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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • High speed flexible fuzzy hardware for fuzzy information processing

    Page(s): 45 - 56
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    In this paper, we present a system called KAFA (Kaist Fuzzy Accelerator) which provides various fuzzy inference methods and fuzzy set operations. The basic idea of this study is to develop a more general purpose hardware system. The architecture has SIMD structure, which consists of two parts; a system control unit (main controller), and an arithmetic unit (fuzzy processing element (FPE)). Microinstruction codes are defined and any fuzzy operation can be programmed by using these microinstructions. Each FPE has the maximum speed of 10 M FLOPS. As the KAFA contains 128 FPE's, if a fuzzy set consists of 128 elements, we achieve the peak performance of 10 M FSOPS (fuzzy set operation per second) under 10 MHz clock frequency. This system also includes the parallel algorithms for defuzzification on the SIMD mode architecture using KAFA network. The prototype of the proposed architecture was developed with the FPGA chips. The speed of the KAFA holds promise for the development of the new fuzzy application system such as automatic control, fuzzy expert systems, real time systems and fuzzy databases View full abstract»

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  • Human action learning via hidden Markov model

    Page(s): 34 - 44
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    To successfully interact with and learn from humans in cooperative modes, robots need a mechanism for recognizing, characterizing, and emulating human skills. In particular, it is our interest to develop the mechanism for recognizing and emulating simple human actions, i.e., a simple activity in a manual operation where no sensory feedback is available. To this end, we have developed a method to model such actions using a hidden Markov model (HMM) representation. We proposed an approach to address two critical problems in action modeling: classifying human action-intent, and learning human skill, for which we elaborated on the method, procedure, and implementation issues in this paper. This work provides a framework for modeling and learning human actions from observations. The approach can be applied to intelligent recognition of manual actions and high-level programming of control input within a supervisory control paradigm, as well as automatic transfer of human skills to robotic systems View full abstract»

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  • Coping with conflict in cooperative knowledge-based systems

    Page(s): 57 - 72
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    In this paper, we address a critical issue of cooperative problem solving: the existence of conflict among distributed agents. In particular, we focus our study on cooperative knowledge-based systems. To obtain a better understanding and more balanced judgement of multiagent conflict, we provide a general scheme to study the logical structure of multiagent conflict and rational strategies of coping with it under different situations. Our research finding is that there is no grand unified theory of coping with conflict in performing complex real-world computer supported tasks. Instead, a library of alternative methods should be considered. We discuss four methods: inquiry, arbitration, persuasion, and accommodation. These methods can be combined in an order appropriate to the application domain such that if one method fails, the system will try the next. We point out merits and shortcomings of these methods and illustrate them using several high-level protocols and application examples from a prototype system, the Building Design Network View full abstract»

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  • Meaning of dataflow diagram and entity life history-a systems theoretic foundation for information systems analysis. II

    Page(s): 11 - 22
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    For part I see ibid., p.1-10. Dataflow diagrams and entity life histories are widely-used tools in information systems methodologies. The tools are far more effective than natural language, though their meanings have not yet been clarified. This paper shows how the model developed in part I enables formal characterization of information systems methodologies. That is, it elaborates the meaning of DFDs and ELHs by providing a concrete example throughout. The characterization of DFDs establishes an explicit correspondence between the static structure of a business transaction system and a DFD. This correspondence illustrates the necessary components in designing the file structure of a business system. The ELH of a business system is described as the set of sequences of the system's transactions. Black hole and franchise business systems can be characterized by sequences, while the ELH of a general business system partially defines its dynamic structure View full abstract»

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  • Choice-free Petri nets: a model for deterministic concurrent systems with bulk services and arrivals

    Page(s): 73 - 83
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    Among discrete event systems, those exhibiting concurrency are especially challenging, requiring the use of formal methods to deal with them. Petri nets are a well-established such formalism. The structure theory aims at overcoming the state space explosion problem, inherent to the analysis of concurrent systems, by bridging structural and behavioral properties. To date, this has been successfully achieved mainly for some subclasses of ordinary nets. However weights are a modeling convenience in many situations. In this paper we study a formal model for a subclass of concurrent systems with bulk services and arrivals which structurally avoids conflicts. Structural results and techniques for dealing with them are introduced. These include structural conditions on properties of correct behavior and a unified framework for checking general behavioral properties by reasoning solely on the structure View full abstract»

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  • Postdiction using reverse qualitative simulation

    Page(s): 84 - 95
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    Postdiction is the task of finding the possible pasts of a physical system, given its model and current state. We present an appropriately modified version of Kuipers' QSIM algorithm to perform postdiction by reverse qualitative simulation. The necessary changes to the algorithm are explained and the closed world assumption is discussed in this new light. The new algorithm can be used for diagnostic purposes View full abstract»

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  • A linguistic modeling of consensus in group decision making based on OWA operators

    Page(s): 126 - 133
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    In this paper, a model for group decision-making is proposed and defined in a linguistic context. A multiperson multicriteria decision problem is considered, in which a group of experts is involved in the evaluation of the performances of a set of alternatives with respect to a predefined set of criteria. The objective is to evaluate a consensual judgement and a consensus degree on each alternative. Both the experts' evaluations of the alternatives and the degree of consensus are expressed linguistically. A “soft” consensus degree referred to a fuzzy majority of the experts is proposed based on the concept of linguistic quantifier. The entire process is defined in a linguistic domain and modeled within fuzzy set theory by ordered weighted average (OWA) operators View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of intelligent hierarchical flexible manufacturing: batch job routing in operation overlapping

    Page(s): 116 - 126
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    We present an approach to embedding expert systems within an object-oriented simulation environment that facilitates the creation of classes of expert system model elements that can be interfaced with other model components. Previous work has shown how distributed expert systems can be defined as modular components of simulations models. This article illustrates their usefulness in fractal architectures for flexible manufacturing, as proposed in the literature. Alternate structures (reconfigured structures) of a proposed hierarchical factory architecture can be generated through the recursive pruning process. Such rapid prototyping should greatly enhance the ability to investigate alternative architectural solutions to manufacturing problems in a timely manner View full abstract»

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  • Information-efficient control of discrete event stochastic systems

    Page(s): 23 - 33
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    A state of a discrete event stochastic system (DESS) can be represented by a tuple of time-varying discrete parameters. The authors have extended the theory of controlled discrete event systems developed by Ramadge, Wonham and other researchers to stochastic modeling and performance measurement. This work presents some important characteristics of the DESS model. The problem of making the most efficient use of information-processing resources (sensors, computer capacity, etc.) in a special class of controlled systems is stated in a new, two-stage format. The format is used to develop a heuristic solution procedure of the problem. Finally, we perform a brief discussion of the model applicability to real-life design of automatic supervisors View full abstract»

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  • A discrete event system model of business system-a systems theoretic foundation for information systems analysis. I

    Page(s): 1 - 10
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    A variety of information systems methodologies for information systems analysis have been proposed. Though each methodology has its own effective concepts and tools, there still does not seem to exist a rigorous model of a business system. In this paper a general model of business systems is proposed. The model describes the whole mechanism of typical routine processing of business tasks with slips and business papers. Furthermore it can be used to examine the ability and limitation of popular tools. The model proposed is called a business transaction system. It consists of both static and dynamic structures. The former depicts the interconnection of the transactions and file system in a business system. The dynamic structure is constructed as a state space representation by introducing a state space, and then the resultant dynamic system is a discrete event system. The state space consists of the file system and schedule of transactions processing. The model provides answers to some questions about the nature of information systems methodologies View full abstract»

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  • Discrimination gain to optimize detection and classification

    Page(s): 112 - 116
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    A method for managing agile sensors to optimize detection and classification based on discrimination gain is presented. Expected discrimination gain is used to determine threshold settings and search order for a collection of discrete detection cells. This is applied in a low signal-to-noise environment where target-containing cells must be sampled many times before a target can be detected or classified with high confidence. The goal of sensor management is interpreted here to be to direct sensors to optimize the probability densities produced by a data fusion system that they feed. The use of discrimination is motivated by its interpretation as a measure of the relative likelihood for alternative probability densities. This is studied in a problem where a single sensor can be directed at any detection cell in the surveillance volume for each sample. Bayes rule is used to construct a recursive estimator for the cell target probabilities. The expected discrimination gain is predicted for each cell using its current target probability estimates. This gain is used to select the optimal cell for the next sample. The expected discrimination gains can be maintained in a binary search tree structure for computational efficiency. The computational complexity of this algorithm is proportional to the height of the tree which is logarithmic in the number of detection cells. In a test case for a single 0 dB Gaussian target, the error rate for discrimination directed search was similar to the direct search result against a 6 dB target View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic scheduling of design activities with resource constraints

    Page(s): 105 - 111
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    A design process can be represented as a network of design activities. A number of design projects may be undertaken simultaneously. This paper deals with the problem of scheduling design activities of multiple design projects competing for the limited available resources. The problem of determining a schedule subject to precedence and resource constraints is difficult to solve. It becomes even more complex when unforeseen changes are considered, for example, in the level of resources. Therefore, the scheduling problem is decomposed into a series of multidimensional (multiresource) knapsack problems. Due to high computational complexity of the multidimensional knapsack problem, two solution procedures are proposed View full abstract»

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  • The modified Dempster-Shafer approach to classification

    Page(s): 96 - 104
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    This paper describes “modified Dempster-Shafer” (MDS), an approach to object identification which incorporates Bayesian prior distributions into an altered Dempster-Shafer rule of combination. The MDS combination rule reduces, under strong independence assumptions, to a special case of Bayes' rule. We show that MDS has rigorous probabilistic foundations in the theory of random sets. We also demonstrate close relationships between MDS and Smets' “pignistic” probabilities (1990), which in the MDS framework become true posterior distributions. We describe the application of MDS to a practical classification algorithm which uses an information-theoretic technique to limit the combinatorial explosion of evidence. We also define a non-ad hoc, MDS-based classification “miss distance” metric used to measure the performance of this algorithm View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta