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IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine

Issue 2 • March-April 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Atomic force microscopy [Guest Editorial]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):26 - 27
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB)

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  • Cantilevers and tips for atomic force microscopy

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):28 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1421 KB)

    The key component of the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a cantilever with a tip. The tip must be sharp enough to record with high lateral resolution the topography. The cantilever must also have the appropriate compliance and resonant frequency for the type of operation selected, which can be either a contact or a noncontact mode of operation. The requirement for a low spring constant (less than... View full abstract»

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  • Observing interactions between the IgG antigen and anti-IgG antibody with AFM

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):42 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (890 KB)

    Spatially specific interactions between the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antigen and anti-IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb) have been studied in detail by tapping-mode AFM. The binding numbers and binding sites of the antigen molecules with antibody molecules, as well as the conformational changes during the binding process have been revealed. The wider application of this technique to complex systems has ... View full abstract»

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  • Force-distance curves by AFM

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (55)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2655 KB)

    Since 1989, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has emerged as a useful tool in studying surface interactions by means of force-distance curves, and a great deal of work has been carried out on both its theoretical and experimental issues. AFM is able to acquire force-distance curves from every kind of surface, with high lateral (1 Å), vertical (0.1 Å) and force (1 pN) resolution. Moreov... View full abstract»

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  • Producing prefabricated tissues and organs via tissue engineering

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):73 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1881 KB)

    Loss and failure of organs and tissues are obviously major health-care problems. Living-organ and tissue transplantation have been the easiest solutions to these problems so far, but having enough donor material for all patients is unrealistic. Tissue engineering is an emerging area in biomedicine that may help solve this problem. Methods involved in tissue reconstruction include using cells alone... View full abstract»

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  • Building knowledge-based systems with an assembling technique

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):81 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB)

    In the field of medical knowledge engineering, it is a common expectation that the number of diseases contained within a given system should constantly increase. The authors' effort to develop an enormous knowledge-based system (the Enormous Electronic-Brain Erudite, EBME) has extended for more than 10 years. The reason for such a long time-frame is that EBME has a huge knowledge base that consist... View full abstract»

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  • Organ transplants

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):84 - 86
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (423 KB)

    Not long ago organ transplants were headline news about frontier medicine; now they are commonplace. Today both the number of transplants and long-term survival are increasing. In addition, physicians have learned how to keep increasingly sick patients alive longer and how to make more people eligible for transplants. The dark cloud in this sunny picture is the shortage of donated organs. Accordin... View full abstract»

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  • Sequencing Support System: A robotic system for processing DNA samples

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):92 - 93
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)

    The development of very high-throughput and autonomous robotic workstations will be necessary to quickly and efficiently complete the sequencing of the 3 billion nucleotide base pairs that make up the human genome. The key to our sequencing scale-up efforts is the development of the Sequencing Support System. The Sequencing Support System is an integrated robotic workstation built around a 3-meter... View full abstract»

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  • The software license with teeth

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)

    What happens when a graduate student in computer science buys a telephone directory on CD-ROM and uses the directory to start a business on the Internet? Can he take advantage of the legal rule that the content of telephone directories is not protected by copyright law, or is he bound by the license that came with the box of software. Those were the questions before the court in the recent case of... View full abstract»

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  • Heritage of the tissue-bed oximeter

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):87 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)

    The pulse oximeter is well established in clinical medicine as a monitor of the efficacy of the cardiorespiratory system. The principle of this device represents the end of a long evolutionary line of noninvasive instruments designed to measure the redness of blood i.e. oxygen saturation. This historical note describes the many ingenious devices that are the heritage of the pulse oximeter, which w... View full abstract»

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  • Atomic force microscopy: a new way to look at chromatin

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):34 - 41
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2444 KB)

    This article deals with the application of a new form of microscopy, atomic force microscopy or AFM, to the study of chromatin structure. The main advantage of AFM is that it can operate at subnanometer resolution in aqueous fluids. It has been applied successfully to study of the structural dynamics of cells and molecules. However, thus far most of the AFM work on chromatin has been limited to st... View full abstract»

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  • Measuring the elastic properties of biological samples with the AFM

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):47 - 57
    Cited by:  Papers (232)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2064 KB)

    We discuss AFM applications in measuring or applying small forces. Instrumentation is reviewed, as well as the ability of the AFM to image living cells and measure elastic properties of biological material and cells on the submicrometer scale. AFM resolution as it pertains to soft materials is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • A biosensor based an micromechanical interrogation of living cells

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):66 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1508 KB)

    The authors have demonstrated that living cells can be reliably cultured directly onto atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. The cells are inclined to grow on both sides of the surface, and the cantilevers must be treated to deter such two-sided growth. Preliminary data acquired with the AFM demonstrate that these integrated cell/cantilevers are capable of detecting the response of Madine Dar... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

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