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Lightwave Technology, Journal of

Issue 6 • Date June 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • Guest Editorial Multiwavelength Optical Technology and Networks

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • MONET: multiwavelength optical networking

    Page(s): 1349 - 1355
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    This paper presents an overview of the multiwavelength optical networking (MONET) program and summarizes its vision. The program objective is to advance, demonstrate, and integrate network architecture and economics, advanced multiwavelength technology, and network management and control to achieve high capacity, reconfigurable, high performance, reliable multiwavelength optical networks, with scalability to national scale, for both commercial and specialized government applications. The paper describes the major research thrusts of the program including network elements, networking demonstration plans, network control and management, and architecture and economics. View full abstract»

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  • Photoelectric current distribution and bit error rate in optical communication systems using a superfluorescent fiber source

    Page(s): 1455 - 1466
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    In spectrum-sliced wavelength division multiple access (WDMA) optical communication systems, excess noise due to the thermal nature of the broadband source, such as the superfluorescent fiber source (SFS), limits the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the photodetector output. If the statistics of the detected signal are Gaussian, a common assumption, then the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the system is predicted to reach a minimum that cannot be improved by increasing the received optical power. The actual performance, however, depends on the true detection noise statistics. We have measured the statistical distribution of the photoelectric current from a PIN photodiode illuminated by a spectrum-sliced, erbium-doped SFS. The histogram of the measurement data is best described by a negative binomial model for the corresponding photoelectron count with thermal light. Consequently, the BER performance of a spectrum-sliced WDMA system using such a superfluorescent fiber source is not limited by the SNR, a fundamentally different result from that predicted using the Gaussian assumption View full abstract»

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  • Lens-coupled laser diode module integrated on silicon platform

    Page(s): 1519 - 1523
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    Recent interests in the development of multiservice systems have increased the activities be reduced. However, current commercial-grade manufacturing cannot satisfy these needs. The conventional assembly method results in the labor-intensive in optical access networks, such as fiber to the home (FTTH). For these systems to be viable, the optical module assemble costs and package size must process of finding the optimum optical coupling position. In addition, the number and size of parts cannot be reduced due to the difficulty of manipulating them. As a new approach for a lower cost, compact packaging solution, silicon platform technology is very promising. This paper describe a lens-coupled laser diode module integrated on a silicon platform, where a laser-diode, a GRIN rod lens, and single-mode fiber are hybridly integrated on a silicon platform by passive alignment View full abstract»

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  • Long distance transmission experiments using the WDM technology

    Page(s): 1287 - 1298
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    The wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology is useful to utilize the vast bandwidth of the optical fiber, and it should be one key to overcome the transmission capacity problems of the future broadband communications such as multimedia services. Until the optical amplifiers were developed, only the short distance (up to a few tens kilometers) WDM system was in focus, because the optical repeaters for the WDM transmission were considered to be not practical. The advent of the optical amplifiers made it possible to construct the long distance (more than several hundreds kilometers) WDM systems, and many demonstrations of the long distance WDM transmission have been reported up to today. This paper describes the recent results of the long distance transmission experiments using the WDM technology. A few examples of the long distance transmission experiments using WDM technology is presented. As the four-wave mixing (FWM) is the substantial limiting factor of the WDM transmission, these system demonstrations adopt the method to reduce the FWM effect. The stability of the performance is another significant concern to design a practical system. Therefore, the experimental study of the WDM system stability is also discussed View full abstract»

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  • An optical cross-connect system as a high-speed switching core and its performance analysis

    Page(s): 1183 - 1197
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    In this paper, we study the system performance of an optical cross-connect based on a proposed architecture [1] as an ultra-high-speed switching core in a switching system. We provide some conceptual designs for its implementation. Using the designs, we analyze the system performance, through which the factors degrading the performance are identified. The main issue considered in the paper is crosstalk due to using space division switches which interconnect WDM subcross-connects. Other issues such as power loss, gain saturation effect and spontaneous emission noise of the amplifiers are also considered. Detailed numerical results are presented for a 64×64 optical cross-connect system, as an example, with the specified designs based on the proposed architecture. The results show possibility of constructing a 64×64 optical cross-connect with existing technologies View full abstract»

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  • Time shared lightwave reference frequency distribution for photonics networks

    Page(s): 1153 - 1160
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    Time shared lightwave reference frequency distribution is demonstrated using a pulsed lightwave sweep frequency generator, tracking generators, and a linear repeater. The reference lightwave, which contains over 1000 frequencies in 250 MHz steps, is generated using a dynamically gain controlled erbium-doped fiber amplifier and acoust-optical deflector. Continuous lightwave frequencies locked to the distributed time shared reference frequency are generated over a 200 GHz range with an instability of only ±5 MHz. Absolute lightwave frequency from the tracking generator is confirmed by a frequency chain between two hydrogen cyanide gas cell stabilized lightwave sources. The effect of fiber nonlinearity encountered in frequency distribution, a dynamically gain stabilized linear repeater, and system design are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Scalable multihop WDM passive ring with optimal wavelength assignment and adaptive wavelength routing

    Page(s): 1264 - 1277
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    Ring networks have drawn wide attention due to token ring and FDDI standards. This paper presents a scalable multihop WDM passive ring architecture for local area or metropolitan area networks. The network consists of optical interfaces, which are connected into a ring by fibers. Each optical interface is completely passive and unpowered. We apply the “multihop” principle by introducing a regular multiloop ring called “wheel” as the optical connectivity and embedding it onto a single-loop fiber ring. Each network access node requires only a small number of fixed-tuned transceivers and an ATM switch. The network can incrementally scale up from a smaller ring to a larger ring by deploying more access nodes and optical interfaces. When scaling up the network, not only the number of wavelengths required is small but also no more wavelengths are required. This architecture has an excellent ability for alternative routing and optimal wavelength reuse. We present three distributed adaptive wavelength routing algorithms and an optimal wavelength assignment algorithm which minimizes the number of wavelengths used. A method yielding the lowest possible call blocking probability for an “ideal” network with a fixed number of transceivers per node is presented and used as a yardstick to evaluate the proposed networks. The numerical results show that the architecture is very efficient View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a fully reconfigurable all-optical crossconnect for high capacity multiwavelength transport networks

    Page(s): 1198 - 1206
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    The motivations and application framework for the introduction of all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission and routing techniques in the transport network are presented. The requirements and functionalities of all-optical transparent routing nodes are discussed, and the physical architecture of a crossconnection node is proposed, to meet these requirements. Optical devices suitable for the node implementation are compared, and first demonstrations of crossconnection function at data rates up to 10 Gb/s are given. These results bring experimental evidence of the high potential of all-optical routing nodes for actual implementation of multiwavelength transport networks View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transmission systems

    Page(s): 1299 - 1308
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    Wavelength division multiplexing shows great promise for the next generation of long-haul undersea cable transmission systems. WDM techniques will allow for greater transmission capacity and network flexibility compared to the present single-channel optical amplifier systems. The transmission of many WDM channels over transoceanic distances can be limited by a variety of phenomena, including the finite bandwidth of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier repeaters, the nonlinear interactions between channels, and the noise accumulation along the chain of amplifiers. Significant progress has been made over the past few years in understanding the nature of these impairments for long-distance transmission. This paper describes techniques used to transmit many WDM channels over transoceanic distances using the nonreturn-to-zero format and other nonsoliton methods. Data is presented for several WDM experiments including the transmission of 100 Gb/s (20 channels of 5 Gb/s) over 9100 km View full abstract»

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  • Design and realization of polarization independent phased array wavelength demultiplexers using different array orders for TE and TM

    Page(s): 991 - 995
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    A method for designing polarization independent phased-array wavelength demultiplexers, using different array orders for TE and TM, is described and analyzed with respect to fabrication variations. Flattening of the wavelength response is shown to improve fabrication tolerances. A four channel phased-array wavelength demultiplexer with at least 0.2 nm of polarization independent flattened response for each channel (spacing 1 nm) has been made with an insertion loss of 1.5-3 dB and a crosstalk of -17 to -19 dB View full abstract»

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  • MAC protocols and fairness control in WDM multirings with tunable transmitters and fixed receivers

    Page(s): 1230 - 1244
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    The paper illustrates novel proposals for medium access control protocols in all-optical packet networks based on WDM multichannel ring topologies where nodes are equipped with one fixed-wavelength receiver and one wavelength-tunable transmitter. Such networks provide separate slotted channels for disjoint subsets of destination nodes. Three access protocols based on local status information are described. A channel inspection capability is assumed to be available for the implementation of the access protocols. Global fairness control algorithms derived from those adopted in the Metaring high-speed metropolitan area network are also proposed. Access delays and throughputs are taken as performance Indices for a simulation-based comparison of the proposed protocols, in the case of a 16-node multiring with either balanced or unbalanced traffic. Simulation results show that the throughput limitations and the fairness problems inherent in the network topology can be overcome with relatively simple protocols View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of an optical path cross-connect system based on wavelength path concept

    Page(s): 1106 - 1119
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    This paper describes the system design and performance of an optical path cross-connect (OPXC) system based on wavelength path concept. The (OPXC) is designed to offer 16 sets of input and output fiber ports with each fiber transporting eight multiwavelength signals for optical paths. Each optical path has a capacity of 2.5 Gb/s. Consequently, the total system throughput is 8×16×2.5=320 Gb/s and the OPXC features high modularity and expandability for switch components. By exploiting planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technologies, four sets of (8×16) delivery-and-coupling-type optical switches (DC-switches) are developed for the 320 Gb/s throughput OPXC system. The DC-switch offers the average insertion-loss of 12.6 dB and ON/OFF ratio of 42.1 dB. The PLC arrayed-waveguide gratings are confirmed to successfully demultiplex the eight directly modulated signals, multiplexed at a spacing of 1 nm, with a crosstalk of under -25 dB. Eight wavelength-division multiplexing signals, directly modulated at 2.5 Gb/s, are confirmed to be transported over 330 km via a cross-connection node in the test-bed system that simulates five-node network. The experimental performances demonstrated In this paper ensures full scale implementation of the proposed optical path cross-connect system with 320 Gb/s throughput and high integrity View full abstract»

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  • Reflective waveguide array demultiplexer in LiNbO3

    Page(s): 985 - 990
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    Wavelength demultiplexer fabricated on electrooptic LiNbO3 is demonstrated. Reflection structure was employed to halve the device length. The full width at half maximum of the transmission peak was around 1 nm. The crosstalk was -12 to -25 dB. Polarization independence was attained using a reflective quarter-wave plate View full abstract»

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  • Repeated wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals and converted signal gating using wavelength-tunable semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 1042 - 1047
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    Repeated wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s pseudorandom nonreturn-to-zero signals is demonstrated using semiconductor lasers that can be tuned wavelength over a broad range. Error-free tunable wavelength conversion with a very low power penalty can be achieved in both first and second wavelength conversion over a broad wavelength range from 1.486-1.573 μm. The converted signal can be switched rapidly within this wavelength region. High-speed converted signal gating controlled by adjusting the bias current to the device active region is also demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Performance implications of the thermal-induced frequency drift in fast wavelength switched systems with heterodyne detection

    Page(s): 1090 - 1096
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    The frequency modulation response and tuning dynamics of a two-section DFB laser are determined by carrier and thermal modulation of the active layer refractive index. In response to a step change in the injection current for switching between channels in a wavelength division multiplexed system, the optical frequency changes rapidly due to the carrier effect, and then slowly drifts toward a steady state value due to the thermal effect. For wavelength switched applications with heterodyne detection, the drifting of the optical frequency broadens the spectrum of the IF signal and may impose a limit on the time that the signal remains within the IF passband (residency time). The IF spectral broadening and residency time are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Based upon a minimum mean square error fit between experimental and theoretical FM responses, the dependence of the spectral broadening and residency time on the bias condition of the laser and the optical frequency switching interval is characterized View full abstract»

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  • LIGHTNING network and systems architecture

    Page(s): 1371 - 1387
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    This paper describes a hierarchical WDM-based optical network testbed project that is being constructed to interconnect a large number of high performance computers to create a distributed shared memory environment. The objective of the architecture is to achieve scalability yet avoid the requirement of multiple wavelength tunable devices per node. It is a singlehop all-optical network; a packet remains in the optical form from source to destination. It features wavelength channel reuse at each level, allowing scalability to very large system sizes. It partitions the traffic between different levels of the hierarchy without electronic intervention in a combination of wavelength-division and space-division multiplexing. A significant advantage of this approach is its ability to vary dynamically the bandwidth provided to different levels of the hierarchy. Each node monitors the traffic intensities on each channel and can detect any temporal or spatial shift in traffic balance. LIGHTNING can dynamically reconfigure to balance the traffic at each level by reassigning wavelengths associated with each level in the hierarchy to a higher or lower level depending on need. Bandwidth reallocation is completely decentralized, achieving highly fault tolerant system behavior. This paper describes the system architecture, and the network and memory interface that have been developed in this project View full abstract»

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  • Experimental and analytical evaluation of packaged 4×4 InGaAsP/InP semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch matrices for optical networks

    Page(s): 996 - 1004
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    Packaged 4×4 semiconductor optical amplifier gate switch arrays have been studied experimentally and analytically. Experimentally, a dynamic range of the input power to the switch of more than 20 dB was obtained at 622 Mb/s with less than 2 dB power penalty. Wavelength division multiplexing transmission with four channels at 622 Mb/s each through the same path was successfully demonstrated. The switch was also evaluated in an installed fiber network, where a 2.5 Gb/s signal was transmitted through three cascaded switch routes and 160 km fiber. A numerical time-domain model incorporating an electrical filter in the receiver confirmed the experimental results. It furthermore indicated that residual reflections between the different waveguide sections within the switch and at the chip facets may degrade the performance of the switch View full abstract»

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  • Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) for multiwavelength optical cross-connects: crosstalk considerations

    Page(s): 1056 - 1066
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    Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) have been investigated as a potential basis for multiwavelength cross-connects in optical networks. In this paper, we discuss crosstalk issues, some of which are common to other cross-connect technologies, and some of which are unique to the AOTF, which will determine the suitability of the AOTF technology for this application. In particular we show how the interactions between wavelength channels make the AOTF sensitive to switch architectures, we conclude that significant performance improvements will be required to diminish crosstalk if the AOTF is to be useful in any but small-size cross-connects, even when spare and wavelength dilation are used View full abstract»

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  • All-optical WDM packet networks

    Page(s): 1356 - 1370
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    This paper describes the components and subsystems for the implementation of a multi-GHz optoelectronic data transport network using self-routing packets in a multi-hop network. The short packet payloads are compressed using optical wavelength division multiplexing techniques, and remain optical from source to destination while traversing the switching nodes. The routing is done with a lean, self-routing hot potato protocol in order to avoid the need for data storage at the switching nodes and to provide a fixed node latency equivalent to a few meters of fiber. Sustainable throughput both into and out of the electronic host at each node should exceed 10 Gb/s. Some technical details of the switching nodes and interfaces of the recirculating shuffle network, and the stepped wavelength laser arrays and testbed will be given View full abstract»

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  • Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method

    Page(s): 1570 - 1577
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    Two kinds of absorbing boundary conditions for the finite difference BPM are investigated, namely the operation of Berenger layers and the use of a mere nth-order differential relation with constant coefficients (UABC-n). Practical formulas are given for their implementation and their optimization is discussed. Their efficiency is demonstrated in 2-D test problems where the Hadley technique fails. Berenger layers with 5 to 10 points or 6th-order UABC should be useful for most practical problems. The extra numerical cost in 3-D problems should be either near negligible (UABC) or quite moderate (Berenger layers) View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous absolute frequency control of laser transmitters in both 1.3 and 1.55 μm bands for multiwavelength communication systems

    Page(s): 1136 - 1143
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    Absolute frequency control will be an essential part of future dense WDM systems. In this paper, we demonstrate two promising techniques that allow the absolute frequency control of an ensemble of laser transmitters operating in both the 1.3 and 1.55 μm bands. First, a Michelson interferometer is absolutely calibrated by means of a frequency-stabilized master DFB laser. This interferometer provides an ensemble of evenly-spaced absolute frequency references that covers both the 1.3 and 1.55 μm regions. Lasers are frequency-locked to transmission nulls of this interferometer with a precision of a few hundred MHz. The second technique allows full flexibility in channel frequency assignment and relies on frequency offset control of an ensemble of laser sources relative to a master reference laser. The frequency comparator is based on a surface-emitting nonlinear semiconductor multilayer waveguide. This technique provides simultaneous frequency measurement and control of lasers in both bands with a precision of a few GHz View full abstract»

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  • Optical path cross-connect node architectures for photonic transport network

    Page(s): 1410 - 1422
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    This paper explores the optical path cross-connect (OPXC) node architectures that are essential components of the optical path network. Optical path technologies will play a key role in the development of the platform on which the future bandwidth abundant B-ISDN should be created. This paper highlights the wavelength path (WP) and the virtual wavelength path (VWP) technologies, both of which can greatly enhance the path layer capability and the efficiency of network failure restoration. The OPXC, which handles optical paths, is constructed with an optical switching network. Various WDM-based switching networks, which are aimed at LAN applications, have been reported. On the other hand, few WDM-based switching networks for OPXC systems, which are applicable to the nationwide transport network, have been proposed. In this paper, we elucidate the functional conditions required to construct OPXC nodes for WP and VWP global networks. Next, we assess switching network architectures for their applicability to the transport network. It is shown that the OPXC architecture based on DC-switches (delivery and coupling switches) is superior to the other OPXC architectures in terms of optical losses, modularity, and upgradability. Finally, detailed evaluations of the DC-switch-based OPXC node are presented that confirm its feasibility View full abstract»

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  • A comparison between different propagative schemes for the simulation of tapered step index slab waveguides

    Page(s): 1557 - 1569
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    The performance and accuracy of a number of propagative algorithms are compared for the simulation of tapered high contrast step index slab waveguides. The considered methods include paraxial as well as nonparaxial formulations of optical field propagation. In particular attention is paid to the validity of the paraxial approximation. To test the internal consistency of the various methods the property of reciprocity is verified and it is shown that for the paraxial algorithms the reciprocity can only be fulfilled if the paraxial approximation of the power flux expression using the Poynting vector is considered. Finally, modeling results are compared with measured fiber coupling losses for an experimentally realized taper structure View full abstract»

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  • All-optical data format conversions and reconversions between the wavelength and time domains for dynamically reconfigurable WDM networks

    Page(s): 1170 - 1182
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    We demonstrate all-optical error-free 2 Gb/s data format conversions and reconversions between the wavelength and time domains. Conversion between these two domains is accomplished by performing single-stage TDM-to-WDM and WDM-to-TDM conversions. We also perform the function of converting back all-optically to the original domain by performing both WDM-to-TDM-to-WDM and TDM-to-WDM-to-TDM reconversions. All conversions and reconversions are realized by using the cross gain compression mechanism inherent in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's). We first demonstrate our TDM-to-WDM converter by simultaneously time demultiplexing and wavelength shifting a four-channel 2 Gb/s TDM data stream into four 500 Mb/s WDM channels. Moreover, we extend this single-stage approach by demonstrating a two-stage TDM-to-WDM converter consisting of two cascaded single-stage TDM-to-WDM modules. This two-stage converter selectively time demultiplexes and wavelength shifts a four-channel 2 Gb/s TDM data stream into two 500 Mb/s WDM channels after the second stage. Furthermore, we demonstrate a WDM-to-TDM converter by simultaneously time multiplexing and wavelength shifting the data from two 1 Gb/s WDM channels into one 2 Gb/s TDM signal. Finally, we demonstrate reconversion between the wavelength and time domains for two channels by performing both WDM-to-TDM-to-WDM and then TDM-to-WDM-to-TDM reconversions. In order to demonstrate system robustness, we use 80 km of fiber and three EDFA's between the conversion and reconversion stages. We show that reconverting back to the TDM data format requires an interstage WDM channel wavelength range less than ~4 nm, due to the power penalty induced by the interstage relative phase shift between the channels. This constraint limits the operation of the TDM-to-WDM-to-TDM reconverter to data rates up to 10 Gb/s and interstage distances to ~100 km. All demonstrated conversion and reconversion processes are accomplished with low power penalties. These conversion and reconversion schemes could be useful in WDM switching nodes and may serve as key building blocks for all-optical WDM networks View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Journal of Lightwave Technology contains articles on current research, applications and methods used in lightwave technology and fiber optics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Peter J. Winzer
Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs