By Topic

Computer

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1997

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Taking a high-tech approach to standards [IETF]

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (60 KB)  

    The Internet Engineering Task Force-the primary organization for Internet standards-is experiencing phenomenal growth, which implies a vote of confidence in its approach to standards-making. IETF is similar to the IEEE in that both organizations focus on participation by individual engineers rather than by organizations. Moreover, both organizations strive to ensure that their standards are developed in an open, accessible forum with policies structured to minimize barriers to participation. The IETF compares itself to the IEEE and to other standards-making organizations such as ANSI and ISO while taking pride in the ways in which IETF is unique. One remarkable feature of the IETF standards process is its demand for actual implementations of a standard. In fact, the existence of two independently developed, interoperable implementations of a specification is a firm requirement for the specification to be given draft standard status. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • 1996 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    Page(s): 80 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (129 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • CS Update Awards at Supercomputing Recognize Professional Achievements

    Page(s): 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (36 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Gate-Array IC Design Tools

    Page(s): 117 - 122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (129 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
    View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • HP's International Cryptography Framework: compromise or threat?

    Page(s): 28 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  

    Hewlett-Packard (HP) has developed the International Cryptography Framework (ICF), the strongest encryption system approved for export by the US government to date. The hardware-software system provides various levels of encryption strength, depending on government regulations in the USA and importing countries. In some cases, ICF will allow US manufacturers to export stronger encryption products than regulations have permitted in the past. The US computer industry has said this is necessary for it to compete more effectively in the international marketplace. However, some say ICF may prove to be a Trojan horse in the war over electronic communications privacy. They contend that millions of people will buy ICF-enabled equipment that has weak encryption and that would permit the US government to decrypt data transmissions easily View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Internet, intranets, and the AI renaissance

    Page(s): 71 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    Virtually cost-free publication on the World Wide Web has led to information overload. Artificial intelligence (AI), with its roots in knowledge representation, is experiencing a renaissance as new tools emerge to make the Web more tractable. Why do these Internet-based applications herald an AI renaissance? AI has come to play a crucial role in Information Age retrieval strategies. Internet-based applications can exploit a wide range of AI developments. In this survey, we look at examples of the following AI technologies: natural language processing (concept-based Internet searching); machine-learning (WebWatcher); heuristic rules for establishing preference (Letizia); rule-based/heuristic natural language processing (ContactFinder, FAQFinder, Globenet); and neural networks (Autonomy). This isn't AI for AI's sake-this renaissance is not one of stand-alone AI applications. Unlike first-generation AI applications, AI can now be embedded in heterogeneous networked computing environments and used for searching, retrieval and analysis of previously unimaginable quantities of data. Because the wealth of data makes direct human analysis impossible, AI-based support has become necessary to help users fully exploit that information. Our increasingly competitive and technology-driven world has reduced the time available to us for decision-making. To survive in this environment, we are increasingly turning to advanced computer technologies, such as intelligent agents, and delegating some of that decision-making to these electronic surrogates View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computer reminders and alerts

    Page(s): 42 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  

    With busy users relying increasingly on computers to provide reminders and alerts, the enabling technology is rapidly gaining importance. Surprisingly, many issues have not yet been thoroughly explored. The state of the art is characterized by after-the-fact application patches, plug-ins and custom-designed reminder methods. This hodgepodge of approaches is likely to change. Recent trends indicate that hundreds of millions of dollars of personal information management (PIM) programs have been sold, mainly because of their reminding abilities. Billions of dollars in savings per year and increased quality of work are projected as more reminder and alerting programs are deployed. Agents that perform reminding and alerting tasks represent one of the fastest growing areas of the World Wide Web and other digital repositories View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Unpredictable certainty: the Internet and the information infrastructure

    Page(s): 50 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    The Internet's future will reflect its own evolution and its interaction with other elements of the information infrastructure. That interaction will hinge more on business factors than on technology. Although it is clear that the Internet will have substantial influence in the larger information infrastructure by the turn of the century, it is unclear how the Internet will realize that influence. Will the Internet continue to grow? Will the Internet's definition expand to include other internetworked entities? How will protocol changes transform the Internet from the inside out? The answers to these and other questions will determine the role the Internet will play View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Motivating and keeping software developers

    Page(s): 126 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (52 KB)  

    Addresses the needs of those who are responsible for managing or leading computing professionals. This article is about motivating and rewarding software developers. This is especially difficult in a competitive job market that emphasizes high salaries and multiple opportunities for each software developer. Two important issues you need to handle are: making certain that developers understand their roles; and keeping developers happy, using either rewards or incentives. Management usually reacts to a wave of departing developers rather than proactively doing the right things to make certain that developers don't even think about leaving. Do the right thing now. To motivate and keep developers: (1) define a product delivery process and clear roles; (2) reward-don't use incentives; (3) set goals and make career plans on a regular basis; and (4) compensate to keep people View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design by contract: the lessons of Ariane

    Page(s): 129 - 130
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  

    Design by contract is the principle that the interfaces between modules of a software system-especially a mission-critical one-should be governed by precise specifications. The contracts cover mutual obligations (pre-conditions), benefits (post-conditions), and consistency constraints (invariants). Together, these properties are known as assertions, and are directly supported in some design and programming languages. A recent $500 million software error provides a sobering reminder that this principle is not just a pleasant academic ideal. On June 4, 1996, the maiden flight of the European Ariane 5 launcher crashed, about 40 seconds after takeoff. The rocket was uninsured. The French space agency, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and the European Space Agency (ESA) immediately appointed an international inquiry board. The board makes several recommendations with respect to software process improvement. There is a simple lesson to be learned from this event: reuse without a precise, rigorous specification mechanism is a risk of potentially disastrous proportions. It is regrettable that this lesson has not been heeded by such recent designs as IDL, Ada 95 or Java. None of these languages has built-in support for design by contract. Effective reuse requires design by contract. Without a precise specification attached to each reusable component, no-one can trust a supposedly reusable component. Without a specification, it is probably safer to redo than to reuse View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Toward a more secure Internet

    Page(s): 57 - 61
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)  

    Lack of widely available Internet security has discouraged some commercial users. The author describes efforts to make cryptographic security more widely available and looks at efforts to secure the Internet infrastructure. Security capabilities must continue to evolve to meet increasingly sophisticated threats. The Internet community is now more aware of the importance of security. This awareness, coupled with new technology, should produce a much more secure Internet that is appropriate for widespread commercial use View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Toward support for hypermedia on the World Wide Web

    Page(s): 62 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)  

    As organizations rush to embrace the World Wide Web as their primary application infrastructure, they should not bypass the benefit of hypermedia support. The Web's infrastructure can serve as an interface to all interactive applications and, over time, will become the graphical user interface model for new applications. Ubiquitous hypermedia support should become the jewel of the Web environment. Through Web integration, hypermedia could become an integral part of every interactive application. With the proper tools to support hypermedia in Web application development, it will become second nature for developers and individual authors to provide supplemental links and hypermedia navigation. However, as organizations adopt the Web as their primary application infrastructure, designers may use Java and other tools to recreate current application functionality, and not take advantage of the Web's hypermedia-augmented infrastructure. If users, designers, MIS departments and organizations don't demand hypermedia support, hypermedia may get lost in the frenzy of Web integration View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The case for inductive programming

    Page(s): 36 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (124 KB)  

    The science of creating software is based on deductive methods, but induction-deduction's ignored sibling-could have a profound effect on the future development of computer science theory and practice. Inductive reasoning can solve problems outside the realm of machine learning. Formal methods to underpin inductive techniques are emerging, but they have yet to be viewed, accepted and developed as a fundamental alternative to deductive computer science View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Switching to a faster Internet

    Page(s): 31 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (56 KB)  

    It is not uncommon to find people complaining about how slow the Internet is becoming now that more people are using it, particularly to transmit large and complex files, such as multimedia. There have even been predictions of an Internet meltdown due to overuse. Although data indicates that Net traffic generally moves at a good clip, it is clear that many people want faster data transmission speed now and that many others are worried about Internet speed in the future. With this in mind, Ipsilon Network and Cisco Systems are trying to generate more speed by bringing switching to the Internet. In fact, Ipsilon has already released a product (the IP Switch ATM1600) that analysts believe will make throughput several times faster than the fastest routers. Cisco expects to release Internet switching products no earlier than mid-1997 View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Supporting mobility with wireless ATM

    Page(s): 131 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB)  

    An implicit assumption underlying most networking research has been that two Internet users would be connected only by fixed links (wire lines). Increased use of portable computers, wireless networks and satellites has generated interest in supporting “computing on the move”, or mobile computing. Instead of maintaining a fixed position in a network, users in this environment are free to roam. Mobile computing raises interesting issues, such as how to route packets as the mobile user (host) moves about and how to guarantee the quality of service (QOS) that an application running on such a mobile host may need. Other issues include the choice of a transport protocol to use on top of a mobile host and how to deal with poor performance in wireless links. There are two possible approaches to supporting mobile computing over the Internet. The first uses a mobile IP (Internet Protocol), whereby packets (datagrams) are forwarded by a designated stationary host to the mobile host. The second approach involves wireless ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), with host mobility supported by rerouting/rearranging the end-to-end ATM connection between mobile and stationary hosts View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ron Vetter
University of North Carolina
Wilmington