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Computer

Issue 7 • Date July 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
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  • Cafe: The right place for Java [product reviews]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Will your IP protection provide the protection you expect

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    Companies protect their intellectual property (IP) in a variety of ways. They can use copyrights, trademarks, patents or a combination. Each provides certain types of protection for certain types of IP under certain circumstances. The Mitel company put its command codes for its call controller in its copyrighted programming manual. Iqtel used these codes to be compatible. Iqtel was supported by the courts on the basis of fair use View full abstract»

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  • Dynamically generated follow-up questions

    Page(s): 75 - 86
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    Automatic text generators are at the heart of systems that provide users with information. The trick is getting the system to answer follow-up questions as naturally as possible. We have devised a direct manipulation interface that treats system-generated texts as structured objects that users can manipulate. With our interface, users select the portions of system-generated text that they don't understand or want more information about, and the system provides a menu of questions to ask. Question menus, generated on the fly, take into account the user model, underlying knowledge base(s), and the prior discourse context View full abstract»

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  • Interactive spoken-language processing in a hybrid connectionist system

    Page(s): 65 - 74
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    Our SCREEN (Symbolic Connectionist Robust Enterprise for Natural Language) system analyzes real-world utterances and can be used for relatively large and complex tasks. SCREEN learns a robust flat syntax, semantics, and pragmatics representation. The system also deals with uncommon syntactic and semantic language irregularities. The system is able to produce many utterance hypotheses based on spoken input and can determine which hypotheses are most likely. SCREEN's ability to analyze spoken language, despite encountering mistakes and uncertainties, demonstrates the system's robustness and potential. Because SCREEN is a German spoken-language system, the example of spoken language that we analyze is in German. We provide a literal and, where appropriate, a more easily understood English translation of any German words and sentences that we use View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge elicitation for authoring patent claims

    Page(s): 57 - 63
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    Interactive elicitation techniques let us readily acquire knowledge about different domains. When these techniques are coupled with text generation, we can ultimately simplify text composition tasks faced by all sorts of professionals View full abstract»

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  • Computer communications TC

    Page(s): 99 - 100
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    To fully realise the promise of emerging high speed networks we need: high bandwidth applications; networking standards; and networking services based on those standards. Two service models are being pursued to support high speed multimedia applications: IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode). The authors compare these models. They then discusses the future activities of the Computer Communications Technical Committee in this regard View full abstract»

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  • Protecting ownership rights through digital watermarking

    Page(s): 101 - 103
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    The Internet revolution is now in full swing, and commercial interests abound. As with other maturing media technologies, the focus is moving from technology to content, as commercial vendors and developers try to use network technology to deliver media products for profit. This shift inevitably raises questions about how to protect ownership rights. Digital watermarking has been proposed as a way to identify the source, creator, owner, distributor, or authorized consumer of a document or image. Its objective is to permanently and unalterably mark the image so that the credit or assignment is beyond dispute. In the event of illicit use, the watermark would facilitate the claim of ownership, the receipt of copyright revenues, or successful prosecution. Watermarking has also been proposed for tracing images that have been illicitly redistributed. In the past, the infeasibility of large-scale photocopying and distribution often limited copyright infringement, but modern digital networks make large-scale dissemination simple and inexpensive. Digital watermarking allows each image to be uniquely marked for every buyer. If that buyer makes an illicit copy, the copy itself identifies the buyer as the source View full abstract»

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  • Interactive translation of conversational speech

    Page(s): 41 - 48
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    As communication becomes increasingly automated and transnational, the need for rapid, computer-aided speech translation grows. The Janus-II system uses paraphrasing and interactive error correction to boost performance. Janus-II operates on spontaneous conversational human dialogue in limited domains with vocabularies of 3,000 or more words. Current experiments involve 10,000 to 40,000 word vocabularies. It now accepts English, German, Japanese, Spanish, and Korean input, which it translates into any other of these languages. Beyond translating syntactically well-formed speech or carefully structured human-to-machine speech utterances, Janus-II research has focused on the more difficult task of translating spontaneous conversational speech between humans. This naturally requires a suitable database and task domain View full abstract»

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  • SpeechActs: a spoken-language framework

    Page(s): 33 - 40
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    SpeechActs is a prototype testbed for developing spoken natural language applications. In developing SpeechActs, our primary goal was to enable software developers without special expertise in speech or natural language to create effective conversational speech applications-that is, applications with which users can speak naturally, as if they were conversing with a personal assistant. We also wanted SpeechActs applications to work with one another without requiring that each have specific knowledge of other applications running in the same suite. A discourse management component is necessary to embody the information that allows such a natural conversational flow. Because technology changes so rapidly, we also did not want to tie developers to specific speech recognizers or synthesizers. We wanted them to be able to use these speech technologies as plug-in components View full abstract»

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  • Alice in Wired World: wonderland or wasteland?

    Page(s): 17 - 19
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    As the global consumer continues to pour money into PC and Internet-based businesses, content providers are quickly falling behind in providing good programming. There are very few creative, interesting, or innovative Web pages on the Internet and even fewer clever uses of intranetworked computers. The paper considers how transaction costs for Internet purchases must come down View full abstract»

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  • Reality: a cousin twice removed [object technology]

    Page(s): 96 - 97
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    Reasoning too much in terms of the real world can actually be detrimental to software quality. What matters is not how closely we model today's reality but how extensible and reusable our software is, so it can be adapted to a new or changed reality. The paper considers how reusability and extensibility are object technology's central goals. Object technology is not about modeling the real world. Object technology is about producing quality software, and the way to obtain this is to devise the right abstractions, whether or not they model what someone sees as the reality View full abstract»

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  • The Computer Dictionary Project: an update

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    Since the mid-1980s, the IEEE Computer Society's Computer Dictionary Project has served the society, the IEEE, and computer professionals throughout the world by producing glossaries of computer-related terminology. The project's working group has finished one glossary for each of 10 computer science areas: the mathematics of computing, computer applications, modeling and simulation, image processing and pattern recognition, data management, computer graphics, computer networking, computer hardware, software engineering, and computer languages. A glossary with terms pertaining to artificial intelligence and robotics and another with terms pertaining to computer security and privacy are awaiting final approval and are scheduled to be published later. The working group is still studying terms pertaining to computation theory. The Computer Dictionary Project's work helps provide the type of clear, consistent terminology that clarifies definitions, standardizes term usage, and facilitates communication between computer professionals. The project's work attracts a particularly wide readership because the glossaries' 10,000 terms and definitions also appear in the popular IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. Like all IEEE standards, the project's glossaries are subject to review and possible update every five years View full abstract»

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  • On trial at the summer Olympic games: smart cards

    Page(s): 88 - 91
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    Visa International has teamed up with the three largest banks in the southeastern United States to offer stored-value cards to the four million visitors and residents expected to attend the Olympics in Atlanta. Stored-value cards (or cash cards) transfer stored, digital money from the card to merchants' special terminals. Although 350 million smart cards are in use around the world, few Americans have ever used one. The paper considers how the future of the smart card in the US is riding on this high-profile trial at the Olympics View full abstract»

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  • An interactive support tool for writing multilingual manuals

    Page(s): 49 - 56
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    Machine translation has been the dominant paradigm for automated multilingual document production. In this paradigm, a technical writer generates a source text, which is translated by the computer system into another language and then edited. One problem with machine translation, however, is that its output is typically constrained by the original text's style and language. Automatic language-generation systems, however, start with an underlying knowledge base that represents the text's content without dictating its language or style. However, most automatic systems are stand-alone tools, leaving technical writers out of the loop. The systems assume that an underlying knowledge base containing the necessary information is available or can be easily obtained. This is not necessarily the case, though, when producing instruction manuals. For example, the knowledge base required to produce instructions should contain user-oriented information. User-oriented documentation, which concerns the ways the product can help users achieve their goals, is more effective than documentation that focuses on the product. Only a technical writer can specify user-oriented information. It is thus prefer able to have a document-generation system that works with the writer. With this in mind, we developed Drafter, an interactive document drafting tool that can be integrated into the technical writers' working practices and that can automatically and simultaneously generate appropriately worded drafts in several languages. Drafter's current domain of application is software manuals View full abstract»

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Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes highly acclaimed peer-reviewed articles written for and by professionals representing the full spectrum of computing technology from hardware to software and from current research to new applications.

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Editor-in-Chief
Ron Vetter
University of North Carolina
Wilmington