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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 8 • Date Oct. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Guest Editorial Code Division Multiple Access Networks III

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Random assignment/transmitter-oriented code scheme for centralized DS/SSMA packet radio networks

    Page(s): 1560 - 1568
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    We address an issue of channel sharing among users by using a random assignment/transmitter-oriented (RA/T) code scheme which permits the contention mode only in the transmission of a header while avoiding collision during the data packet transmission. Once the header is successfully received, the data packet is ready for reception by switching to one of the programmable matched-filters. But the reception may be blocked due to a limited number of matched-filters so that this effect is taken into account in our analysis. We also consider an acknowledgment scheme to notify whether the header is correctly detected and the data packet can be processed continuously, which aims at reducing the interference caused by unwanted data transmission. For a realistic analysis, we integrate the detection performance at the physical level with the channel activity at the link level through a Markov chain model. It is shown that compared to classical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems, a reduction in the receiver complexity of a half is allowed by choosing a proper number of RA/T codes without losing the performance quality in view of the normalized throughput. View full abstract»

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  • A noise whitening approach to multiple-access noise rejection .II. Implementation issues

    Page(s): 1488 - 1499
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    Several practical methods are proposed for the implementation of linear filters that reject multiple-access noise in direct sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) receivers. These methods rely on taking advantage of variations in the received chip spectrum, and do not require locking and despreading multiple signals. The resulting structures are simple, and some can operate at a high chip rate. Adaptive structures are also proposed. It is shown that a close relationship exists between noise whitening and chip-equalization for a DS-CDMA receiver. System issues affecting the choice of the chip spectrum, and thus the applicability of these methods, are described View full abstract»

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  • A multiuser interference cancellation technique utilizing convolutional codes and orthogonal multicarrier modulation for wireless indoor communications

    Page(s): 1500 - 1509
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    This paper suggests that multicarrier modulation reduces the complexity and the delay caused by the multiuser interference cancellation process utilizing convolutional codes. For spread spectrum multiple access, multiuser interference (interference due to signals from other users) limits the performance of the communication link. To remove this interference, a multiuser interference cancellation technique which utilizes orthogonal convolutional codes has been proposed for the uplink (mobiles to a base station) of the cellular code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. However, this technique requires large interleavers and huge memory, or artificial multipath diversity and a RAKE system to achieve sufficient coding gain if it is applied to wireless indoor communications and fading is slow compared to the data rate. To reduce the complexity of the canceller, multicarrier modulation is employed as it provides frequency diversity gain and coding gain without the interleavers or a RAKE system. This paper shows that multicarrier modulation reduces the complexity of the canceller and still provides sufficient coding gain in order to cancel the multiuser interference. A canceller with decoding in the initial decision and multicarrier modulation improves the capacity by a factor of 1.4 as compared with a canceller without decoding View full abstract»

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  • The coarse acquisition performance of a CDMA overlay system

    Page(s): 1627 - 1635
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    The coarse acquisition performance of a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) overlay system operating in a mobile communications environment is considered. Specifically, a CDMA system supporting communication between several mobile units and one base station shares the frequency band with an existing narrowband user. At the CDMA base station receivers, narrowband interference rejection filters are used to suppress the narrowband user's energy. It is demonstrated that in a nonfading environment the presence of the narrowband user does not severely affect the acquisition performance when the ratio of its bandwidth to the CDMA bandwidth is small. As the ratio becomes larger, the acquisition performance degrades, but the use of the interference rejection filter still significantly decreases the time to acquire. When flat Rician fading is introduced, the acquisition performance of the overlay system degrades, especially when the power in the direct component is small View full abstract»

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  • Multiuser projection receivers

    Page(s): 1610 - 1618
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    A new multiuser receiver for synchronous code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error control coding is proposed. The receiver achieves interference cancellation by projecting the undesired users onto the space spanned by the desired users' signal vectors. The detector calculates the least squares (LS) estimate of the interfering users data, that is used to yield an adjusted metric for maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) for the desired users' sequences. Simulation results indicate that close to optimal performance can be achieved when all but one of the users are projected using only a single user decoder for the desired user. Further, an adaptive receiver structure based on the recursive LS update is presented that is well-suited for DSP implementation due to it's computational efficiency View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of DS-CDMA parallel interference cancellation with phase and timing errors

    Page(s): 1522 - 1535
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    We consider the use of multistage parallel interference cancellation at the base station of a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) wireless system. Previous work in this area has demonstrated the potential for significant improvements in capacity and near-far resistance. However, most previous work has assumed perfect synchronization with the signals of interest. Practical systems will experience phase jitter and timing errors. We undertake an analysis of the effects of phase and timing errors, obtaining a closed form result for bit-error rate (BER) performance after an arbitrary number of stages of cancellation in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. This result is shown to agree well with simulations. Simulation results are also presented for the important case of frequency selective Rayleigh fading. The results from both analysis and simulations demonstrate that interference cancellation is fairly robust to phase and timing errors View full abstract»

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  • A linear minimum mean square error multiuser receiver in Rayleigh-fading channels

    Page(s): 1583 - 1594
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    We generalize the multiuser (CDMA spread spectrum) communication systems to the fading environments. We first extend Verdu's (1986) conventional optimum receiver to Rayleigh-fading environments and then evaluate its performance. Having no knowledge of the received power at the receiving end, we therefore need an estimator to efficiently estimate the received signal strength of each user in fading environments. A linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) unbiased estimator is proposed to attain this goal. By using the minimum mean square error (MMSE) Bayesian estimation, we further propose the LMMSE bit estimator for efficient demodulation. Its performance is close to the optimum multiuser receiver but with a much simpler polynomial complexity. To further reduce the complexity, we extend the LMMSE estimator to the sequential LMMSE estimator. In sequential estimation, we do not need to implement the matched filter banks and to perform the matrix inversion when estimating. In addition, it converges after approximately 2k iterations, where k is the number of users. With this fast convergence property and the simple structure, the sequential LMMSE estimator provides an attractive alternative to the implementation of a multiuser system View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical analysis of M-ary/SS communication systems using racing counters and a Hadamard matrix

    Page(s): 1569 - 1575
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    The performance of M-ary spread spectrum (M-ary/SS) communication systems is discussed. Firstly, the initial acquisition time is evaluated. Secondly, the retention time, which is the average number of frames holding correct frame timing, and the recovery time, which is the average number of frames required to establish synchronization, are derived. Lastly, the bit-error rate (BER) performance is evaluated. M-ary/SS communication systems, which have more than one spreading code, can improve the BER performance under conditions in which there is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). However, the synchronization of M-ary/SS communication systems is difficult because they have several spreading codes. The frame synchronization method uses a Hadamard matrix and “racing counters.” As a result, the retention time becomes longer than the recovery time when the size of the lower counter differs greatly from that of the upper counter in the racing counters. Then the BER gets close to the performance which is achieved under complete synchronization View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid spreading/despreading function with good SNR performance for band-limited DS-CDMA

    Page(s): 1576 - 1582
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    Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) implemented with direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS/SS) signaling is a promising multiplexing technique for cellular telecommunications services. The efficiency of a direct-sequence spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) system depends heavily on the shape of the spectrum of the spread signal. Maximum efficiency is obtained with an ideal brick-wall bandpass spectrum. There are two approaches toward achieving such a spectrum. One is to use a simple spreader that produces a broad spectrum and then follow it with a precise, high order filter to band limit the spectrum. A second approach, which is the approach taken in this paper, is to use a spreader that produces a spectrum close to the ideal spectrum and then employ a simple filter to control the out-of-band power. The proposed spreader/despreader is based on a simple hybrid function and can be easily implemented. An analysis provides a compact expression for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a RAKE receiver. The expression includes the effects of baseband, intermediate frequency (IF) and RF filtering as well as the effects of the spectral densities of the spreading/despreading functions. The analysis shows that the proposed spreader/despreader yields superior performance over a conventional pseudo noise (PN) spreading/despreading mechanism View full abstract»

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  • Matched filters with interference suppression capabilities for DS-CDMA

    Page(s): 1510 - 1521
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    This paper considers the design of near-far resistant matched filters (MFs) for direct-sequence code-division multiaccess (DS-CDMA) systems. We show how additional information on the individual powers and chip delays of locked users, that is available at the base station, can be exploited for the design of these MFs. The proposed receiver can specifically reduce the effects of the locked interferers at the expense of a partial increase in complexity over the conventional MF. Furthermore, this detection technique is a link between the linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE) centralized multiuser detector and the decentralized noise-whitening MF. Numerical results for the rectangular chip pulse illustrate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), near-far resistance, and bit-error rate (BER) improvement that the proposed MF yields over the conventional MF and noise-whitening MF View full abstract»

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  • Performance degradation due to code tracking errors in spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access systems

    Page(s): 1669 - 1679
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    The influence of code synchronization errors on the performance of direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS/SS) communication systems is investigated. Insight is gained in the degradation of some basic performance parameters due to the tracking bias of a noncoherent delay lock loop (DLL). The performance parameters investigated are the bit-error probability, throughput and delay. Numerical results show that for receivers with an early-late spacing of d=1, using a noncoherent DLL, the results of a system performance analysis in a fast fading environment can be much too optimistic if the tracking errors are ignored View full abstract»

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  • The impact of timing errors on the performance of linear DS-CDMA receivers

    Page(s): 1660 - 1668
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    In this paper, an asynchronous direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system operating over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered. In many applications, the near-far problem can be the limiting factor for the capacity of a DS-CDMA system. Several near-far resistant receivers have, therefore, been proposed (e.g., the decorrelating receiver). These receivers assume perfect knowledge of the propagation delay from all users to the receiver. In practice, the delays are estimated and therefore subject to errors. The performance degradation these errors impose on linear detectors, especially the decorrelating detector, is the topic of this paper View full abstract»

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  • A delay independent decorrelating detector for quasi-synchronous CDMA

    Page(s): 1619 - 1626
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    The decorrelating detector is a near-far resistant linear joint detector for a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system. It consists of a bank of matched filters followed by a decorrelating matrix. For proper operation, both the matched filter bank and the decorrelating matrix require knowledge of the delays of all users. The delays are due to the different propagation times from each user to the base station. Delay estimation is a weak link in this system since it is complex and prone to error. The proposed decorrelating detector does not require exact knowledge of the user delays, but instead requires that the delays be bounded to a fraction of a symbol interval. The delays are naturally bounded in this way in many microcell and picocell systems where the round trip propagation time is small compared to the symbol interval. The new delay independent decorrelating detector is shown to be near-far resistant and, through appropriate spreading code selection, to experience a modest 3 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss relative to orthogonal access schemes. It is also shown to limit capacity to a maximum of 50% of the spreading gain when the delays are bounded by a single chip interval. The complexity is similar to the conventional correlating receiver which is far less complex than the joint detection schemes proposed to date View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of a soft synchronization technique for DS/SS signals

    Page(s): 1643 - 1652
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    Soft synchronization of direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS/SS) signals introduces the capability of despreading with a continuously improving estimate of the spreading code. The soft synchronization technique presented and demonstrated in this paper exploits the eigenstructure of a frequency-channelized DS/SS signal to estimate the code. The estimate improves steadily as more data is collected, resulting in an improved estimate of the message signal. This allows commencement of despreading at an early stage when the code-estimate is still imperfect. Under infinite-time average assumptions a perfect code estimate can be obtained when the signal is received in arbitrary levels of white background noise. This paper demonstrates the synchronization performance of the technique through simulations under finite time-average conditions for environments with fading, multipath, and multi-user interference. The soft synchronization capability is demonstrated. Results show that the technique can remove frequency offsets on the received signal that are integer multiples of the code repeat rate, and that its performance is not degraded by multipath View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive LMS filters for cellular CDMA overlay situations

    Page(s): 1548 - 1559
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    This paper extends and complements previous research we have performed on the performance of nonadaptive narrowband suppression filters when used in cellular code-division multiple-access (CDMA) overlay situations. An adaptive least mean square (LMS) filter is applied to a cellular CDMA overlay in order to reject narrowband interference. An accurate expression for the steady-state tap-weight covariance matrix is derived for the real LMS algorithm for arbitrary statistics of the overlaid interference. Numerical results illustrate that when the ratio of the narrowband interference bandwidth to the spread spectrum bandwidth is small, the LMS filter is very effective in rejecting the narrowband interference. Furthermore, it is seen that the performance of the LMS filter in a CDMA overlay environment is not significantly worse than the performance of an ideal Wiener filter, assuming the LMS filter has had sufficient time to converge View full abstract»

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  • A novel CDMA multiuser interference cancellation receiver with reference symbol aided estimation of channel parameters

    Page(s): 1536 - 1547
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    A novel multistage successive interference cancellation scheme is proposed which operates on the reverse code-division multiple-access (CDMA) link using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation, coherent detection and reference symbols to obtain channel estimates. The results of a single cell multiuser investigation demonstrate increased traffic capacity. However, this increase is initially very moderate due to corruption of the channel estimates by interference from symbols not yet demodulated and cancelled. A modification in the transmitted signal structure addressing this problem is proposed. The results of a single cell analysis of the modified cancellation scheme demonstrate that the system's traffic capacity reaches approximately 80% of that of a multistage successive interference cancelling receiver operating with the perfect knowledge of channel parameters. A subsequent multicell investigation shows that for a hexagonal cell geometry with a path loss exponent of four and without any forward error correction (FEC) coding or cell sectorization, the system capacity compares very favorably with that of the IS-95 system, which employs powerful error control coding. Capacities with other path loss exponents and cell geometries are also investigated. The results show a substantial traffic capacity increase over that of a comparable receiver without interference cancellation View full abstract»

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  • A closed-loop coherent acquisition scheme for PN sequences using an auxiliary sequence

    Page(s): 1653 - 1659
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    We propose a closed-loop system for the acquisition of the pseudo-noise (PN) signal in direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS/SS) systems. We introduce a novel idea of using an auxiliary signal, as opposed to the PN signal itself, for correlation with the incoming signal. The cross-correlation function of the auxiliary signal and the PN signal has a triangle shape that covers essentially the entire period of the PN signal. Consequently, their correlation provides the direction for the phase update of the local signal generator in the acquisition scheme. With coherent demodulation, the mean and variance of the acquisition time are derived under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). They are compared to those of the conventional serial-search acquisition system. Results suggest that the proposed system acquires the PN phase at least twice faster, with significantly smaller acquisition time variance, than the conventional system View full abstract»

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  • DS-CDMA synchronization in time-varying fading channels

    Page(s): 1636 - 1642
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    The problem of estimating propagation delays of the transmitted signals in a direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) system operating over fading channels is considered. Even though this study is limited to the case when the propagation delays are fixed during the observation interval, the channel gain and phase are allowed to vary in time. Special attention is given to the near-far problem which is catastrophic for the standard acquisition algorithm. An estimator based on subspace identification techniques is proposed, and the Cramer-Rao bound, which serves as an optimality criterion, is derived. The Cramer-Rao bound is shown to be independent of the near-far problem, which implies that there is no fundamental reason for propagation delay estimators to be near-far limited. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is experimentally shown to be robust against the near-far problem View full abstract»

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  • A unified approach to multiuser detectors for CDMA and their geometrical interpretations

    Page(s): 1595 - 1601
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    In this paper, we align a class of known multiuser detectors for code-division multiple-access (CDMA) along with some new multiuser detectors in a unified group. The new multiuser detectors are devised by completing the structure of the group. The unified group structure is a binary tree obtained by splitting sequence and single symbol detection, maximum aposteriori (MAP) and maximum likelihood (ML) detection, and unconstrained as well as constrained detection. The link between sequence and single symbol estimators is explained revealing the increased complexity of single symbol estimators as compared to sequence estimators. Finally, the aforementioned group structure is supported by a geometrical technique depicting the detection process performed by the multiuser detectors View full abstract»

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  • Multiuser receivers for code-division multiple-access systems with trellis-based modulation

    Page(s): 1602 - 1609
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    A code-division multiple-access (CDMA) communication system is studied where a trellis-based scheme is used for data encoding and modulation. The signature sequences (spreading codes), which are assigned to the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS/SS) modulator according to the encoding rule, are taken from a biorthogonal set. We derive the optimum detector by maximizing the likelihood ratio. In addition to the optimum multiuser detector with very high computational complexity, we present a multistage detector and a scheme based on a reduced tree search algorithm. The error probability is evaluated by deriving upper and lower bounds as well as by Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the optimum receiver is near-far resistant. The results from the numerical examples indicate that the suboptimum detectors are also capable of alleviating the near-far problem View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT