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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Society President's message: Membership needs and IAS changes [Guest Feature]

    Page(s): 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recognition of 1996 Transactions Papers Reviewers

    Page(s): 8 - 23
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Starting performance of high-frequency electronic ballasts for four-foot fluorescent lamps

    Page(s): 234 - 238
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    With the rapidly increasing number of electronic ballast manufacturers and ballast products entering the market recently, the compatibility of fluorescent lamps with electronic ballasts has become one of the major concerns among specifiers and users. In 1993, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) published ANSI C82.11-1993, which describes recommendations for high-frequency operation of fluorescent lamp ballasts. To address compatibility issues for lamp starting, ANSI C82.11 limits the average value of the RMS glow current to a maximum of 25 mA and lamp preheat time to a minimum of 500 ms. ANSI's definitions of glow current and preheat time are made on an ideal lamp starting curve. In reality, some electronic ballasts produce lamp starting curves very different from ANSI's definition, creating difficulties in practical measurements of glow current and preheat time. This research work tested lamp starting characteristics of 17 different electronic ballasts on 2-F40T12 lamps. The results showed that the starting performance of electronic ballasts varied; some met ANSI's requirements, but some did not. The results also showed that using electrode voltage can better define preheat time and glow current, which can better characterize the starting performance of electronic ballasts and ensure reliable testing procedures View full abstract»

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  • Single large roller mill feeds today's jumbo cement plants

    Page(s): 120 - 125
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    The use of a single roller mill to supply kiln feed has always been the most economical approach to new cement plant construction. However, the ability to design and build mills large enough to supply today's 7500+ tons per day cement kilns has sometimes been questioned. The successful start up and operation of the 5.9-m roller mill at P.T. Semen Gresik's Tuban plant, Indonesia, has proven that reliable mills can be built for this application. Years of experience, together with modern computer-aided design techniques, has been the key to opening up the future for large roller mills. Here, the design capabilities needed to successfully produce large mills, as well as the operational features of modern roller mills, are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station

    Page(s): 194 - 201
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    Electrical transients from power system faults, loss of generation and load swings can disrupt petroleum pumping station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie, and those with weak utility ties, are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) analysis of the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain power system stability and preserve pumping station operations; (2) analysis of combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the electrical engineer; (3) discussion of power system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads; (4) and comparison of two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses View full abstract»

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  • Using PSpice to determine lamp current variation due to electronic ballast component tolerances

    Page(s): 252 - 256
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    This paper studies the relationship between component tolerance and: (1) total lamp current variation; and (2) lamp current imbalance between lamps on one ballast. PSpice simulator and a four-lamp fluorescent current-fed push pull inverter is used in the study. The concept of component quality level (CQL) is introduced. Components with different quality level and tolerance are selected and a normal distribution is assumed. The studies indicate that to meet lamp current tolerance specifications and to produce lowest cost products, it is not enough to just tighten the component tolerances. Both CQL and tolerance have to be considered View full abstract»

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  • Upgrading a clinker cooler. IKN Klinker Inlet Distribution System (“KIDS”)

    Page(s): 126 - 134
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    Portland cement is fabricated with a blend of clinker, gypsum and minor proportions of chemical additives. With clinker being the principal element of this blend, its physical properties have direct effects on Portland cement quality. The temperature of clinker when exiting the process line is one of the most important factors. Grinding of the final blend of clinker-gypsum additives has temperature limitations for the production of quality cement, and more and more cement producers are asked by the end users to offer a cooled Portland cement. These reasons explain why clinker cooling is an important phase in clinker production. The clinker cooler is exposed to extremely difficult operating conditions with a highly abrasive and hot material. When leaving the rotary kiln, clinker is in an unstable state, being still partly molten. Grate coolers aeration in the first sections cause a partial fluidization of clinker. Under certain abnormal conditions, this unstable phase presents upset conditions in the cooler and gives headaches to the operators. Conventional grate coolers could not solve these flow problems on all occasions, but new developments in grate coolers have greatly reduced and nearly eliminated these problems. This paper reports on a successful modification to a cement plant process line with a new revolutionary technology View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of power requirements for a longwall armored face conveyor

    Page(s): 80 - 89
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    Longwall armored face conveyors (AFCs) have traditionally been designed using a combination of heuristics and simple models. However, as longwalls increase in length, these design procedures are proving to be inadequate. The result has either been a costly loss of production due to AFC stalling or component failure, or larger than necessary capital investment due to overdesign. In order to allow accurate estimation of the power requirements for an AFC, this paper develops a comprehensive model of all the friction forces associated with the AFC. Power requirement predictions obtained from these models are then compared with measurements from two mine faces View full abstract»

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  • Field-oriented control of an induction motor with robust on-line tuning of its parameters

    Page(s): 35 - 42
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    This paper proposes new torque control of an induction motor, which is robust against primary resistance and adaptable to leakage inductance, magnetizing inductance, and secondary time constant. The control is based on flux feedback with a flux simulator. Since the simulator is based on a rotor current model, it is independent of the primary resistance, but uses the magnetizing inductance and secondary time constant values to estimate the flux. Parameter mismatch in the simulator detrimentally affects flux and torque responses. In order to compensate for degradation of the responses, an identifier for the magnetizing inductance and the secondary time constant is introduced. The identifier is insensitive to the primary resistance because it is based on instantaneous reactive power of the motor. Also, a leakage inductance identifier is introduced to achieve perfect compensation, which is robust against other parameters owing to instantaneous harmonic reactive power. To verify feasibility of the proposed technique, digital simulations and experimental tests have been conducted. The results have proven excellent characteristics of the drive system, which confirms validity of the scheme View full abstract»

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  • Preventing IR interference between infrared waves emitted by high-frequency fluorescent lighting systems and infrared remote controls

    Page(s): 239 - 245
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    The authors describe IR (infrared waves) interference between IR remote-control systems for electric home appliances and high-frequency electronic ballast lighting. The separation of the carrier frequency of an IR remote-control system and the lamp operating frequency of high-frequency lighting is the most efficient way of preventing this interference. The phenomenon, preventive approaches and experimental results of IR interference experiments are also described View full abstract»

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  • Comparative performance of open and totally enclosed machines

    Page(s): 154 - 159
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    Continuous improvements in insulating materials, manufacturing consistencies in sealed windings and extensive laboratory testing of various systems show that synchronous machines with NEMA II construction can replace totally enclosed machines. Tests on windings in corrosive atmospheres show that sealed insulation systems are impervious to the environment. Standard maintenance ensures that incendive arcing will not be generated in potentially hazardous environments. When compared to totally enclosed machines, the NEMA II-type construction is lighter, more efficient, has lower short-circuit current and associated torques and is easier to maintain View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of airgap flux, current, and vibration signals as a function of the combination of static and dynamic airgap eccentricity in 3-phase induction motors

    Page(s): 24 - 34
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    This paper provides new information for the online diagnosis of airgap eccentricity in 3-phase induction motors. A new theoretical analysis of the interaction between harmonic field components due to static and dynamic rotor eccentricity which previous research has not considered is put forward, The resultant nonsupply-frequency current components produced in the supply current which are highlighted by the analysis are found to exist experimentally and indeed shown to be a function of the combined effect of both dynamic and static eccentricity. Further vibration analysis is put forward to identify which particular form of rotor eccentricity is dominant; hence illustrating how faults can be identified in a motor using condition monitoring techniques View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to enhance power quality for medium voltage AC drives

    Page(s): 202 - 208
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    A new approach to medium-voltage variable-frequency static AC motor drives offers improvements in power quality. Harmonic current injection into the power lines is below the most severe requirements of IEEE Standard 519-1992. The power factor of this new type of drive exceeds 94% at full load and is above 90% at 10% load. Motor voltage and current waveforms are improved so that torque pulsations are reduced. Peak voltage stress on motor insulation does not exceed peak input line voltage, and no zero sequence voltage is imposed. Drive efficiency exceeds 96%. This paper describes the new approach and some of the results achieved View full abstract»

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  • The electrostatic fields and discharge hazards of insulating sheets close to a conductor: a review

    Page(s): 274 - 278
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    Dielectric sheets and films are used in various forms in a large number of industrial applications. The important electrostatic properties of such sheets are reviewed to highlight the significance of the surface potential, the electric field within and adjacent to the sheet, and the electric energy stored. Selected industrial examples in the fields of electrophotography, electrostatic painting and materials handling are discussed. A case study of a specific industrial problem involving charge retention on plastic boxes treated in an AC corona discharge is described View full abstract»

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  • Operation of a phase locked loop system under distorted utility conditions

    Page(s): 58 - 63
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    Operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) system under distorted utility conditions is presented. A control model of the PLL system is developed and recommendations are made on tuning of this model specially for operation under common utility distortions such as line notching, voltage unbalance/loss, and frequency variations. The PLL is completely implemented in software without any filters. All analytical results are experimentally verified View full abstract»

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  • Utility rebates for efficient motors-the outlook for demand-side management

    Page(s): 143 - 153
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    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting demand-side management (DSM), the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them are the subjects of this paper View full abstract»

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  • Cost-effective motor surge capability

    Page(s): 167 - 176
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    The use of surge capacitors to protect medium voltage induction motor windings from steep-fronted power surges has long been an accepted industry practice. Claims have been made that motor reliability would be improved without the use of surge capacitors if added interturn insulation were incorporated within the motor winding. This paper explores the surge-withstand ability of motors and the surge standards that have emerged. It presents a survey of industry practices and studies related to current motor applications, and provides the motor user with an economic evaluation to arrive at a cost-effective selection of motors with or without external surge protection View full abstract»

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  • An insightful approach to H position controller design for an electric motor attached to a flexible structure

    Page(s): 257 - 263
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    This paper deals with the practical problem of controlling electric motors when they are attached to mechanical supports with structural resonances that interact with the controlled motor. This paper focuses on the use of classical Bode analysis techniques to gain insight into the development of an H controller for an electric motor attached to a flexible structure. Bode plots are used to provide a meaningful guide to adjusting control weightings in the H problem formulation such that performance objectives are achieved. This approach is applied to the inertial position regulation of a gimballed pointing payload with significant structural resonances. Both simulation and experimental results are presented View full abstract»

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  • On-line control strategies to minimize peak loads on mine conveyor networks using surge units with variable discharging capability

    Page(s): 90 - 99
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    Control of peak loads on gathering belts in mine conveyor systems can result in substantial reductions in power consumption as well as savings in capital and maintenance costs for the conveyor equipment. This paper first extends an existing control approach involving dynamic adjustment of feeder discharge rates to the case where the differences in transit times between section feeders and the gathering belts where the flows converge are small. It is shown that multiple units should be considered simultaneously when determining control actions, and a dynamic programming approach is given for determining the optimal control policy in such a situation. Subsequently, the application of this approach is considered for longwall mines where flow from the longwall is not controlled, but the discharge rates of continuous miner section feeders are adjusted in real-time to prevent belt overloading while minimizing any production constraint on the continuous miner units. This application requires special treatment for the highly variable material flow pattern produced by longwalls. The practical utility of these approaches is evaluated through detailed simulation studies. These studies are used to estimate the magnitude of savings in energy, capital, and maintenance costs View full abstract»

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  • Design and application considerations for motors in steep-fronted surge environments

    Page(s): 177 - 186
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    A large body of research has been conducted in the past 15 years into steep-fronted surges in electrical systems and their propagation in AC machine windings. This paper reviews the nature of the surge, the factors that determine its amplitude and rise time, and how it affects the motor winding. It then explains how its harmful effects can be controlled by system and winding design and by effective quality control. Related national and international standards are discussed and their shortcomings pointed out. Uncertainties in the prediction of amplitude and rise time of surges are explained, and guidance for cost effective specification of motors for application in a surge environment is given View full abstract»

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  • Special design considerations for filter banks in arc furnace installations

    Page(s): 226 - 233
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    This paper focuses on the switching surge duties imposed on capacitors and air-cored reactors which are used in single-tuned filters at arc furnace installations. Switching surge studies are often necessary to fully rate these components. Rating guidelines are provided. An example compares conventional filter designs with designs in which switching surges are considered View full abstract»

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  • Selection and installation of a vertical roller mill for clinker pregrinding

    Page(s): 114 - 119
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    A vertical roller mill has been installed in a Canadian cement plant for the pregrinding of Portland cement clinker. It is the first application of this type of technology in the Western Hemisphere. The process of selection of the technology and the development of the engineering project are described View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of power electronic circuits with principles used in wave digital filters

    Page(s): 49 - 57
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    Simulation is a well-known technique to study complex systems. This paper introduces a new simulation technique based on the theory of wave digital filters. They are candidates to substitute classical analog filters by digital electronic circuits in signal processing. In addition, they show advantages compared with other classes of digital filters such as fast algorithms and simple models of electric components. Therefore, the theory of wave digital filters is used to build a new simulator for transient simulation. So far, the properties of this simulator permit a fair comparison between the new simulation technique and well-known simulation programs. The new simulator is easily linked to a CAD program to design and optimize switch mode power supplies already in use in industry View full abstract»

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  • Speed control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drive for the flux weakening operation

    Page(s): 43 - 48
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    A novel flux-weakening scheme for the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is proposed. This is implemented based on the output of the synchronous PI current regulator-reference voltage to the PWM inverter. The onset of flux weakening and the flux level are adjusted inherently by the outer voltage regulation loop to prevent saturation of the current regulator. Attractive features of this flux weakening scheme include no dependency on the machine parameters. The guarantee of current regulation at any operating condition, and smooth and fast transition into and out of the flux weakening mode. Experimental results at various operating conditions including the case of detuned parameters are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed control scheme View full abstract»

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  • Reliability comparison between standard and energy efficient motors

    Page(s): 135 - 142
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    There are always tradeoffs when maximizing a specific motor performance parameter such as efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to compare the various performance parameters and elements which determine motor reliability. The impact on motor life is considered, along with its robustness. Only the three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors covered by the 1992 Energy Act are covered in this presentation, as compared to “standard” motors View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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