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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 82
  • A method for robust decoding of erroneous MPEG-2 video bitstreams

    Page(s): 411 - 421
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2028 KB)  

    A robust algorithm for source decoding of MPEG-2 video bitstreams not entirely free of transmission errors is presented. The proposed scheme does not assume any side information from a channel decoder to assist the detection and localization of errors, i.e. it only refers to the video bitstream. Different methods are used to act on errors detected during decoding of the block and macroblock layer, to localize corrupted image regions and to replace them by error concealment are described. They are compared by objective and subjective results of decoder simulations. Furthermore, the steps necessary for robust synchronization at the slice layer and for a reliable evaluation of higher layer headers and extensions are explained View full abstract»

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  • Digital bit stream generator for testing MPEG video decoders

    Page(s): 422 - 430
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    The successful implementation of the MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) video compression standard has made digital video decoders a cost effective reality for consumer electronic applications. Development of these applications necessitated the design of a test system to ensure the functionality, reliability, and quality of the video decoder. One area of consumer electronics which utilizes MPEG video decoding are the DBS (digital broadcast satellite) system receivers. We present an MPEG video decoder test system for a DBS system receiver. The test system is capable of transmitting a variety of MPEG encoded bit streams to a DBS receiver to test the video decoder View full abstract»

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  • Secure progressive transmission of compressed images

    Page(s): 504 - 512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB)  

    In most progressive image coding techniques the compressed data vary in importance for reconstructing the original image. Obtaining certain parts of these data by an eavesdropper could reveal significant information about the transmitted or stored image. In this paper different encryption methods to secure the transmission or storage of such data are proposed and evaluated. The methods are chosen in a manner that allows high encryption and decryption rates, simple key management and utilization of widely available encryption algorithms such as the DES (data encryption standard). Effects of channel noise on the encrypted data are also considered and a modification of these methods to combat channel errors is also proposed and evaluated View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic drum (DD) tracking system for consumer VCRs

    Page(s): 583 - 591
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)  

    A development concept, an outline of mechanism and control system, and applications of a dynamic drum (DD) tracking system enabling noise-free variable speed playback for consumer VCRs are discussed. The DD system does not simply move the heads, but controls the entire drum to comprise a tracking method completely different from earlier systems. The lower drum is divided into tape sliding and lead sections, and the construction enable the relative inclination of the lead and head trace. During variable speed playback, so as to align the head trace with the recorded track, the overall drum inclination is precisely controlled View full abstract»

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  • Improving an OFDM reception using an adaptive Nyquist windowing

    Page(s): 259 - 269
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)  

    This paper explains how a windowing of the OFDM-signal in the time domain contributes to its improved reception. The windowing uses the part of the guard interval that is not disturbed by multipath reception. The length of the window adapts to the transmission conditions. This window may be realized with a raised cosine or other kind of function that fulfils the Nyquist criterion. An easy way to implement the windowing while keeping the FFT complexity low is also shown. The impact of windowing for discrete sine spurious, white noise, phase noise and frequency deviations is also given. OFDM is of interest in terrestrial broadcasting View full abstract»

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  • Low power design for MPEG-2 video decoder

    Page(s): 513 - 521
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    The I/O power consumption in an MPEG-2 decoder is significant because of the wide connection with large capacitances to the frame buffer. To reduce the power dissipation on the memory bus, the Gray code encoding scheme is proposed to increase the correlation of the image data transferred on the bus. The bit switching probability in the re-coded data will then decrease and in turn the bus power consumption will be reduced. Combined with the proposed bus arbitration and scheduling scheme proposed in this paper, 22% reduction of power dissipation may be achieved View full abstract»

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  • Using IVDS and VBI for interactive television

    Page(s): 657 - 666
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    The system architecture for the IVDS/VBI interactive system consists of a set top box, a base receiver station (BRS), a data server and a VBI server. The Set top strips data from the incoming television signal and processes it accordingly. The set top supports all the functionality of a cable converter unit in addition to VGA computer graphics and composite video capabilities. The interactive data service display uses standard hypertext marking language (HTML) display definitions. This is the same capability used in defining Internet Web pages. These HTML files are displayed and interacted through a “browser” which translates the HTML files into visual displays and translates mouse activity into system events to be acted upon. The browser is similar to many of the existing World Wide Web browsers that are publicly available View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive decision feedback equalizer using error feedback

    Page(s): 468 - 477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    The decision feedback equalizer (DFE) can compensate for channels with severe intersymbol interference (ISI) without as much noise enhancement as the linear equalizer (LE). We propose a new DFE which can increase the performance of the DFE further by using error feedback. The performance increase is achieved by reducing the error signal correlation (using an error feedback filter), which cannot be reduced by the feedforward or feedback filter. The hardware complexity for the proposed approach is minimal since it requires only the addition of a few taps to the conventional DFE. Based on theoretical analysis and computer simulations, the proposed approach is shown to be much more effective than the conventional DFE, especially for channels with large ISI and small AWGN View full abstract»

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  • COFDM-6 field tests

    Page(s): 270 - 273
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    Field tests carried out by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) with a prototype COFDM modem for advanced TV in North America have confirmed the suitability of the COFDM technique for digital television broadcasting in a 6 MHz terrestrial channel View full abstract»

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  • Consumer displays of the future

    Page(s): 573 - 576
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    New display technologies are challenging the CRT for different markets. These are both direct view as well as projection displays. This paper will review these options and describe their advantages and disadvantages for different applications View full abstract»

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  • Embedded pilot tracking tone generation for digital VCRs

    Page(s): 592 - 598
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)  

    Pilot tracking tones are used to derive head position reference information in camcorders and DVCRs. A simple pilot tone encoder has been designed by using a new approach called the “calculate-and-correct” method, in which encoding is performed by assuming that all the control bits are 0s and then the results are corrected if necessary. Owing to this method, the hardware size can be significantly reduced while a low clock rate of 41.85 MHz is used. The correctness of the method has been verified by theoretical analysis and by extensive simulation View full abstract»

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  • Architecture of MPEG-2 digital set-top-box for CATV VOD system

    Page(s): 667 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    We describe an MPEG-2 compliant VOD (video on demand) terminal (e.g. set-top-box) developed for field trial purposes. The hardware architecture of the set-top-box is discussed with emphasis on the graphics system which integrates the MPEG-2 format video, computer graphics and NTSC analog format video. A key point in the implementation of this architecture is the development of a clock rate conversion circuit. The set-top-box contains a one-chip MPEG-2 decoder View full abstract»

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  • An edge-preserving image interpolation system for a digital camcorder

    Page(s): 279 - 284
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)  

    Conventional image interpolation techniques degrade the quality of the magnified image due to various artifacts, such as, blocking artifact and excessive smoothing. Those degradations become worse as the magnification ratio increases and there also exists a tradeoff between reducing the blocking artifact and excessive smoothness. An image interpolation system, which provides more naturally magnified images than the conventional ones, is proposed. The system preserves the original edge while not destroying the smoothness in the flat area. The hardware structure of the proposed system is also proposed View full abstract»

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  • Digital modulation method for recordable digital video disc

    Page(s): 820 - 825
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    This paper describes a modulation method suitable for high-density recording on an optical disc. This method, called 8-15 modulation method, is based on an 8-15 channel coding with longer minimum interval between transitions and an efficient DC component suppressing method. The maximum and minimum intervals between transitions of the 8-15 channel code achieve the theoretical limits for conversion of an 8-bit data word to a 15-bit codeword. The DC component suppressing method which adds several redundant bits to the 8-15 channel code, can suppress the low-frequency components of the channel bit stream. These features allow this method to extend the minimum interval between transitions and window margin by 5%, compared with EFMPlus. Additionally, this paper proposes a data format suitable for using the 8-15 modulation method and RS product code as the modulation method and error correcting code, respectively View full abstract»

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  • NTSC TV receiver performance with upper adjacent channel ATV interference

    Page(s): 710 - 715
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    Interference effects in NTSC TV receivers in the presence of strong upper adjacent channel ATV signals are examined as affecting picture, chroma, and sound performance. The receiver's adjacent channel response determines the magnitude of the exhibited interference View full abstract»

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  • A new intensity stereo coding scheme for MPEG1 audio encoder-layers I and II

    Page(s): 535 - 539
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    In the MPEG 1 audio compression standard, the intensity stereo coding scheme is a key technology to achieve a bit rate lower than 2×128 kbit/s for stereophonic signals while preserving the high audio quality. However, the intensity coding scheme has difficulties in the signal cancellation and scale-factor consistency. This paper shows that the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) transform can be applied to the intensity coding for solving the two problems. We present two methods used to implement the Karhunen-Loeve transform in the MPEG 1 layers I and II. Among the two methods, one is fully compatible with the MPEG 1 while the other need a slight modification on the MPEG coding process. The two methods are tested and shown to have a better audio quality than the technique indicated by the MPEG 1 layers I and II View full abstract»

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  • A system for consumer-use digital VCR

    Page(s): 274 - 278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    We have developed a system for digital camcorders based on the `specifications of consumer use digital VCRs'. LSIs for 3-CCD camera signal processing, video compression and data processing are developed to realize high quality recording and playback. A digital interface based on the IEEE 1394 standard is installed in our system. We also developed a mechanism with a volume of about 40% of that for 8 mm camcorders. With the LSIs and the mechanism we can realize high quality consumer-use digital camcorders View full abstract»

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  • Accelerated wear characteristics of video heads in a helical scan system

    Page(s): 847 - 850
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    Abrasive Al2O3 tape is used to accelerate wear of video recording heads in consumer helical scan video recorders. The development of the wear scar is studied as a function of time and the increase in the length of the wear scar is measured using optical microscopy. Changes in longitudinal and transverse head radii are determined as a function of time and the dependence of head wear on head position in the scanner window is studied. The results show that the use of abrasive tape is an efficient tool in the acceleration of wear of helical scan heads View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of a visual telephone prototyping on personal computers

    Page(s): 750 - 759
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)  

    An investigation of a visual telephone prototyping is presented. All the related standards such as system requirements, video codec, and speech codec are introduced. Since the most time-consuming task is video encoding, more details about the H.263 video codec standard are explained. In addition, the strategies for real-time transmission and processing are discussed. From the simulation results, the suggested prototype on personal computers shows the potential on multimedia communication for consumer products View full abstract»

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  • A mode-changeable 2-D DCT/IDCT processor for digital VCR

    Page(s): 606 - 616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB)  

    In a digital VCR, the DCT/IDCT is performed by both the 8×8 mode and the 2×4×8 mode to improve the coding efficiency. A new 2-D DCT/IDCT processor which requires minimal hardware overhead for 8×8/2×4×8 mode change for a digital VCR is presented. The proposed DCT/TDCT processor uses a concurrent architecture and executes both the DCT and IDCT with 8×8 and 2×4×8 mode selection. This chip is implemented on the basis of the row-column decomposition scheme. The proposed architecture minimizes the hardware overhead for the 2×4×8 mode by sharing the same data path with the 8×8 mode as much as possible. The proposed architecture also reduces the hardware and the chip size by exploiting the table look-up method instead of the extra multiplication circuits in the weighting coefficients handling. The implemented DCT/IDCT processor satisfies the accuracy specification of digital VCR View full abstract»

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  • Development of an adjustment free audio tuner IC

    Page(s): 328 - 334
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    We have developed a Bi CMOS tuner IC utilizing an adjustment free, digital delay, FM detector and an adjustment free stereo multiplex (MPX) voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit that requires no external parts View full abstract»

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  • Integrated multistandard modulator with PLL tuning

    Page(s): 522 - 525
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    For all video and sound modulation purposes in video recorders, cable converters, satellite receivers and all multimedia sets a multistandard modulator IC was designed using bipolar RF technology. The programmable multistandard modulator IC which covers the frequency range from 30 up to 1000 MHz was developed to fulfil all requirements for video and sound FM and AM modulation. All adjustments and the tuning of the sound carrier and RF VCO are done via the I2C bus View full abstract»

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  • An efficient JPEG to MPEG-1 transcoding algorithm

    Page(s): 447 - 457
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    From the view points of media editing, it is desired that pictures in an video sequence could be coded in a picture-by-picture sense. But, in order to increase the compression ratio, the temporal correlation among pictures must be taken into account. Instead of using JPEG or MPEG alone, a transform-domain transcoding approach is proposed to achieve the above goal. Based on the proposed transcoding algorithm, a low-cost and low-bit-rate editing system, which produces MPEG-1 decodable bitstreams, has been constructed View full abstract»

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  • Analog fuzzy implementation of a perceptual classifier for videophone sequences

    Page(s): 787 - 794
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)  

    In this paper we describe the implementation of a perceptual classifier for image coding. A fully-programmable analog fuzzy circuit is used to compute the relevance coefficient for each block of a single frame in order to maximize the quality of the image according to a perceptive model of the human visual system. The application of the proposed system to a generic H.261 coder is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Interoperability of the Grand Alliance HDTV system with ATM networks

    Page(s): 623 - 631
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)  

    This paper describes three experiments that were conducted as supplementary field tests of the Digital Grand Alliance HDTV system. They were performed to test the feasibility of ATM network transport of the MPEG-2 based digital HDTV bit stream. The MPEG-2 transport stream (TS) and its mapping into asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) cells are succinctly described as background for the description of the experiments. Three experiments are then described, including the successful transport of the digital HDTV bit stream through more than 510 miles of fiber optic transmission and the equivalent of six ATM switches in tandem View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
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