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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Aug. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 41
  • Near-field to near/far-field transformation for arbitrary near-field geometry, utilizing an equivalent magnetic current

    Page(s): 536 - 542
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB)  

    A method is presented for computing near- and far-field patterns of an antenna from its near-field measurements taken over an arbitrary geometry. This method utilizes near-field data to determine an equivalent magnetic current source over a fictitious surface which encompasses the antenna. This magnetic current, once determined, can be used to ascertain the near and the far fields. This method demonstrates that once the values of the electromagnetic field are known over an arbitrary geometry, its values for any other region can be obtained. An electric field integral equation is developed to relate the near fields to the equivalent magnetic current. A moment method procedure is employed to solve the integral equation by transforming it into a matrix equation. A least squares solution via singular value decomposition is used to solve the matrix equation. Computations with both synthetic and experimental data, where the near field of several antenna configurations are measured over various geometric surfaces, illustrate the accuracy of this method. View full abstract»

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  • A moment method solution for TMz and TEz waves illuminating two-dimensional objects above a lossy half space

    Page(s): 433 - 440
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    A moment method (MM) solution for analyzing the electromagnetic shielding and scattering properties of two-dimensional (2-D) objects over a lossy half space is presented. The materials of the objects can be metal, dielectric, or magnetic. Also, the lossy half space is included to simulate the effects of the earth ground or any flat homogeneous lossy surface. An MM based on a volume formulation and a special Green's function in the spectral domain is developed. Both TM z and TEz waves incident upon 2-D metal or lossy material structures are demonstrated for the shielding effects of those bodies in the presence of the lossy ground. Besides, the echo widths of a composite object either in free space or above the lossy half space are determined by using the MM. Some of the results are compared with those by other methods, and good agreements are obtained. The MM solution can be used to study the shielding and scattering problems for cylindrical structures located over a lossy ground View full abstract»

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  • Induced voltage on an overhead wire associated with inclined return-stroke channel-model experiment on finitely conductive ground

    Page(s): 507 - 513
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    Experiments on the lightning-induced voltage waveforms on an overhead wire influenced by an inclined return-stroke channel are carried out outdoors with a reduced-scale model. The measured voltages are compared with those calculated by solving the Telegrapher's equation in combination with numerical calculation of electric fields associated with return-stroke currents, and the validity of the calculations is verified. The effect of the ground conductivity on the lightning-induced voltage waveform is studied based on numerical calculations and is found to be dependent on the position of the return-stroke channel relative to the overhead wire. When a return stroke hits the ground close to the end of the overhead wire, the influence of the ground conductivity on the induced voltage waveform is significant irrespective of the inclination or the direction of the lightning channel. The degree of the influence is dependent on the inclination and the direction of the channel when a return stroke hits the ground on the side of the overhead wire View full abstract»

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  • Penetration of a low-frequency H-wave into a conducting circular cylinder

    Page(s): 441 - 449
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    We study the progressive penetration of current in a circular cylinder immersed in an H-wave. The material of the cylinder is a nonmagnetic good conductor, and we consider frequencies extending from zero to the low “resonance” region. We examine the evolution of quantities such as the fields at the surface of the cylinder, the scattering cross sections, and the Joule losses. Particular attention is devoted to the limits of small and deep penetrations, for which suitable approximation formulas are derived View full abstract»

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  • An approximate formula for the calculation of the horizontal electric field from lightning at close, intermediate, and long range

    Page(s): 531 - 535
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    We present an approximate formula to calculate the horizontal electric field from lightning that is applicable for close, intermediate, and long distances to the lightning, at ground level and at a height above ground. The formula is analytically simple and can be readily implemented for numerical calculations in the frequency and in the time domains. The formula can be particularly useful for lightning induced voltage calculations. A test of the formula by comparison with the results obtained using good approximations to Sommerfeld's integrals is presented. The results compare favorably for a wide range of distances. Theoretical waveforms obtained with a return stroke model and the formula predict that, for negative ground lightning, the horizontal component of the electric field at close range and at a height of a few meters above the ground starts with a sharp pulse directed toward the lightning channel and is followed by a slower field change of opposite polarity View full abstract»

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  • Principles of power-frequency magnetic field shielding with flat sheets in a source of long conductors

    Page(s): 450 - 459
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    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a two dimensional (2-D) model of power-frequency magnetic field shielding. It consists of multiple linear and conducting layers, as well as multiple current-carrying conductors. Explicit expressions for magnetic field and power loss are deduced by solving diffusion equations using the method of variable separation. They are verified by experimental results of magnetic field shielding with both aluminum and magnetic material shields. Shielding principles taking into account geometric and material parameters (e.g., relative permeability, conductivity, thickness, etc.) are presented based on the simplification of closed-form expressions. Those general shielding principles are applicable when the shield is sufficiently large. The derived shielding principles are used to address practical design issues of power-frequency magnetic field shielding. Conclusions regarding material selection, location, and current circulation are obtained. They can be applied in practical shielding design if sources are lines, bus bars, cables, or any other long current-carrying conductors in power systems View full abstract»

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  • Signal processing in active shielding and direction-finding techniques

    Page(s): 334 - 340
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    On the basis of the analogy between time and space sampling electrical emitters can be identified and localized. The traditional method of screening (passive shielding) and the new technique (active shielding), based on the generation of interference signals capable of creating screening barriers, are compared. By using signal processing techniques the minimization of the mean square error (MSE), taken as the optimality criterion, shows that active screening has performance comparable with passive screening, as long as interference signals are related to the signals which one wants to protect View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical assessment of bulk current injection versus radiation

    Page(s): 469 - 477
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    Field excitation and bulk current injection (BCI) on a wire bundle are analytically compared. The equivalence of the two excitation techniques is investigated in order to ascertain the validity of using current injection testing rather than radiated immunity testing for an equipment connected at one end of the bundle. The wire bundle is modeled as a multiconductor transmission line which, throughout the analysis, is treated as a multiport device. The equivalence is discussed by comparing the effects that the sources produce at the terminal ports, with the aim to control the clamp voltage in order to match the incident field characteristics. This approach yields general results, which are not affected by any assumptions on the terminal networks. It is shown that one injection probe is not sufficient to assure the equivalence in the general case, but it is possible, although practically difficult, to achieve this result by employing two injection probes. In the simpler but more specific case of linear terminations, a test procedure is proposed which allows equivalence by using a single injection current probe. Since the ideal BCI procedure must represent a worst-case stress analysis for the equipment under test, the possibility of adopting BCI tests to reproduce the upper envelope of the radiation-induced currents is also investigated. In this case practical difficulties are evidenced and arise from the need of feeding the injection probes with a complicated frequency-dependent power distribution View full abstract»

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  • A full-wave characterization of an interconnecting line printed on a dielectric slab backed by a gridded ground plane

    Page(s): 237 - 243
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    The electromagnetic behavior of a planar structure formed by a conducting strip printed on a dielectric slab backed by a gridded ground plane is analyzed in order to outline the characteristics of this type of interconnect often used in microwave integrated circuits and digital applications. A two-port equivalent model, based on the Z-matrix network representation, is adopted to study the electrical properties of the structure. The Z-parameters have been determined by means of a full-wave spectral domain methodology. Numerical results concerning the properties of this type of interconnect for different grid geometries are presented, and the effects related to the radiation from the strip and the gridded ground plane are pointed out View full abstract»

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  • Numerical modeling for LEMP effect evaluation inside a telecommunication exchange

    Page(s): 265 - 273
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    This paper presents a numerical modeling method developed for evaluating electromagnetic (EM) interference on the equipment inside a telecommunication exchange caused by a direct lightning stroke to a telecommunication tower close (i.e., a few meters) to the exchange building. Considering two different bonding configurations, EM interference is evaluated by calculating the electrical parameters: the EM fields, voltages, and currents. A special method of moment (MOM) wire-grid procedure using “dipole” and “loop” type basis and test functions was used as a numerical tool. A simple model was also developed for simulating the equipment mechanical structures which modify the field distribution inside the building. The voltages and currents induced on shielded cables were evaluated by means of a mixed technique, where the MOM procedure is combined with a SPICE analysis. Numerical modeling was used for two different situations: to simulate some experimental tests carried out in the field, where a 1.6 kA lightning current of a pulse generator was injected on the top of the 25 m high telecommunication tower close to a small exchange building; and to calculate the same parameters when a real lightning current strikes the telecommunication tower View full abstract»

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  • FDTD modeling of common-mode radiation from cables

    Page(s): 376 - 387
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    Radiation from cables attached to printed circuit boards and shielding enclosures is among the primary concerns in meeting FCC Class A and B limits. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method can be employed to model radiation from printed circuit boards and shielding enclosures with complex geometries, but difficulties in modeling wires and cables of arbitrary radii are encountered. Modeling the wire by setting the axial component of the electric field to zero in the FDTD method results in an effective wire radius that is determined by the mesh discretization. Neglecting the wire radius in applications, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or printed circuit board modeling, may result in gross errors because near-field quantities are typically sensitive to wire thickness. Taflove et al. (1988) have developed a subcellular FDTD algorithm for modeling wires that has been shown to work well for plane wave scattering. The method uses a quasistatic field approximation to model wires with a well defined radius independent of the mesh dimensions. The wire model is reviewed and investigated for application to common-mode radiation from cables attached to printed circuit boards, where the source is often a noise voltage at the connector. Also investigated is energy coupling to attached cables through enclosure apertures resulting in common-mode radiation from the cable. The input impedance for a center-fed dipole antenna, as well as a monopole connected to a conducting half-sheet, is computed with FDTD methods and compared to moment method input impedance results. A simulation of a shielding enclosure with an attached cable demonstrates the utility of FDTD analysis in modeling common-mode radiation View full abstract»

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  • A three-loop antenna system for performing near-field measurements of electric and magnetic fields from video display terminals

    Page(s): 341 - 347
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    This paper discusses the use of a three-loop antenna system (TLAS) for near-field measurement of electric and magnetic fields from video display terminals (VDTs). We calculated the electric and magnetic dipole moments to derive the electric and magnetic field patterns in the near field region. Electric and magnetic fields, emitted by several different models of VDTs, were evaluated with the TLAS and were compared with those measured by conventional electric and magnetic field probes at different distances and directions from VDTs. A good correlation (±1.6 dB) between the two measurement techniques was found. This agreement is within the accuracy (±2 dB) of the conventional field probe measurements View full abstract»

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  • A novel summation approach in technique to find the transient response

    Page(s): 542 - 545
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    A pulse is developed by discharging an initially charged lossless transmission line through a load, as shown. A novel summation variation on the usual computation by multiple reflections of the transient response for a realistically modeled pulse generator loaded with different kinds of loads is described. This constitutes an alternative method for evaluation of the inverse Laplace transform applicable for general lumped loads. As examples, we employ this approach to calculate the transient voltage response for a constant resistance and a parallel RC combination loads. The results obtained using this technique are compared with those obtained by superposition of multiple reflections View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of crosstalk and field coupling to lossy MTLs in a SPICE environment

    Page(s): 221 - 229
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    This paper proposes a circuit model for lossy multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs) suitable for implementation in modern SPICE simulators, as well as in any simulator supporting differential operators. The model includes the effects of a uniform or nonuniform disturbing field illuminating the line and is especially devised for the transient simulation of electrically long wideband interconnects with frequency dependent per-unit-length parameters. The MTL is characterized by its transient matched scattering responses, which are computed including both dc and skin losses by means of a specific algorithm for the inversion of the Laplace transform. The line characteristics are then represented in terms of differential operators and ideal delays to improve the numerical efficiency and to simplify the coding of the model in existing simulators. The model can be successfully applied to many kinds of interconnects ranging from micrometric high-resistivity metallizations to low-loss PCBs and cables, and can be considered a practical extension of the widely appreciated lossless MTL SPICE model, which maintains the simplicity and efficiency View full abstract»

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  • On the coupling of energy in parallel plane waveguides

    Page(s): 513 - 518
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    Many EM phenomena may be framed in the context of the excitation and propagation of waves between parallel conducting planes at frequencies below f0 where only the TEM or “zero” mode propagates. For a localized source, propagation is in the radial TEM mode, described by Hankel functions, with E and H decreasing much slower in the far field (r-1/2) than free-space radiation (r -1). The excitation of these waves has frequently been underestimated. Source currents below the TEM cutoff frequency f0 couple capacitively, with a coupling factor determined by a simple distance ratio. Higher frequency sources are more complex, but computer analysis shows that rapid transients launch wavelets whose frequency is somewhat below f0 to satisfy quasistatic boundary conditions, with total energy comparable to that “radiated” at the source frequencies. The combination of strong coupling and slow decrease with distance may help explain “anomalously” large EM signals over a broad range of frequencies and geometric scales, from ELF energy between the Earth and ionosphere which may sustain for milliseconds the mesospheric optical emissions known as “red sprites” to VHF energy in portable electronic devices (PEDs) which may have sometimes interfered with avionic systems. The coupling of energy into the boundaries is thought to be due largely to excess charge momentarily released into the conductors by passing wavelets View full abstract»

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  • Controlling radiated emission from a physically large telecommunication system

    Page(s): 290 - 299
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    This paper deals with the problems that arise when physically large systems, such as a digital switching exchange for high speed broadband applications, must be tested in order to comply with the EN 55022 standard for radiated emission. Simple closed formulas to predict radiated emissions from elementary sources, such as tracks in PCBs, cables, and small apertures, are outlined with their limits of application and verified by measurements. An analysis of the radiation patterns of simple structures and complex systems is also given View full abstract»

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  • Transient emission from microstrip interconnects: theoretical formulation and CAD modeling

    Page(s): 367 - 375
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    A hybrid technique suitable for the space-time analysis of the transient spurious emission from microstrip interconnects is presented. The proposed technique requires the preliminary evaluation of the surface current excited on the microstrip interconnecting lines by means of a transmission line model accounting for dispersive effects. The radiated field is then computed in the frequency domain by applying the saddle-point asymptotic technique to the integral expression of the electric field involving the dyadic Green's function. The transient signals excited along the interconnects, and the corresponding radiated field, are finally determined by using the IFFT. Radiation mechanisms are investigated, and the influence of the structure's electrical and geometrical parameters is discussed View full abstract»

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  • A circuit model for mutual coupling analysis of a finite antenna array

    Page(s): 483 - 489
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    Mutual coupling effects within an antenna array play a very important role in the areas of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) and antenna array design. A circuit model is developed to represent the input admittance of an antenna array with a finite number of elements. This model consists of a component to represent the input admittance of an isolated antenna element and infinite shunt components with each to represent different degrees of antenna mutual coupling effects. Twersky's (1952) algorithm of multiple scattering analysis is used to illustrate the physical meaning of each circuit component. Numerical results show that good accuracy for the antenna input admittance calculation can be obtained by using this model to the second order approximation. As the array is large and sparse, a very small amount of computation can yield good accuracy. This model is shown not only to be numerically efficient compared to the full wave analysis using the moment method, but also to give a physical insight into the antenna array mutual coupling mechanism. Furthermore, this model has no limitation on antenna array geometry and excitation View full abstract»

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  • ESD indirect coupling modeling

    Page(s): 274 - 281
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    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) indirect coupling on electronic equipment is theoretically and experimentally investigated considering the effects for three typical structures: a coaxial cable, a multilayer PCB, and a metallic enclosure. The analytical approach is based on classical electromagnetic theory and is developed in a simple way that is easy to apply and accurate enough to give the designer a reliable estimation of the interference produced by an ESD event View full abstract»

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  • EMC characterization of SMPS devices: circuit and radiated emissions model

    Page(s): 300 - 309
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    Since the efficiency of switched mode power supplies (SMPS) is much higher than that of linear power supplies, this type of supply has gained favor among designers and manufacturers. Switching frequencies extend from tens to hundreds of kilohertz with the result that radiation from circuits carrying switched current is becoming more of a problem. This paper addresses the modeling of the converter section of an SMPS in order to calculate the current distribution and the radiated electromagnetic field. The inhomogeneities in the circuit are by equivalent electrical parameters and a technique is introduced to take into account the fictitious effects on radiation due to the electrostatic terms in the dipole equations. The global approach is validated by comparison of the computed results with those measured for a simple and clearly arranged SMPS experimental setup View full abstract»

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  • FDTD analysis of lossy, multiconductor transmission lines terminated in arbitrary loads

    Page(s): 388 - 399
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    A hybrid method is presented for incorporating general terminations into the solution of lossy multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs). The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general characterization of dynamic as well as nonlinear elements in the termination networks. The method combines the second-order accuracy of the finite difference-time domain (FDTD) algorithm for the MTL with the absolutely stable, backward Euler discretization of the state-variable representations of the termination networks. A compact matrix formulation of the recursion relations at the interface between the MTL and the termination networks allows a straightforward coding of the algorithm. Skin effect losses of the line conductors as well as the effect of an incident field are easily incorporated into the algorithm. Several numerical examples are given which contain dynamic and nonlinear elements in the terminations. These examples demonstrate the validity of the method and show that the temporal and spatial step sizes can be maximized, thereby minimizing the computational burden View full abstract»

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  • Reverberating chambers as sources of stochastic electromagnetic fields

    Page(s): 348 - 356
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    Reverberating chambers are of recognized relevance in many EMC applications since they allow us to generate a reference electromagnetic statistical field. This paper investigates the electromagnetic field in reverberating chambers. Reverberating chambers are large overmoded cavities wherein a nonstationary electromagnetic field is present. This electromagnetic field is stochastic in nature; therefore, proper analytical tools need to be considered in order to characterize it. We deal with the theoretical aspects related to the characterization of the electromagnetic field inside the chamber and with the application to the case of the reverberating chamber of the Istituto Universitario Navale View full abstract»

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  • Accurate analysis of TEM horn antennas for pulse radiation

    Page(s): 414 - 423
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    In the past, various approximate theoretical models have been used to analyze TEM horn antennas. Because of the limitations of these approximate models, there has been, to date, only qualitative agreement of measurements for TEM horn antennas with the predictions of the theories. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to accurately analyze TEM horn antennas for pulse radiation. First, the metallic triangular-plate TEM horn antenna is considered. Computed results for the reflected voltage in the feeding transmission line and the time-varying radiated electric field are shown to be in very good agreement with new experimental measurements. Graphs of the electric field in the space surrounding the antenna (magnitude of field plotted on a color scale) are used to give a physical insight into the process of radiation. Next, the method is used to analyze two TEM horns that were previously designed for pulse radiation. The geometry and electrical properties of these antennas are more complicated than for the metallic, triangular-plate horn. One has shaped metallic plates with a resistive termination at the open end; the other has plates whose resistance varies continuously along their length. The computed results for these antennas are compared with previously made experimental measurements View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic field attenuation of nonlinear shields

    Page(s): 318 - 326
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    The analysis of shielding performance of planar shields against near field sources is carried out in the time domain to account for the nonlinear behavior of ferromagnetic materials used in low frequency applications. To this end, the Schelkunoff approach for shielding problems has been reformulated in the time domain introducing the transient wave impedances which relates transient electric and magnetic field components and appear in the integrodifferential boundary conditions. The final equation system is solved by means of a numerical procedure based on the finite element method. The obtained results are compared with analytical and measured data in different configurations View full abstract»

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  • Spectral theory of a semi-infinite transmission line over a ground plane

    Page(s): 230 - 236
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    The electromagnetic modeling of wave propagation along a semi-infinite wire with ground return is addressed. External excitation, via plane wave is considered. Both wire and ground plane are assumed to be perfect conductors. Through a spectral approach, a one-port Thevenin model of the structure, valid for any distance between wire and ground, is developed. Such a model allows to evaluate rigorously the limits and the accuracy of the transmission line (TL) equations View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch