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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Jul 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Remote control in telerobotic surgery

    Page(s): 438 - 444
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    This paper deals with the description of a telerobotic surgery experiment, conducted on July 7, 1993, between the Politecnico di Milano, Telerobotics Laboratory, Italy, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. It describes the results obtained, the new objectives proposed and the technical equipment. It also provides a comparison between the different solutions adopted. Telerobotic surgery requires particular skill; the integration of human capabilities with robotics in surgery offers useful results for robotic applications in new fields, especially health care View full abstract»

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  • Experimental studies of the use of phase lead filters to compensate lags in head-coupled visual displays

    Page(s): 445 - 454
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    Display lags degrade performance when using the head to track a target presented on a helmet-mounted display. These lags originate from delays in measuring the position of the head and the time required to generate the image of the target. This paper presents two laboratory studies on the use of phase lead filters to improve head tracking performance in the presence of display lags. In the preliminary study, the benefits of lag compensation by a phase lead filter were impeded by associated changes in filter gain. The frequency responses of two phase lead filters were then optimized to have near unity gain at frequencies below 0.7 Hz where there was most head motion. The main study showed that these optimized filters significantly improved head tracking performance with a system having a total lag of 140 ms. At frequencies above about 0.7 Hz, a greater than unity filter gain caused jittery image movement. Although this jittering degraded head tracking performance it was removed by an alternative lag compensation technique involving `image deflection'. This deflection shifted the displayed image to its correct horizontal and vertical position relative to the head. Image deflection, combined with the phase lead filters, produced a tracking performance unaffected by lag View full abstract»

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  • A hospital integrated framework for multimodality image base management

    Page(s): 455 - 469
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1956 KB)  

    The trend in healthcare information technology is increasingly digital and multimedia oriented. The next generation of health care information systems will consist of a vast network of heterogeneous, autonomous, and distributed imaging scanners, databases, information systems, knowledge intensive applications, and large quantities of multimedia medical data. A key challenge facing system researchers and builders is to provide a new organizational framework that can integrate this varied collection of resources into what appears to be a uniform and logical conglomeration of data and knowledge store in order to increase the availability of global or previously nonaccessible information and to address demanding new information processing requirements for diverse image-assisted medical applications. The purpose of this paper is to present the authors' research toward the development of a hospital integrated framework of multimodality image base management (MIBM) for digital radiology of the future. This evolutionary framework consists of three hierarchical components: a hospital-integrated picture archiving and communication system (HI-PACS), a medical image database system (MIDS), and a set of image-based medical applications that relies on the support of MIDS and PACS. In this paper, the authors describe the system architecture, guiding principles, and design specifications of HI-PACS and MIDS and illustrate their functions and capabilities with three implemented applications, namely, patient folder workflow, distributed object management, and multimodality imaging studies. In addition, the authors conclude their findings with a summary of challenges and research directions View full abstract»

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  • A new method for evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy set theory

    Page(s): 493 - 497
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    This paper presents a new method for evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy set theory. The proposed method is more flexible than the one presented in Mon et al. (1994) due to the fact that it allows each item of criteria to have a different weight represented by a triangular fuzzy number. Furthermore, because the proposed method does not need to perform complicated entropy weight calculations, its execution is much faster than the one shown in the above paper View full abstract»

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  • On distributed computation of Pareto solutions for two decision makers

    Page(s): 498 - 503
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    The problem of computing Pareto optimal solutions with distributed methods is considered in games with two decision makers (DMs). Distributed computation schemes do not require the DMs to know each others' objective functions. Such procedures are especially relevant in real life situations where the DMs are unwilling or unable to disclose their goals. Problems of this kind include negotiations as well as hierarchical optimization of large-scale systems View full abstract»

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  • Sampling behavior in a four instrument monitoring task: effects of signal bandwidth and number of events per signal

    Page(s): 413 - 422
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    This study investigates the effect of global signal characteristics, such as bandwidth and number of events on human sampling behavior. It also examines whether the influence of these characteristics on sampling strategy is affected by local (actually observed) signal features, such as the degree with which a sampled signal value falls short of an event region and the rate of change. In the present study four independent, numerically displayed signals were used; two different bandwidths and two different event numbers were chosen. To take a sample, subjects had to use a mouse. The mouse key responses were used as an index of sampling. The study demonstrates that both bandwidth and number of events equally affected the distribution of samples over signals. In addition, it shows that global signal characteristics determine sampling behavior less prominently when the attentional demands brought about by the local signal features become of greater importance. This indicates that not predictability as governed by global signal characteristics as such, but rather predictability given certain local signal features is a crucial factor in determining sampling behavior View full abstract»

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  • Model-based, real-time control of electrical power systems

    Page(s): 470 - 482
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    Automated control of a large electrical power distribution network through a single controller can provide advantages in efficiency and reliability as well as reduction in maintenance costs. For control to be most effective, it is necessary that a global view of the entire network be had by the controller, so that it can reason as to the cause of the readings of the various sensing devices located throughout the network, Traditional approaches to power system control have involved a set of local devices (i.e., protective relays) that base their decision on the instantaneous reading of a single sensor. These single-parameter decisions can sometimes be incorrect due to sensor failures. Furthermore, a special type of fault called a soft fault, where a fault impedance limits the current to a value below the relay operating point, are nearly impossible to detect with decisions based on a single local parameter. By reasoning over an entire suit of sensing devices spread throughout the entire network, protection decisions based on a global view can become more reliable as well as comprehensive. Some previous approaches have implemented global control with varying degrees of success through the use of rule-based knowledge-based systems. This paper describes an alternative knowledge-based approach that makes use of so-called models of structure-and-behavior, to which model-based diagnosis is applied. The objective of this approach is to develop a system that can reliably diagnose faults in power distribution networks (especially soft faults), identify sensor failures, and carry out appropriate corrective action automatically. An intelligent power controller (IPC) which has these capabilities is described. This IPC was rigorously tested in an DC electrical power distribution system testbed and found to successfully carry out the required functions. This paper also describes in detail the tests and the conclusions drawn from their results View full abstract»

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  • Observations and problems applying ART2 for dynamic sensor pattern interpretation

    Page(s): 423 - 437
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    This paper discusses characteristics of the ART2 (adaptive resonance theory) information processing model which emerge when applied to the problem of interpreting dynamic sensor data. Fast learn ART2 is employed in a supervised learning framework to classify process “fingerprints” generated from multi-sensor trend patterns. Interest in ART2 was motivated by the ability to provide closed classification regions, uniform hyperspherical clusters, feature extraction, and on-line adaption. Sensor data interpretation is briefly discussed with an emphasis on the unique attributes of the problem and the interaction with ART2 information processing principles. Pattern representations, e.g., time domain, which encode information in both magnitude and direction of the input vector are shown to be fundamentally incompatible with ART2. Complement coding is shown to solve this problem when the feature extraction capability of the ART2 network is disabled. Complement coding is also shown to preserve the clustering characteristics of the process “fingerprints” which are otherwise lost using the ART2 directional similarity measure. These issues are illustrated using an ART2-based monitoring system for a dynamically simulated chemical process View full abstract»

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  • Covey's seven habits and the systems approach: a comparative analysis

    Page(s): 483 - 487
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    This paper advances the premise that the best seller book by Stephen Covey: The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People and the systems approach share common-principles and philosophy. Indeed, each of the seven habits-be proactive; begin with the end in mind; put first thing first; think win/win; seek first to understand, then to be understood; synergize; and sharpen the saw-is related to some principles and/or steps upon which the systems approach is based. Given the notoriety that Covey's book has achieved in the public, the comparison of Covey's philosophy to the philosophy of the systems approach can help improve the understanding of systems engineering View full abstract»

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  • Asynchronous parallel discrete event simulation

    Page(s): 397 - 412
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    Complex models may have model components distributed over a network and generally require significant execution times. The field of parallel and distributed simulation has grown over the past fifteen years to accommodate the need of simulating the complex models using a distributed versus sequential method. In particular, asynchronous parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has been widely studied, and yet we envision greater acceptance of this methodology as more readers are exposed to PDES introductions that carefully integrate real-world applications. With this in mind, we present two key methodologies (conservative and optimistic) which have been adopted as solutions to PDES systems. We discuss PDES terminology and methodology under the umbrella of the personal communications services application View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized Bayesian detection with feedback

    Page(s): 503 - 513
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    A decentralized detection system with feedback and memory using the Bayesian formulation is investigated. The optimization of this system results in a likelihood ratio test at the local detectors for statistically independent observations. In addition, local detector thresholds and the system probability of error are shown to be a function of the fed back global decision. The issue of data transmission between local detectors and the fusion center is addressed. Two protocols are proposed and studied to reduce data transmissions. Numerical examples are also presented for illustration View full abstract»

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  • An optimal neuron evolution algorithm for constrained quadratic programming in image restoration

    Page(s): 513 - 518
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    An optimal neuron evolution algorithm for the restoration of linearly distorted images is presented in this paper. The proposed algorithm is motivated by the symmetric positive-definite quadratic programming structure inherent in restoration. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the algorithm not only significantly increases the convergence rate of processing, but also produces good restoration results. In addition, the algorithm provides a genuine parallel processing structure which ensures computationally feasible spatial domain image restoration View full abstract»

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  • Learning Bayesian network structures by searching for the best ordering with genetic algorithms

    Page(s): 487 - 493
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)  

    Presents a new methodology for inducing Bayesian network structures from a database of cases. The methodology is based on searching for the best ordering of the system variables by means of genetic algorithms. Since this problem of finding an optimal ordering of variables resembles the traveling salesman problem, the authors use genetic operators that were developed for the latter problem. The quality of a variable ordering is evaluated with the structure-learning algorithm K2. The authors present empirical results that were obtained with a simulation of the ALARM network View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta