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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 3 • Date Mar 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Spatial feedback effects in narrow-stripe index-guided semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 469 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (104 KB)  

    We demonstrate experimentally that spatial effects of feedback are important in determining the operating characteristics of index-guided semiconductor lasers. It is in fact the inflexibility of the index-guided mode that makes the laser susceptible to small misalignments of the external cavity, which can induce power variations of nearly 40% of the solitary laser power with feedback levels of less than 2%.(-17 dB). With a simple model, we calculate the modification of the feedback wavefront as a function of the external cavity length and show that the power variations are induced through changes in the cavity loss brought on by the interference of the feedback field with the field reflected off the laser facet. By experimental comparison to a partly gain-guided laser, we conclude that these large-scale variations will be significantly reduced or absent in purely gain-guided lasers View full abstract»

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  • Cr3+→Nd3+ energy transfer and Nd3+ laser action studies of La3Ga5SiO14 :Cr3+,Nd3+ co-doped crystal

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 474 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    Energy transfer between Cr3+ and Nd3+ ions has been investigated in the 4.2-300-K temperature range by using steady-state and site-selective time-resolved laser spectroscopy. Radiative and nonradiative energy transfer has been studied from the time-resolved emission spectra and the donor fluorescence decays. The transfer efficiency was calculated as a function of temperature by using the Cr3+ lifetimes of the single doped and co-doped samples. Laser experiments were carried out in a diffusive cavity by pumping a co-doped rod 54 mm long and 5 mm in diameter with xenon flashlamps. The laser spectral emission shows a complex structure which varies as a function of pump energy. The temporal evolution of the laser spectrum is discussed in terms of a simple four-level spectral rate-equation laser model which takes into account the existence of two main broad Nd3+ site distributions with a large spectral overlap View full abstract»

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  • Finite-difference time-domain analysis and experimental examination of the performance of a coupled-cavity MQW laser/active waveguide at 1.54 μm

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 408 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    The performance characteristics of a coupled cavity InGaAsP-InP MQW laser/active waveguide made by one-step epitaxy and well-controlled reactive ion etching (RIE) have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally determined. A theoretical model based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique was used to simulate the propagation of an optical wave launched in the coupled system and determine the reflectivity of the facets created by RIE. The calculated effective reflectivity of the coupling region consisting of two facets and an air gap is between 0.45 and 0.55, which is in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 0.5. The reflectivity of a single etched mirror derived from this value is estimated to be 0.3. A 120-μm-long monolithically integrated active waveguide when biased as a modulator and excited by the laser shows a maximum extinction ratio of 8 dB and a modulation bandwidth ⩾14 GHz at a dc bias of -0.5 V with a bias swing of 2 V View full abstract»

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  • Ultrashort-pulse generation in excimer lasers by fast mode locking using electrooptic deflector

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 490 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    A novel method for ultrashort-pulse (USP) generation in excimer lasers employing fast mode locking with the use of an electrooptic deflector (EOD) is investigated numerically. In this method, a USP is formed by a train of very short high-contrast-ratio transmission windows produced in a cavity by a modulator composed of an EOD and a diaphragm. The potential of this method and fundamental properties of USP generation with its use are demonstrated taking a KrF laser as an example. It is shown that the application of the EOD driven with both sine and square wave of voltage enables one to obtain high-contrast-ratio light pulses of duration in the range 1-10 ps at the gain duration of only 50-100 ns. The pulses produced with this method are two orders of magnitude shorter than those attainable with conventional mode locking. The method is capable of being an efficient way for USP generation also in other short-gain-duration lasers View full abstract»

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  • Chirp control of a single-mode, good beam quality, zigzag dye laser

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 303 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
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    We report a substantial reduction of frequency chirp of a single-mode laser-pumped zigzag dye laser. A linear optical cavity using counterpropagating orthogonally polarized waves was injection-seeded at 568 mn and operated with a laser output of about 1 J. The chirp was controlled by an intracavity Pockels cell that was configured to add optical density at a rate which counterbalanced the decrease in optical density due to dye-solvent heating during the ~1-μs laser pulse. Heterodyne measurements were used to determine that the bandwidth was near the transform limit and chirp rate of ~1 MHz/μs. The beam quality of the laser was measured at 10 Hz as 1.7 XDL View full abstract»

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  • Signal amplification in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 307 - 313
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    Signal amplification is analyzed in strongly pumped fiber amplifiers both for three-level and four-level transitions, including scattering loss and excited state absorption. Simple analytic expressions are derived for the signal amplification and pump attenuation, along the fiber length, when either the signal and the pump are injected at the same fiber end (forward pumping) or when they are injected at the two opposite ends (backward pumping). Numerical examples for rare-earth doped fibers show excellent agreement between the analytical solution and the exact numerical solutions of the rate-equations for practical operating conditions View full abstract»

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  • Diode lasers locked to noisy injection

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 434 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    We have analyzed the behavior of a diode laser with low-amplitude optical injection. The noisy injection field has phase fluctuations only, with a linewidth larger than both the free-running slave laser linewidth and the locking range. Simulations show that the laser output spectrum can be much narrower than the injection spectrum and may have a dip at the free-running laser frequency. A model describing these features is based on linear superposition of the stationary responses to monochromatic injection. The mechanism of line narrowing is that the response to injection outside the locking range lies mainly inside View full abstract»

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  • Optical modeling of quantum wire arrays

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 375 - 381
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    Optical heterostructures composed of alternating three-dimensional dielectric layers are designed to have the same transmission and traversal time characteristics as quantum wire structures. In this manner, the time and transmission behavior of a quantum wire, very difficult to measure directly, can be determined from conventional optical measurements View full abstract»

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  • Simple compact diode-laser/microlens packaging

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 457 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    A technique has been demonstrated in which the precisely polished substrate of a microlens is directly attached to the front face of a diode laser and heatsink to form a compact stable package. An experimental package using mass-transported GaP spherical microlenses and InGaAs-AlGaAs ridge-waveguide lasers (0.98-μm wavelength) showed a well-collimated beam with a near diffraction-limited 0.7° divergence. The high-index microlens and the favorable lens configuration showed high tolerance for alignment errors in the optical-path-difference and Strehl-ratio calculations View full abstract»

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  • Nd:YAG loop resonator with a Cr4+:YAG self-pumped phase-conjugate mirror

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 483 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    We demonstrate a Nd:YAG loop resonator with a self-pumped phase conjugate, mirror in a Cr4+:YAG crystal, in the nanosecond regime. A maximum extraction of 29 mJ and a maximum reflectivity of 3.3 are obtained. The output beam is a high-quality diffraction-limited TEM 00 mode and has a pulse shape of ~20-ns duration, showing the self Q-switching ability of the resonator. In addition, we demonstrate an original and specific configuration of the anisotropic Cr4+:YAG crystal that compensates not only for phase aberrations but also for polarization aberrations induced into the loop resonator View full abstract»

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  • Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in a compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 358 - 366
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high temporal compression factor. The two-cell generator-amplifier arrangement is of a compact design not requiring external attenuation of the generator cell input energy. Pulses from an injection-seeded, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser of 300-mJ energy were compressed by a factor variable between 6 and 21 at up to 75% reflectivity. Deviation from unity SBS reflectivity is predominantly determined by optical component losses. The generation of 270-ps pulses with high beam quality was achieved in liquid methanol. These powerful pulses of variable duration are difficult to produce with common laser systems and are highly suited for the generation of high-harmonics in gases View full abstract»

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  • The influences of refractive index dispersion on the modal gain of a quantum-well laser

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 416 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    A new self-consistent method (SCM) for single-quantum-well (SQW) AlGaAs-GaAs diode lasers is introduced to study systematically the influences of refractive-index dispersion on TE modal gain. The refractive-index dispersion of QW layers is calculated by the density matrix method. It is affected by the effective propagation constant of guided mode. Likewise, the transverse guided mode of QW lasers, as obtained by the transfer matrix method, is also influenced by the refractive-index dispersion. SCM, using the density matrix and transfer matrix methods self-consistently, provides the TE modal gain spectra. SCM's calculated results are compared with those of Dumke's approximation and show a decrease in energy of modal gain peak and a decline of modal gain values at high emission energies. The differences between these two methods are seen to increase with an increase of well width and to be unrelated to barrier height. Although not treated formally in this paper, we suggest that SCM results show a significantly superior match to real phenomena View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analysis of 630-nm band GaInP-AlGaInP strained quantum-well lasers considering continuum states

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 443 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)  

    GaInP-AlGaInP strained quantum-well lasers with emission wavelength at 630-nm band are theoretically analyzed in detail and then optimized. The valence band structure of quantum wells is obtained by evaluating the 6×6 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian including the coupling among the heavy hole, the light hole, and the spin-orbital spilt-off hole bands. The effect of optical transition from/to continuum states not confined to the quantum well is studied. It is found that the optical transition from/to the continuum states is serious as the band gap of the confining layers is close to the quasi-Fermi level separation, leading to considerable radiative current. This radiative current is undesirable since the corresponding optical transition does not contribute significantly to the threshold gain. The gain-radiative current characteristic is therefore poor for confining layers containing a low Al content. To avoid unreasonable gain/absorption, the non-Markovian convolution lineshape is used instead of the conventional Lorentzian lineshape. The leakage current is high for single quantum-well lasers with wide bandgap confining layers, it can be reduced by increasing the quantum-well number, the dopant concentration, and the band gap of cladding layers. The calculated threshold current agrees well with the observation. The band gap shrinkage due to the carrier-carrier interaction is considered to obtain an emission wavelength consistent with the experimental result View full abstract»

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  • The applications of an interdiffused quantum well in a normally on electroabsorptive Fabry-Perot reflection modulator

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 382 - 392
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    A Fabry-Perot reflection-type modulator which uses interdiffused AlGaAs-GaAs quantum wells as the active cavity material has been studied and optimized theoretically. An asymmetric Bragg reflector structure (modeled by transfer matrices), with a doped depletion layer in the heterostructure, has been considered. This is the first study to model such a material system in this type of modulator, and the results show improvement in modulation property over its as-grown rectangular quantum-well modulator. In particular, the change of reflectance in the diffused quantum-well modulator is almost 0.6 to 0.7, which is higher than that of the typically available values (~0.5 to 0.6), while the OFF-state on-resonance reflectance is almost close to zero. The operation voltage is also reduced by more than half as the interdiffusion becomes extensive. The finesse of the more extensively diffused quantum well also increases. Both of these features contribute to an improvement of the change of reflectance in the modulator. The operation wavelengths can be adjusted over a range of 100 nm. However, the absorption coefficient change of the diffused quantum well increases only when there is a small amount of interdiffusion View full abstract»

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  • Differences between intra- and extra-cavity pulse time structure in a hole-coupled free-electron laser

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 314 - 323
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB)  

    In the strong-slippage regime of a free-electron laser, the optical pulse inside the resonator is composed of a series of subsequently growing and decaying subpulses due to a limit-cycle oscillation. The picosecond time structure of the outcoupled pulses can be quite different from that of the intracavity pulse, in case of outcoupling through a hole and for specific resonator parameters. This is demonstrated by autocorrelation measurements and corroborated by simulations View full abstract»

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  • Power switching in hybrid coherent couplers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 336 - 340
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    We report on a theoretical and numerical investigation of the switching of power in new hybrid models of nonlinear coherent couplers consisting of optical slab waveguides with various orders of nonlinearity. The first model consists of two guides with second-order instead of the usual third-order susceptibilities as typified by the Jensen coupler. This second-order system is shown to have a power self-trapping transition at a critical power greater than the third-order susceptibility coupler. Next, we consider a mixed coupler composed of a second-order guide coupled to a third-order guide and show that, although it does not display a rigorous self-trapping transition, for a particular choice of parameters it does show a fairly abrupt trapping of power at a lower power than in the third-order coupler. By coupling this mixed nonlinear pair to a third, purely linear guide, the power trapping can be brought to even lower levels and in this way a satisfactory switching profile can be achieved at less than one sixth the input power needed in the Jensen coupler View full abstract»

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  • Effects of spatial hole burning on gain switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 462 - 468
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)  

    We present a numerical study of the effects of carrier diffusion and spatial hole-burning in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers under gain switching. Our model includes spatial and temporal dependences of both the optical field and the carrier density. Results show that spatial hole burning places a limit on the minimum achievable pulse width. We demonstrate that spatial hole-burning tan be avoided and shorter pulses can be obtained by using an appropriate pumping geometry. We also consider the case in which the laser operates simultaneously in two transverse modes and show that transverse-mode competition induced by spatial hole burning leads to period doubling and other interesting nonlinear behavior View full abstract»

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  • Constraints on coherent control of quantum-well excitons for high-speed all-optical switching

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 404 - 407
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB)  

    Coherent control of excitons in quantum wells at high repetition rates is investigated theoretically to determine the practical constraints for application in high-bit-rate optical switching. A tradeoff between optical pathlength (number of quantum wells) and excitation density is found that severely limits the applicability of this mechanism for implementation in 100-Gb/s optical systems View full abstract»

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  • Effects of structural parameters on the external optical feedback sensitivity in DFB semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 424 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    External optical feedback sensitivity in distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers is analyzed with special attention to phase-shifted and complex-coupled lasers. The effects of various structural parameters such as coupling strength, facet reflectivity, and corrugation phase angle on external optical feedback sensitivity are studied. The λ/4 phase-shifted index-coupled DFB laser exhibits low external optical feedback sensitivity for large index-coupling coefficient and high facet reflectivity. Pure gain-coupled DFB lasers perform better than the phase-shiftless uniform index-coupled DFB lasers but worse than λ/4 phase-shifted index-coupled lasers with high coupling strengths. External optical feedback sensitivity of complex-coupled lasers depends significantly on the index-to-gain coupling ratio, the phase between the index and gain gratings, and the total coupling View full abstract»

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  • Efficient semivectorial mode solvers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 367 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    A method, based on a semivectorial finite difference scheme, is described to construct modal fields for any two-dimensional refractive-index profile which is constant except at abrupt interfaces. The modal fields correspond to eigenvectors of the matrix equation to be solved. In order to find the eigenvectors and their corresponding eigenvalues, the matrix equation is formulated according to the inverse iteration method (IIM). Two versions of the IIM are compared. Further, two matrix equations are compared: one is based on the propagation equation, following from the three-dimensional paraxial wave equation, and the other is the Fresnel equation, leading to the standard eigenvalue equation. A new solution method for the matrix equation is presented. It is a refinement of the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method. This refined ADI method is compared to the standard conjugate gradient (CG) method. Both methods are tested for waveguides having a rectangular core cross section. The refined ADI method is found to be computationally more efficient than the unpreconditioned CG method View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 349 - 357
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)  

    First-order quasi-phase-matched (QPM) second-harmonic generation (SHG) is demonstrated in a poled diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguide. The channel waveguide with a nonlinear grating was fabricated by the serial grafting technique using conventional photolithography and reactive ion etching. The dependence of the conversion efficiency on both the waveguide parameter and the grating structure was derived theoretically. A normalized internal conversion efficiency of 1.1% W-1 cm-2 at 1.586 μm was obtained in the fabricated waveguide with a phase-matched interaction length of 3.4 mm. The experimentally obtained conversion efficiency is compared with the theoretical value, taking into account the effect of mode-mismatching and propagation loss View full abstract»

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  • Experimental demonstration of pulse shaping and shortening by spatial filtering of an induced-phase-modulated probe wave

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 329 - 335
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB)  

    An asymmetrically induced phase modulation resulting in an intensity-dependent spatial beam deflection and a subsequent spatial filtering have been used for all-optical pulse shaping and shortening. A compression factor of eight and controllable symmetrical super-Gaussian pulses and pulse trains have been observed in a good agreement with previous analyses in a pump-probe beam configuration View full abstract»

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  • Exact coupled-mode theories for multilayer interference coatings with arbitrary strong index modulations

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 295 - 302
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    The analysis of multilayered interference coatings by coupled-mode theory is considered to be an approximation useful for small index, gain, and/or loss modulations. In this paper, we show that an exact analysis of a multilayer coating with coupled-mode theory is possible by redefining the coupling and detuning coefficients. We derive the correct coefficients for the case of a Bragg mirror consisting of layers with arbitrary high and low refractive indexes. A detailed comparison with coupled-mode theories using the standard coupling and detuning coefficients is presented View full abstract»

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  • Optoelectronic properties of n-type CdZnTe 2-DEG single-quantum-well heterostructures

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 393 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    Optoelectronic properties of asymmetrically strained II-VI CdZnTe single-quantum-well structures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are reported. Indium doping CdZnTe n-type using a two-dimensional electron gas heterostructure achieved a carrier mobility of 5000 cm2·V-1 s-1 at 40 K. A shallow donor ionization energy of 14.5 meV was determined from Hall effect measurements. Fabrication of a large-area-mesa heterostructure device allowed us to investigate exciton absorption of the mixed type-I and type-II single quantum well. Control of the electron concentration in the quantum well allows optical absorption modulation using both the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and phase-space absorption quenching. Separation of electron and hole photocurrents in different layers is demonstrated and results in photogain. A heavy-hole red-shift of 9.9 meV/V due to the reverse QCSE is reported View full abstract»

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  • Intrinsic gigahertz modulation of photolytic iodine lasers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 324 - 328
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB)  

    A photolytic iodine laser is shown to have a 13.59-GHz modulation in the laser radiation when simultaneous lasing of two hyperfine transitions is obtained. The necessary gain tuning required to achieve dual-line lasing is accomplished through the use of a magnetic field. In addition, we investigate the possibility of using a nonlinear mirror to increase the gain coupling between the two transitions View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University