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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date June 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1996
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multilayered fuzzy behavior fusion for real-time reactive control of systems with multiple sensors

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 387 - 394
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB)  

    Fuzzy linguistic rules provide an intuitive and powerful means for defining control behavior. Most applications that use fuzzy control feature a single layer of fuzzy inference, mapping a function from one or two inputs to equally few outputs. Highly complex systems, with large numbers of inputs, may also benefit from the use of qualitative linguistic rules if the control task is properly partitioned. This paper presents a modular fuzzy control architecture and inference engine that can be used to control complex systems. The control function is broken down into multiple local agents, each of which samples a subset of a large sensor input space. Additional fuzzy agents are employed to fuse the recommendations of the local agents. Real-time implementation without special hardware is possible by using singleton output values during fuzzy rule evaluation. A development tool is used to translate a fuzzy programming language offline for fast execution at run time. Using this system, a multilayered fuzzy behavior fusion based reactive control system has been implemented on an autonomous mobile robot, MARGE, with great success. MARGE won first place in Event III of the 1993 Robot Competition sponsored by the American Association for Artificial Intelligence View full abstract»

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  • A fuzzy-logic architecture for autonomous multisensor data fusion

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 403 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    Fuzzy logic techniques have become popular to address various processes for multisensor data fusion. Examples include the following: (1) fuzzy membership functions for data association; (2) evaluation of alternative hypotheses in multiple hypothesis trackers; (3) fuzzy-logic-based pattern recognition (e.g., for feature-based object identification); and (4) fuzzy inference schemes for sensor resource allocation. These approaches have been individually successful but are limited to only a single subprocess within a data fusion system. At The Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, a general-purpose fuzzy-logic architecture has been developed that provides for control of sensing resources, fusion of data for tracking, automatic object recognition, control of system resources and elements, and automated situation assessment. This general architecture has been applied to implement an autonomous vehicle capable of self-direction, obstacle avoidance, and mission completion. The fuzzy logic architecture provides interpretation and fusion of multisensor data (i.e., perception) as well as logic for process control (action). This paper provides an overview of the fuzzy-logic architecture and a discussion of its application to data fusion in the context of the Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Process Model. A new, robust, fuzzy calculus is introduced. An application example is provided View full abstract»

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  • LiAS: a reflexive navigation architecture for an intelligent mobile robot system

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 432 - 440
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1616 KB)  

    In this paper, a complete hierarchical navigation architecture fur applications in real industrial factory environments is presented. An offline global geometrical planner uses a rough CAD-model of the working environment to plan consecutive via-points which the robot must follow. The navigation between the via-points is performed by a two-level online navigation algorithm. It consists of an online planning module combined with a low-level fuzzy logic avoidance behavior which enables the robot to move to the next goal by only specifying its coordinates in even completely a priori unknown and unstructured factory environments. The system includes a docking motion, based on a dynamic guidance technique. A perception fusion module combines information of three different sensors for accurate modeling of the world. The presented navigation method was tested with the mobile robot Leuven Intelligent Autonomous System (LiAS) and it proved to be useful in real world applications View full abstract»

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  • Data fusion: color edge detection and surface reconstruction through regularization

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 355 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    Data fusion provides tools for solving problems which are characterized by distributed and diverse information sources. In this paper, the authors focus on the problem of extracting features such as image discontinuities from both synthetic and real images. Since edge detection and surface reconstruction are ill-posed problems in the sense of Hadamard, Tikhonov's regularization paradigm is proposed as the basic tool for solving this inversion problem and restoring well-posedness. The proposed framework includes: (1) a systematic view of oneand two-dimensional regularization; (2) extension of the standard Tikhonov regularization method by allowing space-variant regularization parameters; and (3) further extension of the regularization paradigm by adding multiple data sources to allow for data fusion. The theoretical approach is complemented by developing a series of algorithms, then solving the early vision problems of color edge detection and surface reconstruction. An evaluation of these methods reveals that this new analytical data fusion technique output is consistently better than each of the individual RGB edge maps, and noisy corrupted images are reconstructed into smooth noiseless surfaces View full abstract»

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  • A new control strategy to achieve sinusoidal line current in a cascade buck-boost converter

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 441 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    This work presents a detailed theoretical analysis and experimental results of a novel means of obtaining sinusoidal input current and unity power factor (UPF) via a cascade buck-boost power converter. Using the new configuration, sinusoidal line current in phase with the bus voltage is achieved, thanks to a new and simple to implement control strategy. Comparison between the input and output voltages is used to select the instantaneous operating mode of the converter. Offline references are calculated and stored in two EPROM circuits and then compared to measured currents to generate the gating signals of the appropriate switches. Complete theoretical analysis, simulation results and experimental data on a 500 W power converter are presented, to demonstrate the superiority of the new control strategy. Low order harmonics in the input current are eliminated and the input power factor is found to be over 0.99 View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy behavior integration and action fusion for robotic excavation

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 395 - 402
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (924 KB)  

    This paper discusses control behavior integration and bucket action fusion for excavation control of a robotic front-end-loader type machine. To utilize the experience and expertise from skilled human operators, a fuzzy-logic based control approach is developed. A hierarchical excavation control architecture decomposes excavation goals to tasks, then tasks to behaviors, and finally behaviors to actions. The excavation actions are primitive and can be executed directly by an excavation machine. Finite state machines are used to specify the coordination and integration of behaviors for task execution and actions for behavior implementation. A simple strategy for action fusion is proposed based on fuzzy logic reasoning and the COA defuzzification method. Finally, laboratory experiments are conducted using a PUMA 560 robot arm and a Zebra force/torque sensor in a simulated rock excavation environment. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach in this paper has led to more efficient task execution than previous approaches View full abstract»

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  • Environment perception for a mobile robot using double ultrasonic sensors and a CCD camera

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 372 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB)  

    To move efficiently in an unknown or uncertain environment, a mobile robot must use observations taken by various sensors to construct information for path planning and execution. A reasonably accurate representation of the external world would also be very useful for robot self-localization. One of the merits of applying multiple sensors to a mobile robot is the enhancement of environment recognition. In this paper, the authors propose to use sensory information combined from double ultrasonic sensors and a CCD camera. They developed an algorithm based on a dual-transducer design to eliminate errors resulting from the beam opening angle of ultrasonic sensors. An extended discrete Kalman filter (EDKF) was designed to fuse raw sensory data and to reduce the influence of specular reflection of ultrasonic type transducers, thereby providing a more reliable representation for environment perception. Computer simulation, as well as practical experimental results demonstrate that this sensory system can provide useful and comprehensive environment perception for intelligent robotics View full abstract»

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  • Mobile robot localization: integrating measurements from a time-of-flight laser

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 422 - 431
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1324 KB)  

    This paper presents an algorithm for environment mapping by integrating scans from a time-of-flight laser and odometer readings from a mobile robot. The range weighted Hough transform (RWHT) is used as a robust method to extract lines from the range data. The resulting peaks in the RWHT are used as feature coordinates when these lines/walls are used as landmarks during navigation. The associations between observations over the time sequence are made in a systematic way using a decision directed classifier. Natural geometrical landmarks are described in the robot frame together with a covariance matrix representing the spatial uncertainty. The map is thus built up incrementally as the robot moves. If the map is given in advance, the robot can find its location and navigate relative to this a priori given map. Experimental results are presented for a mobile robot with a scanning range measuring laser having 2-cm resolution. The algorithm was also used for an autonomous plastering robot on a construction site. The sensor fusion algorithm makes few erroneous associations View full abstract»

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  • Integration of vision and laser displacement sensor for efficient and precise digitizing

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 364 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    This paper presents a new digitizing technique which integrates computer vision methods, such as the photometric stereo approach, with the laser displacement sensors (LDS). The curvature at each point of the surface can be measured cost-effectively by the photometric stereo approach. Once the information of curvature of the surface is provided, the measuring speed of LDS can be improved by digitizing at the selected points of the surface and meanwhile the accuracy of digitization is still maintained. By means of the integration, the merits of both approaches can be achieved simultaneously and the efficiency of the digitization can be improved. Experimental results are provided to verify the proposed method View full abstract»

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  • An active sensing method using estimated errors for multisensor fusion systems

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 380 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    An active sensing method for multisensor fusion systems with actuators is proposed. To realize active sensing with multiple sensors: (i) where to position sensors; (ii) how to associate data; and (iii) how to fuse data should be determined. The authors propose a new method mainly concerning (i). The method utilizes estimated errors of estimates to determine optimal sensor locations where useful data are expected to be obtained and effectively associated. As examples, the active sensing method is applied to multitarget tracking by a system with two hand-eye cameras, and visual and tactile fusion in a system with a camera and a tactile sensor. By using this method, the sensing strategy is optimized for the object of measurement View full abstract»

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  • Image fusion and subpixel parameter estimation for automated optical inspection of electronic components

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 346 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)  

    The authors present a new approach to automated optical inspection (AOI) of circular features that combines image fusion with subpixel edge detection and parameter estimation. In their method, several digital images are taken of each part as it moves past a camera, creating an image sequence. These images are fused to produce a high-resolution image of the features to be inspected. Subpixel edge detection is performed on the high-resolution image, producing a set of data points that is used for ellipse parameter estimation. The fitted ellipses are then back-projected into 3-space in order to obtain the sizes of the circular features being inspected, assuming that the depth is known. The method is accurate, efficient, and easily implemented. The authors present experimental results for real intensity images of circular features of varying sizes. Their results demonstrate that their algorithm shows greatest improvement over traditional methods in cases where the feature size is small relative to the resolution of the imaging device View full abstract»

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  • Fusing multiple data and knowledge sources for signal understanding by genetic algorithm

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 411 - 421
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1428 KB)  

    This paper presents a new approach to partially automating a human expert's proficient interpretation skills for data and knowledge fusion in signal-understanding tasks. The authors start by recognizing the fact that signal interpretation is attributed much to a human expert's domain-specific, pattern-perceiving capability of grasping raw signals by structured representations having multiple levels of abstraction, rather than to some objectively defined knowledge. In other words, that is an emergent or self-organizing process, where information is regarded as perceptual as opposed to objectively defined. First, they attempt to organize such structured representations by usage of a hierarchical clustering method of data analysis. Then, based on these representations they model a human expert's interpretation skill as an activity of searching for an optimum combination of those perceptual units within that structured representation space being constrained by the data. In order to implement this activity, they introduce a genetic algorithm and apply it to the structured representation space assimilating a human analyst's creative interpreting task in flexibly shifting the focal view of attention from the coarse to the precise. They implement a working system for signal understanding of the remote sensing data of seismic prospecting and show the results output by the system View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411