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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Prolog to Wide Area Augmentation of the Global Positioning System

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Prolog to Principles and Methods of Testing Finite State Machines - A Survey

    Publication Year: 1996
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
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  • Prolog to A Survey of Heterogeneous Computing: Concepts and Systems

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Prolog to Autonomous Vehicles

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Prolog to The Convergence of Telecommunications and Computing: What Are the Implications Today?

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Semi J. Begun and magnetic recording [Scanning the Past]

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1189 - 1190
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  • Corrrections to "Precision DSN Radiometer Systems: Impact on Microwave Calibrations"

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Corrections to "The Fractional Frequency Stability of a 34-m-Diameter Beam Waveguide Antenna"

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Corrections to "Emerging Applications of Multirate Signal Processing and Wavelets in Digital Communi

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Corrections to "Wavelets in Computer Graphics"

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • Wide area augmentation of the Global Positioning System

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1063 - 1088
    Cited by:  Papers (52)  |  Patents (5)
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    The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is being deployed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS). The WAAS will aid GPS with the following three services. First, it will broadcast spread-spectrum ranging signals from communication satellites. The airborne WAAS receiver will add these new ranging signals to the GPS constellation of measurements. By so doing, the augmented position fix will be less sensitive to the failure of individual system components, thus improving time availability and continuity of service. Second, the WAAS will use a nationwide ground network to monitor the health of all satellites over our airspace and flag situations which threaten flight safety. This data will be modulated on to the WAAS ranging signals and broadcast to the users, thereby guaranteeing the integrity of the airborne position fix. Third, the WAAS will use the ground network to develop corrections for the errors which currently limit the accuracy of unaugmented GPS. This data will also be included on the WAAS broadcast and will improve position accuracy from approximately 100 m to 8 m. When complete, the augmented system will provide an accurate position fix from satellites to an unlimited number of aircraft across the nation. It will be the primary navigation system for aircraft in oceanic routes, enroute over our domestic airspace, in crowded metropolitan airspaces, and on airport approach View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous vehicles

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1147 - 1164
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV's) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further this paper deals with AV's as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. We provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV's, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV's depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater on the ground, or in the air. We have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories View full abstract»

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  • A survey of heterogeneous computing: concepts and systems

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1127 - 1144
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    This survey of heterogeneous computing concepts and systems is based on the recently proposed by the authors “EM3 ” (Execution Modes/Machine Models) taxonomy of computer systems in general. The taxonomy is based on two criteria: the number of execution modes supported by the system and the number of machine models present in the system. Since these two criteria are orthogonal, four classes exist: Single Execution mode/Single machine Model (SESM), Single Execution modes/Multiple machine Models (SEMM), Multiple Execution modes/Single machine Model (MESM), and Multiple Execution modes/Multiple machine Models (MEMM). In Section II, heterogeneous computing concepts are viewed through three phases of the compilation and execution of any heterogeneous application: parallelism detection, parallelism characterization and resource allocation. Parallelism detection phase discovers fine-grain parallelism inside every task. This phase is not an exclusive feature of heterogeneous computing, so it will not be dealt with in greater detail. The assignment of parallelism characterization phase is to estimate the behavior of each task in the application on every architecture in the heterogeneous system. In the parallelism characterization domain, one original taxonomy is given. This taxonomy contains scheme classes such as vector and matrix static and dynamic, implicit and explicit, algorithmic and heuristic and numeric and symbolic. Resource allocation phase determines the place and the moment for execution of every task to optimize certain performance measure related to some criteria. In the resource allocation domain, the existing Casavant-Kuhl taxonomy is extended and used. This well known taxonomy is supplemented with scheme classes such as noncooperative competitive, noncooperative noncompetitive, and load sharing. In Section III, heterogeneous systems characterized with multiple execution modes (“fully” heterogeneous systems falling in the MESM and the MEMM class) are surveyed. The MESM class systems are described and illustrated with three case studies, two of which support SIMD/MIMD and one supports scalar/vector combination of execution modes. The MEMM class systems are described and illustrated with two representative examples of fully heterogeneous networks supporting multiple execution modes. The system software for heterogeneous computing systems is presented according to an original three-dimensional (3-D) taxonomy whose criteria rely on the level of heterogeneity support implementation, the programming approach, and the data access technique applied. In Section III, several representative heterogeneous applications are described with their computation requirements and the systems used for their execution. Each topic covered in the paper contains several concise examples View full abstract»

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  • The convergence of telecommunications and computing: what are the implications today?

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1167 - 1186
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (3)
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    As has been widely recognized for some time, the computing and telecommunications technologies are converging. This has meant different things at different times. In this review paper, we describe the current stare of convergence, and speculate about what it may mean in coming years. In particular, we argue that as a result of the horizontal integration of all media (voice, audio, video, animation, data) in a common network and terminal infrastructure, telecommunications and networked-computing applications are no longer distinguishable. Considering that the old terminology is no longer meaningful, we attempt to codify networked applications in accordance with their functionality and immediacy. As application functionality is increasingly defined in software, with commensurate cost-effective programmable terminals and means for distribution of applications over the network itself, we argue that user-to-user applications will be greatly impacted, moving into the rapid-innovation regime that has characterized user-to-information-server applications in the recent past. Finally we identify a number of areas where different technical approaches and design philosophies have characterized telecommunications and computing, and discuss how these technical approaches are merging and identify areas of needed research. We do not address complementary forms of convergence at the application or industrial level, such as convergence of the information and content-provider industries, but rather restrict attention to the infrastructure and technology View full abstract»

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  • Principles and methods of testing finite state machines-a survey

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 1090 - 1123
    Cited by:  Papers (245)  |  Patents (9)
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    With advanced computer technology, systems are getting larger to fulfill more complicated tasks: however, they are also becoming less reliable. Consequently, testing is an indispensable part of system design and implementation; yet it has proved to be a formidable task for complex systems. This motivates the study of testing finite stare machines to ensure the correct functioning of systems and to discover aspects of their behavior. A finite state machine contains a finite number of states and produces outputs on state transitions after receiving inputs. Finite state machines are widely used to model systems in diverse areas, including sequential circuits, certain types of programs, and, more recently, communication protocols. In a testing problem we have a machine about which we lack some information; we would like to deduce this information by providing a sequence of inputs to the machine and observing the outputs produced. Because of its practical importance and theoretical interest, the problem of testing finite state machines has been studied in different areas and at various times. The earliest published literature on this topic dates back to the 1950's. Activities in the 1960's mid early 1970's were motivated mainly by automata theory and sequential circuit testing. The area seemed to have mostly died down until a few years ago when the testing problem was resurrected and is now being studied anew due to its applications to conformance testing of communication protocols. While some old problems which had been open for decades were resolved recently, new concepts and more intriguing problems from new applications emerge. We review the fundamental problems in testing finite state machines and techniques for solving these problems, tracing progress in the area from its inception to the present and the stare of the art. In addition, we discuss extensions of finite state machines and some other topics related to testing View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University