Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Apr 1996

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • High-energy charged particles in space at one astronomical unit

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 344 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)  

    Single-event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high-energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Here, we review the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are described briefly along with comments on the future work required in this field View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improved understanding of the Earth's radiation belts from the CRRES satellite

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 353 - 368
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2428 KB)  

    Energetic particle data gathered on the CRRES spacecraft have been used to produce new and more accurate models of high-energy electron and proton fluxes as well as total dose models out to geosynchronous altitude. In addition to providing the information necessary to improve designs and operations of near-Earth space systems, the models also give insight into the dynamic behavior of the radiation belts not considered in previous models. Sample orbit runs are compared to the earlier NASA models to elucidate their weaknesses. Areas of improved understanding in the radiation environment, gained from CRRES, and how they impact systems are summarized View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Space radiation effects in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 645 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)  

    Fiber optic based technologies are relatively new to satellite applications, and are receiving considerable attention for planned applications in NASA, DOD, and commercial space sectors. We review various activities in recent years aimed at understanding and mitigating radiation related risk in deploying fiber based data handling systems on orbit. Before concluding that there are no critical barriers to designing survivable and reliable systems, we analyze several possible types of radiation effects. Particular attention is given to the subject of particle-induced bit errors in InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes, including a discussion of error mitigation and upset rate prediction methods View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Total-dose issues for microelectronics in space systems

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 442 - 452
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    Ionizing radiation has been a problem for space-system microelectronics from the earliest satellites. Much progress has been made in understanding the physical mechanisms that cause total-dose-induced failure, and this knowledge has been applied to hardened-technology development. Many of the hardened technologies are no longer available, however, and hence more commercial off-the-shelf components are being used. This situation presents a challenge for system designers, since the commercial parts typically have lower failure levels and larger variability in response. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new challenges for total-dose hardness assurance in the form of 1) an enhanced low dose-rate sensitivity of bipolar linear microcircuits, 2) an effect of burn in on CMOS microcircuit total-dose response, and 3) an enhanced effect of plastic packaging on the burned-in effect for CMOS circuits. These issues are addressed as they relate to the space-system ionizing radiation environment View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Soft error susceptibility and immune structures in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs) investigated by nuclear microprobes

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 696 - 704
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1052 KB)  

    Soft error susceptibility mapping and ion-beam-induced-current (IBIC) measurements using a nuclear microprobe allow a quantitative evaluation of the charge collection which induces upset in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Soft error susceptibility in DRAMs as a function of local position and structure has been reviewed. Charge collection efficiency induced by incident ions on reverse-biased n+ p junctions with various barrier well structures has been compared with that with a conventional well in a p- epitaxial layer on a p+ substrate View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Proton effects in charge-coupled devices

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 614 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1516 KB)  

    Basic mechanisms and ground-test data for radiation effects in solid-state imagers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on proton-induced effects on silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs). For the proton fluxes encountered in the space environment, both transient ionization and displacement damage effects arise from single-particle interactions. In the former case, individual proton tracks will be seen; in the latter, dark-current spikes (or hot pixels) and trapping states that cause degradation in charge-transfer efficiency will be observed. Proton-induced displacement damage effects on dark current and charge transfer are considered in detail, and the practical implications for shielding, device hardening, and ground testing are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Approaches to proton single-event rate calculations

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 496 - 504
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)  

    This article discusses the fundamentals of proton-induced single-event upsets and of the various methods that have been developed to calculate upset rates. Two types of approaches are used based on nuclear-reaction analysis. Several aspects can be analyzed using analytic methods, but a complete description is not available. The paper presents an analytic description for the component due to elastic-scattering recoils. There have been a number of studies made using Monte Carlo methods. These can completely describe the reaction processes, including the effect of nuclear reactions occurring outside the device-sensitive volume. They have not included the elastic-scattering processes. The article describes the semiempirical approaches that are most widely used. The quality of previous upset predictions relative to space observations is discussed and leads to comments about the desired quality of future predictions. Brief sections treat the possible testing limitation due to total ionizing dose effects, the relationship of proton and heavy-ion upsets, upsets due to direct proton ionization, and relative proton and cosmic-ray upset rates View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event effects in avionics

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 461 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (137)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB)  

    The occurrence of single-event upset (SEU) in aircraft electronics has evolved from a series of interesting anecdotal incidents to accepted fact. A study completed in 1992 demonstrated that SEUs are real, that the measured in-flight rates correlate with the atmospheric neutron flux, and that the rates can be calculated using laboratory SEU data. Once avionics SEU was shown to be an actual effect, it had to be dealt with in avionics designs. The major concern is in random access memories (RAMs), both static (SRAMs) and dynamic (DRAMs), because these microelectronic devices contain the largest number of bits, but other parts, such as microprocessors, are also potentially susceptible to upset. In addition, other single-event effects (SEEs), specifically latch-up and burnout, can also be induced by atmospheric neutrons View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Microbeam studies of single-event effects

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 687 - 695
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)  

    The application of heavy-ion microbeam systems to the study of single-event effects is reviewed. Apertured microbeam systems have been used since the early 1980s to study charge collection. This has led to the development of the present models for the transport of charge following heavy-ion strikes in semiconductors. More recently, magnetically focused scanned microbeams have allowed direct imaging of charge collection regions with a technique called IBICC (ion-beam induced charge collection). Charge collection depth can be extracted from the pulse height spectrum from well-defined regions of the IC. When applied to single event upset, those regions sensitive to upset have been directly mapped with scanned microbeam systems. Damage effects due to total-ionizing dose and displacement damage are discussed. These techniques have removed uncertainty associated with broad-beam techniques, and improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for single-event effects in ICs View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Review of commercial spacecraft anomalies and single-event-effect occurrences

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 453 - 460
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    Single-event effects (SEEs) have been observed in space since 1975. This paper is a short inventory of the single-event anomalies encountered in flight on operational satellites. Initially, a brief outline of the events and their origins is traced, and the various parameters involved in the analysis of the anomalies are described. Finally, various SEE anomalies are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Upsets related to spacecraft charging

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 426 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1896 KB)  

    The charging of spacecraft components by high energy radiation can result in spontaneous pulsed discharges. The pulses can interrupt normal operations of spacecraft electronics. The 20-year history of ground studies and spacecraft studies of this phenomenon are reviewed. The data from space are not sufficient to unambiguously point to a few specific solutions. The ground based data continue to find more problem areas the longer one looks. As spacecraft become more complex and carry less radiation shielding, the charging and discharging of insulators is becoming a more critical problem area. Ground experiments indicate that solutions for spacecraft are multiple and diverse, and many technical details are reviewed or introduced here View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event effect ground test issues

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 661 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)  

    Ground-based single event effect (SEE) testing of microcircuits permits characterization of device susceptibility to various radiation induced disturbances, including: (1) single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) in digital microcircuits; (2) single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event burnout (SEB) in power transistors; and (3) bit errors in photonic devices. These characterizations can then be used to generate predictions of device performance in the space radiation environment. This paper provides a general overview of ground-based SEE testing and examines in critical depth several underlying conceptual constructs relevant to the conduct of such tests and to the proper interpretation of results. These more traditional issues are contrasted with emerging concerns related to the testing of modern, advanced microcircuits View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Solar flare proton evaluation at geostationary orbits for engineering applications

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 369 - 382
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1352 KB)  

    Presents the results of novel analyses of spacecraft solar flare proton measurements for solar cycles 20, 21, and 22. Solar events and cycles were classified and ranked by fluence and frequency of occurrence, and events were characterized by the mean energy of the proton spectral distributions. Spacecraft observations permitted a detailed study of event characteristics, such as special consideration of solar minimum flares and cycle variability. Tables and curves are presented to allow evaluations of potential threats to spacecraft survivability at GEO, particularly for types of flare environments that emulate solar cycle 22. Upsets for major events are calculated for several Bendel A parameter values and shield thicknesses, and effective energy thresholds of events are determined as a function of these variables. Critical fluence levels, required to cause errors, versus A are presented. Single event upsets of 93L422 devices on TDRS-1 are evaluated for various shielding conditions. Finally, upset dependencies on A and shield thickness are correlated with event fluences for threshold energies of >30, >50, and >60 MeV View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event-effect mitigation from a system perspective

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 654 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    With the sharp decline in the availability of radiation-hardened devices from manufacturers, as well as the desire to shrink power, weight, and volume of spacecraft systems, the use of devices that are susceptible to single-event effects (SEEs) has become commonplace. We present herein a perspective and user's tool for understanding SEE's and potential system-level mitigation techniques View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event phenomena in GaAs devices and circuits

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 628 - 644
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1876 KB)  

    The single-event upset (SEU) characteristics of GaAs devices and circuits are reviewed. GaAs FET-based integrated circuits (ICs) are susceptible to upsets from both cosmic-ray heavy ions and protons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts. The origin of the SEU sensitivity of GaAs ICs is discussed in terms of both device-level and circuit-level considerations. At the device level, efficient charge-enhancement mechanisms through which more charge can be collected than is deposited by the ion have a significant negative impact on the SEU characteristics of GaAs ICs. At the circuit level, different GaAs digital logic topologies exhibit different levels of sensitivity to SEU because of variations in parameters, including logic levels, capacitances, and the degree of gate or peripheral isolation. The operational and SEU characteristics of several different GaAs logic families are discussed. Recent advances in materials and processing that provide possible solutions to the SEU problem are addressed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event effects in SOI technologies and devices

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 603 - 613
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)  

    Due to their limited sensitive volumes for charge collection, silicon on insulator (SOI) technologies are good candidates for any microelectronic device operating in a space environment. While being insensitive to latchup phenomena, SOI devices may experience single-event effects (SEE's). Based on the analysis of the various structures of SOI transistors, charge collection mechanisms are presented. The different models proposed to analyze the sensitivity of CMOS SRAM cells are then discussed. The available data of SEU characterizations are finally compiled View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event effects rate prediction

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 483 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB)  

    Common practices for predicting rates of single-event effects (SEE) in microelectronics in space environments are reviewed. Established rate-prediction models are discussed, and comparison is drawn between alternative approaches with discussion of dominant modeling parameters, assumptions, and limitations and the impact on prediction results. Areas of current uncertainty are identified. Approaches for obtaining model parameters from test data are reviewed. The methods are illustrated by example calculations that explore the sensitivity of results on model parameter choices View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Laboratory tests for single-event effects

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 678 - 686
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)  

    Integrated circuits are currently tested at accelerators for their susceptibility to single-event effects (SEE's). However, because of the cost and limited accessibility associated with accelerator testing, there is considerable interest in developing alternate testing methods. Two laboratory techniques for measuring SEE, one involving a pulsed laser and the other 252Cf, are described in detail in this paper. The pulsed laser provides information on the spatial and temporal dependence of SEE, information that has proven invaluable in understanding and mitigating SEE in spite of the differences in the physical mechanisms responsible for SEE induced by light and by ions. Considerable effort has been expended on developing 252Cf as a laboratory test for SEE, but the technique has not found wide use because it is severely limited by the low energy and short range of the emitted ions that are unable to reach junctions either covered with dielectric layers or deep below the surface. In fact, there are documented cases where single-event latchup (SEL) testing with 252 Cf gave significantly different results from accelerator testing. A detailed comparison of laboratory and accelerator SEE data is presented in this review in order to establish the limits of each technique View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dynamic modeling of trapped particles

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 416 - 425
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB)  

    Understanding the dynamics of trapped particles is not simple, because storms are different and not too many satellites are orbiting at the same time with detectors aboard. In the past, general considerations have been made about radial diffusion, sources, and losses but at present, due to the increasing power of computers, new codes can help understand what is really happening to particles during storm periods in the trapped region. Physical considerations about four different codes are presented. The applications of full trajectory codes, codes using the guiding center approximation, three-dimensional diffusion codes, and four-dimensional diffusive-convective codes are given. In the near future, with some of these codes, it seems that a step will be passed in the modeling and comprehension of the physical phenomena occurring during such periods. We then will be able to identify the different kinds of storms and their implications on trapped particles, and may be make some predictions on the fluxes encountered by the satellites in the internal magnetosphere region View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single particle-induced latchup

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 522 - 532
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB)  

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the single-event latchup (SEL) hard failure mode encountered in electronic device applications involving heavy ion environment. This phenomenon is specific to CMOS technology. Single-event latchup is discussed after a short description of the effects induced by the interaction of a heavy ion with silicon. Understanding these effects is necessary to understand the different failures. This paper includes a description of the latchup phenomenon and the different triggering modes, reviews of models and hardening solutions, and finally presents new developments in simulation approaches View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Single-event effects experienced by astronauts and microelectronic circuits flown in space

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 475 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)  

    Models developed for explaining the light flashes experienced by astronauts on Apollo and Skylab missions were used with slight modification to explain upsets observed in microelectronic circuits. Both phenomena can be explained by the simple assumption that an event occurs whenever a threshold number of ionizations or isomerizations are generated within a sensitive volume. Evidence is consistent with the threshold being sharp in both cases, but fluctuations in the physical stimuli lead to a gradual rather than sharp increase in cross section with LET. Successful use of the model requires knowledge of the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the value of threshold. Techniques have been developed to determine these SEU parameters in modern circuits View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cosmic and terrestrial single-event radiation effects in dynamic random access memories

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 576 - 593
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1820 KB)  

    A review of the literature on single-event radiation effects (SEE) on MOS integrated-circuit dynamic random access memories (DRAMs) is presented. The sources of single-event (SE) radiation particles, causes of circuit information loss, experimental observations of SE information upset, technological developments for error mitigation, and relationships of developmental trends to SE vulnerability are discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Problems with models of the radiation belts

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 403 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB)  

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations, and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A review of the techniques used for modeling single-event effects in power MOSFETs

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 546 - 560
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1884 KB)  

    Heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Single-event effects (SEE), namely, single-event burnout (SEB), and single-event gate rupture (SEGR), of power MOSFETs are catastrophic failure mechanisms that are initiated by the passage of a heavy ion through the device structure. Various analytical, semianalytical, and simulation models have been developed to help explain these phenomena. This paper presents a review of these models and explains their merits and limitations. New results are included to illustrate the approaches View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurements of the SEE environment from sea level to GEO using the CREAM and CREDO experiments

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 383 - 402
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1448 KB)  

    The cosmic radiation environment and activation monitor (CREAM) and cosmic radiation environment and dosimetry (CREDO) experiments have now been employed in a wide range of flight situations including aircraft, Space Shuttle, UOSAT spacecraft, and most recently the advanced photovoltaics and electronics experiment (APEX) and Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV) satellites. Results from this unique coverage of the environment will be given ranging from the atmosphere, through the radiation belts to geostationary orbit. Collateral data on upsets have also been obtained for a number of situations. Comparisons are made with standard environment and SEE models and show significant deficiencies and discrepancies. These include time variations in the trapped particles, new radiation belts, secondary particle effects in both heavy spacecraft and the atmosphere, and overestimates of cosmic ray and solar flare heavy ions. The need for both further developments in the models and a comprehensive programme of flight experiments is emphasized View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
11509 Paseo del Oso NE
Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA