language) Test Suite is now free on the Web. SQL is the standard that lets DBMS products from different vendors interoperate. It defines common data structures (tables, columns, views, and so on) and provides a data manipulation language to populate, update, and query those structures. Accessing structured data with SQL is quite different from searching the full text of documents on the Web. Structured data in the relational model means data that can be represented in tables. Each row represents a different item, and the columns represent various attributes of the item. Columns have names and integrity constraints that specify valid values. Because the column values are named and represented in a consistent format, you can select rows precisely, on the basis of their contents. This is especially helpful in dealing with numeric data. You can also join data from different tables on the basis of matching column values. It is possible to do useful types of analysis too, listing items that are in one table and are missing, present, or have specific attributes in a related table. You can extract from a large table precisely those rows of interest, regroup them, and generate simple statistics on them View full abstract»

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  • A two-level cosimulation environment

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 109 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
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    Hardware/software codesign seeks to integrate system level, hardware, and software design. Ideally, we would like tools that allow rapid evaluation of design decisions and a full exploration of the design space. Available tools are often too slow and concentrate on the low level cosimulation of hardware and software parts, after the design has been partitioned. We are attempting to remedy these problems with Tosca (Tools for System Codesign Automation), a hardware/software codesign environment. Targeted at single chip implementations consisting of a CPU core cell and dedicated hardware, Tosca performs a high level cosimulation for what-if analyses before hardware/software cosynthesis. After cosynthesis, Tosca generates simulatable software to be run on a retargetable instruction level model of the CPU. The software and hardware bound parts are then cosimulated using a commercial VHDL simulator. The performance of the low level cosimulation strategy and the high level simulator is remarkable. Low level cosimulation performance is about that of dedicated CPU software emulators-7200 pseudo assembly instructions per second. High level cosimulation is three times faster than the low level cosimulation. Both simulators allow functional debugging by interfacing to a commercial waveform visualizer (Mentor Graphics SimView). Engineers have used Tosca to redesign a commercial link controller View full abstract»

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  • Enterprise computing: the Java factor

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 115 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
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    The ubiquitous availability of Web browsers on multiple platforms and user familiarity with browser technology provide numerous advantages: a uniform interface; support for multimedia and user interaction and collaboration; a simple communication protocol that has been implemented in all major hardware and software platforms; and support by almost all vendors who package Web engines within their products. Such factors have expedited the implementation of network centric computing as a productive infrastructure for corporate environments. The addition of Java, with its ability to build cross platform application logic into a browser, gives network centric computing the potential to better meet enterprise computing needs. Because it lets users interact with the application on the client rather than the server, Java enables better utilization of both the server and the client's computational capability. Java can also provide sessions state information (for client side session control and resource management) in an otherwise stateless Web world. Besides naturally decentralizing application execution, Java makes it possible to decentralize application deployment. In large enterprises, organization wide applications such as personnel timekeeping or document routing can benefit from Java implementations. One immediate impact is a noticeable reduction of the server load during peak hours. Finally, Java enabled browsers can provide greater functionality than HTML View full abstract»

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  • A tool for organizing Web information

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 80 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
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    The physical and logical differences among information sources on the Internet complicate information retrieval. For instance, data is no longer just simple text or tuples, but now includes objects and multimedia. Data can also have varied and often arcane semantics. Sources have different policies, procedures, and conventions and are hosted by diverse platforms. Ontologies-models of concepts and their relationships-are a powerful way to organize query formulation and semantic reconciliation in large distributed information environments. They can capture both the structure and semantics of information environments, so an ontology-based search engine can handle both simple keyword-based queries as well as complex queries on structured data. Ontology-based interoperation is especially good at dealing with inconsistent semantics. However; ontologies are difficult to construct. The Java Ontology Editor (JOE) helps users build and browse ontologies. It also enables query formulation at several levels of abstraction. The authors discuss the use of JOE to develop a health care information system View full abstract»

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  • The Internet's sustainable advantage

    Publication Year: 1997
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    The article explains why the Internet is cheaper to operate than the phone network on which it runs. In large measure, the success of the Internet in the US (where nearly three-quarters of Internet users are located) is due to a regulatory anomaly: many residential telephone customers don't pay for local calls; they connect to their Internet service providers for free. This aspect of the Internet caught the telcos asleep at the wheel. ISPs offer flat rate pricing. Thus, the marginal cost of Internet access for Americans is zero. Since it's free, some people just log on and stay on 24 hours a day. Internet services like PointCast and Real Audio encourage this. Needless to say, telcos are not happy; they get clobbered twice. Their customers get nothing but busy signals when surfers spend hours online, and they lose long distance traffic as e-mail messages replace faxes. So the phone companies have little to show for the Internet boom. Will excess demand force higher charges? Will higher charges reduce usage, unclog the network, and speed communication? The authors doubt it. Cyberspace provides a sort of black hole that simply expands to gobble up increases in traffic. Internet economics can only improve. The Internet takes advantage of the marginal cost of sending a message. It breaks messages down into small packets of information that can be sent individually across the network through any path that has the momentary capacity to carry them; sharing is always cheaper and no amount of re-regulation will undo this basic fact of life View full abstract»

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  • Secure code distribution

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 76 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (46)
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    The Java Virtual Machine does not offer a way for code obtained from trusted sources to be granted extra rights. The article describes two approaches to authentification for code distribution: one extends the JVM to include a digital signature in applets; the other uses MIME encapsulation to take advantage of available security infrastructures. The signed-applet approach gives a programmer more flexibility because it addresses the security issues at a more fundamental level. However, signed-applet security mechanisms may vary for different code distribution schemes, making integration difficult. The MIME-based approach provides a unified security interface. It is more efficient in the sense that all classes can be encapsulated in one multipart attachment, and a single signature or verification operation will cover all classes. The approaches can also be combined and tailored to satisfy various requirements. Ultimately, operating systems must support the concept of a secure compartment so that separate resource management policies can be implemented for the secure compartment and the rest of the system View full abstract»

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  • PC and TV makers battle over convergence

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 14 - 16
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    The conversion from analog to digital TV has begun. With billions of dollars at stake, computer and television makers are fighting about whether the digital receivers that will replace the millions of existing analog TVs will be more like PCs or televisions View full abstract»

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  • Java- and CORBA-based network management

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB)  

    Systems to manage distributed heterogeneous networks and services must often use off-the-shelf components and leverage legacy applications. Much of the telecommunications industry uses a network architecture based on CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol) to manage networks and services, while much of the Internet uses the SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). To provide distributed network management, the telecommunications industry must accommodate both, Nokia developed the Distributed Computing Platform prototype to support the creation, management, and invocation of distributed telecommunications services. Using CORBA as a base, DCP handles network management by adding managed-object models and protocols. It provides mechanisms that allow communication between CMIP-based objects and a gateway for SNMP-based systems. The prototype also allows users to access network information via Web browsers, CGI gateways, and Java or HTTP daemons. The Nokia engineers also discuss the lessons they learned about Java and CORBA integration View full abstract»

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  • The feel of Java

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 53 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (5)
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    Java evolved out of a Sun research project started six years ago to look into distributed control of consumer electronics devices. At that time, the priori ties of the consumer electronics industry were quite different from those in the computer industry. Whereas five years ago the computer industry's mantra was compatibility, the consumer electronics industry considered security, networking, portability, and cost to be far more important. The buzzwords that have been applied to Java-distributed computing, architecture neutrality, and so on-derive directly from this context. The article provides a first-hand account of some of the design decisions underlying Java and the rationale behind them View full abstract»

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  • Computer science research in India

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 40 - 47
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    The computer industry is playing an increasingly important role in India's economy. However, for a number of reasons, many researchers are not doing high-quality work. Computer science research in India takes place at academic, government-sponsored, and industry-sponsored institutions. These major institutions can conduct effective research because they have sufficient funding, high-quality programs, good equipment, and an effective infrastructure. This is not the case at India's many other institutions. Many local observers say that Indian computer scientists make advances in existing areas of research but rarely do cutting-edge work. This occurs, in part, because many Indian computer scientists receive little direction and have few co-workers in their fields, which means they work in relative isolation View full abstract»

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  • Sync: a Java framework for mobile collaborative applications

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 59 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    Introducing the factors of wireless mobile systems into the development of collaborative applications complicates developers' lives significantly. Application frameworks targeted for coordinating wireless mobile applications simplify development. The authors describe Sync, a development framework that provides high-level primitives that enable programmers to create arbitrarily complex, synchronized, replicated data objects. Designed for wireless networks, Sync enables applications to share changes at a granularity as small as updates to basic types and so enables better performance on low-bandwidth connections View full abstract»

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  • Compilers for improved Java performance

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 67 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1668 KB)  

    Because they are interpreted, Java executables run slower than their compiled counterparts. The native executable translation (NET) compiler's objective is to optimize the translation of Java byte-code to native machine code so that it runs nearly as fast as native code generated directly from a source. The article presents some preliminary results for several large application programs and standard benchmarks. It compares the NET-compiled code performance with Sun's Java VM, Microsoft's Java just-in-time compiler, and equivalent C and C++ programs directly compiled. The results show that the optimizing NET compiler is capable of achieving better performance than the two other byte-code execution methods, in some cases achieving speeds comparable to directly compiled native code View full abstract»

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Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

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Sumi Helal
University of Florida
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