Proceedings of IEEE 36th Annual Foundations of Computer Science

23-25 Oct. 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 74
  • Lower bounds for monotone span programs

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):674 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    Span programs provide a linear algebraic model of computation. Lower Bounds for span programs imply lower bounds for formula size, symmetric branching programs and for contact schemes. Monotone span programs correspond also to linear secret-sharing schemes. We present a technique for proving lower bounds for monotone span programs, and prove a lower bound of Ω(m/sup 2.5/) for the 6-clique ... View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1995
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Reductions, codes, PCPs, and inapproximability

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):404 - 413
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)

    Many recent results show the hardness of approximating NP-hard functions. We formalize, in a very simple way, what these results involve: a code-like Levin reduction. Assuming a well-known complexity assumption, we show that such reductions cannot prove the NP-hardness of the following problems, where ε is any positive fraction: (i) achieving an approximation ratio n1/2+ε for ... View full abstract»

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  • Pseudorandom generators, measure theory, and natural proofs

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):26 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (928 KB)

    We prove that if strong pseudorandom number generators exist, then the class of languages that have polynomial-sized circuits (P/poly) is not measurable within exponential time, in terms of the resource-bounded measure theory of Lutz. We prove our result by showing that if P/poly has measure zero in exponential time, then there is a natural proof against P/poly, in the terminology of Razborov and ... View full abstract»

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  • Competitive access time via dynamic storage rearrangement

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):392 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)

    We model the problem of storing items in some warehouse (modeled as an undirected graph) where a server has to visit items over time, with the goal of minimizing the total distance traversed by the server. Special cases of this problem include the management of a real industrial stacker crane warehouse, automatic robot run warehouses, disk track optimization to minimize access time, managing two d... View full abstract»

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  • Lower bounds on arithmetic circuits via partial derivatives

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):16 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    We describe a new technique for obtaining lower bounds on restricted classes of non-monotone arithmetic circuits. The heart of this technique is a complexity measure for multivariate polynomials, based on the linear span of their partial derivatives. We use the technique to obtain new lower bounds for computing symmetric polynomials and iterated matrix products View full abstract»

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  • Spectral methods for matrix rigidity with applications to size-depth tradeoffs and communication complexity

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):6 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    The rigidity of a matrix measures the number of entries that must be changed in order to reduce its rank below a certain value. The known lower bounds on the rigidity of explicit matrices are very weak. It is known that stronger lower bounds would have implications to complexity theory. We consider weaker forms of the rigidity problem over the complex numbers. Using spectral methods, we derive low... View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive computation

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):2 - 3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    Cognitive computation is discussed as a discipline that links together neurobiology, cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence View full abstract»

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  • Controllability, recognizability, and complexity issues in robot motion planning

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):484 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1536 KB)

    Path planning has been widely studied by computer scientists. However, it is a very simplified version of the motion planning problems occurring in robotics. This paper examines extensions yielding two important issues: controllability and recognizability. The controllability issue arises when the number of controls is smaller than the number of independent parameters defining the robot's configur... View full abstract»

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  • A representation of cuts within 6/5 times the edge connectivity with applications

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):92 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1192 KB)

    Let G be an undirected c-edge connected graph. In this paper we give an O(n2)-sized planar geometric representation for all edge cuts with capacity less than 6/5c. The representation can be very efficiently built, by using a single run of the Karger-Stein algorithm for finding near-mincuts. We demonstrate that the representation provides an efficient query structure for near-mincuts, as... View full abstract»

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  • Tight fault locality

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):704 - 713
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB)

    The notion of fault local mending was suggested as a paradigm for designing fault tolerant algorithms that scale to large networks. For such algorithms the complexity of recovering is proportional to the number of faults. We refine this notion by introducing the concept of tight fault locality to deal with problems whose complexity (in the absence of faults) is sublinear in the size of the network... View full abstract»

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  • Improved algorithms and analysis for secretary problems and generalizations

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):473 - 482
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    In the classical secretary problem, n objects from an ordered set arrive in random order, and one has to accept k of them so that the final decision about each object is made only on the basis of its rank relative to the ones already seen. Variants of the problem depend on the goal: either maximize the probability of accepting the best k objects, or minimize the expectation of the sum of the ranks... View full abstract»

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  • Approximability of flow shop scheduling

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):82 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    Shop scheduling problems are notorious for their intractability, both in theory and practice. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a polynomial approximation scheme for the flow shop scheduling problem with an arbitrary fixed number of machines. For the three common shop models (open, flow, and job), this result is the only known approximation scheme. Since none of the three models can b... View full abstract»

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  • Algebraic decomposition of non-convex polyhedra

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):248 - 257
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB)

    Any arbitrary polyhedron P⊆Rd can be written as algebraic sum of simple terms, each an integer multiple of the intersection of d or fewer half-spaces defined by facets of P. P can be non-convex and can have holes of any kind. Among the consequences of this result are a short boolean formula for P, a fast parallel algorithm for point classification, and a new proof of the Gram-Somme... View full abstract»

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  • Improved depth lower bounds for small distance connectivity

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):692 - 701
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB)

    We consider the problem of determining, given a graph G and specified nodes s and t, whether or not there is a path of at most k edges in G from s to t. We show that solving this problem on polynomial-size unbounded fan-in circuits, requires depth Ω(loglogk), improving on a depth lower bound of n(log*k) when k=logO(1) n. In addition we show that there is a constant c such that for... View full abstract»

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  • Private information retrieval

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):41 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (138)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB)

    We describe schemes that enable a user to access k replicated copies of a database (k⩾2) and privately retrieve information stored in the database. This means that each individual database gets no information on the identity of the item retrieved by the user. For a single database, achieving this type of privacy requires communicating the whole database, or n bits (where n is the number of bit... View full abstract»

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  • Linear time erasure codes with nearly optimal recovery

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):512 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)

    An (n,c,l,r) erasure code consists of an encoding algorithm and a decoding algorithm with the following properties. The encoding algorithm produces a set of l-bit packets of total length cn from an n-bit message. The decoding algorithm is able to recover the message from any set of packets whose total length is r, i.e., from any set of r/l packets. We describe erasure codes where both the encoding... View full abstract»

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  • Tight bounds for a distributed selection game with applications to fixed-connection machines

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):114 - 122
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    We define a distributed selection game that generalizes a selection problem considered by S.R. Kosaraju (1989). We offer a tight analysis of our distributed selection game, and show that the lower bound for this abstract communication game directly implies near-tight lower bounds for certain selection problems on fixed-connection machines. For example, we prove that any deterministic comparison-ba... View full abstract»

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  • Resolving message complexity of Byzantine Agreement and beyond

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):724 - 733
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    Byzantine Agreement among processors is a basic primitive in distributed computing. It comes in a number of basic fault models: “Crash”, “Omission” and “Malicious” adversarial behaviors. The message complexity of the primitive has been known for the strong failure models of Malicious and Omission adversary since the early 80's, while the question for the more be... View full abstract»

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  • An approximation scheme for planar graph TSP

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):640 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)

    We consider the special case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in which the distance metric is the shortest-path metric of a planar unweighted graph. We present a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for this problem View full abstract»

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  • Sparse P-hard sets yield space-efficient algorithms

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):354 - 361
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)

    J. Hartmanis (1978) conjectured that there exist no sparse complete sets for P under logspace many-one reductions. In this paper, in support of the conjecture, it is shown that if P has sparse hard sets under logspace many-one reductions, then P⊆DSPACE[log2n]. The result follows from a more general statement: if P has 2polylog sparse hard sets under poly-logarithmic spac... View full abstract»

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  • Minimum coloring random and semi-random graphs in polynomial expected time

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):463 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)

    We present new algorithms for k-coloring and minimum (χ(G)-) coloring random and semi-random k-colorable graphs in polynomial expected time. The random graphs are drawn from the G(n,p,k) model and the semi-random graphs are drawn from the GSB(n,p,k) model. In both models, an adversary initially splits the n vertices into k color classes, each of size Θ(n). Then the edges betwe... View full abstract»

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  • The bit vector intersection problem

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):621 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)

    This paper introduces the bit vector intersection problem: given a large collection of sparse bit vectors, find all the pairs with at least t ones in common for a given input parameter t. The assumption is that the number of ones common to any two vectors is significantly less than t, except for an unknown set of O(n) pairs. This problem has important applications in DNA physical mapping, clusteri... View full abstract»

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  • Efficient algorithms for learning to play repeated games against computationally bounded adversaries

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):332 - 341
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB)

    We examine the problem of learning to play various games optimally against resource-bounded adversaries, with an explicit emphasis on the computational efficiency of the learning algorithm. We are especially interested in providing efficient algorithms for games other than penny-matching (in which payoff is received for matching the adversary's action in the current round), and for adversaries oth... View full abstract»

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  • The loading time scheduling problem

    Publication Year: 1995, Page(s):72 - 81
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    In this paper we study precedence constrained scheduling problems, where the tasks can only be executed on a specified subset of the machines. Each machine has a loading time that is incurred only for the first task that is scheduled on the machine in a particular run. This basic scheduling problem arises in the context of machining on numerically controlled machines, query optimization in databas... View full abstract»

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