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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 4 • Date May 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Wireless Local Communications [Guest Editorial]

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A wireless multimedia CDMA system based on transmission power control

    Page(s): 683 - 691
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    This paper proposes a wireless multimedia code division multiple access (CDMA) system based on transmission power control. When we transmit multimedia information (i.e., speech, image, and data), differences in information rate, traffic performance, and required quality should be taken into account. The wireless CDMA system can achieve a flexible balance if transmission power distribution is controlled by using channel measurement information, i.e., traffic. In this paper, the optimal control of transmission power is derived by linear programming and nonlinear programming. Numerical results using a LAN demonstrate that the proposed method can satisfy the required quality View full abstract»

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  • A CDMA-distributed antenna system for in-building personal communications services

    Page(s): 644 - 650
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    To investigate applications of spread spectrum code division multiple access (CDMA) technology to in-building personal communications services (PCS), comprehensive studies have been conducted for a CDMA PCS distributed antenna system in the 1.8 GHz band. The CDMA PCS distributed antenna system was set up with three nodes, each having two time-delayed elements, in a Qualcomm two story office building in San Diego. This paper presents measurement and modeling results on coverage, voice quality (frame error rate), reduction of transmit power, and path diversity for the in-building CDMA PCS distributed antenna system. Wideband CDMA signal coverage was predicted by using a ray tracing tool to find optimum placement of the distributed antennas. Using three nodes mounted in the ceiling space between the first and second floors, with each active element transmitting at -5 dBm in the system, the ray-tracing prediction shows good signal coverage in both floors of the building. The prediction results are confirmed by measurements at numerous discrete points with a standard deviation of 3.3 dB. Measurements using various combinations of number of nodes and delay elements showed significant time and path diversity advantages for the CDMA-distributed antenna system in indoor radio environments. Trade-offs between diversity gain and self-interference due to uncaptured finger energy in fringe areas are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Distributed call admission control in mobile/wireless networks

    Page(s): 711 - 717
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    The major focus of this paper is distributed call admission control in mobile/wireless networks, the purpose of which is to limit the call handoff dropping probability in loss systems or the cell overload probability in lossless systems. Handoff dropping or cell overload are consequences of congestion in wireless networks. Our call admission control algorithm takes into consideration the number of calls in adjacent cells, in addition to the number of calls in the cell where a new call request is made, in order to make a call admission decision. This is done by every base station in a distributed manner without the involvement of the network call processor. The admission condition is simple enough that the admission decision can be made in real time. Furthermore, we show that our distributed call admission control scheme limits the handoff dropping or the cell overload probability to a predefined level almost independent of load conditions. This is an important requirement of future wireless/mobile networks with quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning View full abstract»

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  • Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems

    Page(s): 632 - 643
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    Broadband analog transport facilities using fiber or fiber/coax cable can play a significant role in the evolution of the network infrastructure for personal communications services (PCSs). Low-power PCS systems require a dense grid of radio ports to provide connectivity to the telephone network. Analog transport has a number of important advantages over digital transmission facilities, including the flexibility to support a variety of air interface formats, shared infrastructure cost with other services such as video distribution, and centralized call processing allowing the use of low cost and simple radio ports. A simulcast technique can be used in such systems to permit low rates of handoff (no handoff within each simulcast area) and sharing of hardware resources among multiple radio ports. This paper provides a detailed model and a simulation analysis of the cochannel interference and noise performance as well as the resource sharing benefit of a simulcast PCS system. Several potential PCS air interfaces are considered, including time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques. Our investigation shows that the impact of multiple antenna noise in a simulcast system is offset by the improved signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio brought about by distributed antennas. Even with distributed antennas, multiple antenna noise places a limit on the maximum number of radio ports that can be assigned to each simulcast group. This limit, however, is shown to have little impact on the achievable resource sharing benefit of simulcasting (i.e., grouping beyond this limit has diminishing returns). A saving of 40% to 60%, in terms of the required central hardware resources, is typical for both TDMA and CDMA systems in suburban environments View full abstract»

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  • A new protocol for the integration of voice and data over PRMA

    Page(s): 623 - 631
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    In packet reservation multiple access (PRMA) the receiver in the mobile terminal is required to listen continuously to monitor the acknowledgment messages broadcasted at the end of every time slot. A new scheme for the integration of voice and data based on PRMA is proposed. The voice and the data subsystems are logically separated. The total available bandwidth is divided into three regions-voice information, voice contention, and data regions. The available bandwidth is dynamically partitioned between the above three regions subject to the fulfillment of the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the voice users. The voice subsystem has been modeled as a Markov chain and an exact analytical method used to compute the voice packet dropping probability is described. A nonlinear programming problem is formulated to optimize the bandwidth allocated for the data users. Solutions to this nonlinear programming problem that are very close to optimum have been obtained heuristically. Numerical results indicate that a significant amount of data traffic can be supported without sacrificing the voice capacity of the system View full abstract»

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  • Performance of personal access communications system-unlicensed B

    Page(s): 718 - 727
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    The FCC has allocated the band between 1920 MHz and 1930 MHz for unlicensed personal communications services (UPCS) using isochronous or circuit operation. The UPCS spectrum is between the licensed PCS spectrum bands of 1850-1910 MHz and 1930-1990 MHz. Terminal interoperability in both the UPCS spectrum on private indoor wireless systems and the licensed spectrum on public PCS systems is desirable and encouraged by the FCC. This paper presents a port channel assignment process for the personal access communications system-unlicensed B (PACS-UB) which abides by the FCC etiquette for UPCS and discusses the corresponding uplink and downlink performance. Uplink power control is employed to improve the uplink performance. PACS-UB has a high degree of commonality with licensed PACS to permit economical licensed/unlicensed terminals and common network services. The results of our simulation show that, at 1% to 2% blocking probability, 99% of downlink local-mean signal-to-noise plus interference ratio (SINR) values are above 17 dB for a 10 to 20 m port separation. For a three-dimensional office environment, the uplink limits the SINR performance, however, with uplink power control, a 5.5 to 7 dB improvement in the uplink SINR can be achieved even for high traffic load View full abstract»

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  • Capture-division packet access for wireless personal communications

    Page(s): 609 - 622
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    This paper presents a new architecture for the third-generation mobile systems, capture-division packetized access (CDPA), that overcomes most of the limitations of present cellular systems. It addresses the three main issues of radio access, namely the channel reuse, the multiple access, and the handover problems, in complete adherence to packet-switching principles. The CDPA channel reuse mechanism is a completely new alternative with respect to time-division, frequency-division, or code-division multiple-access (TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA, respectively), which achieve communication parallelism by subdividing the bandwidth a priori among cells. In CDPA, a single frequency channel is used and parallel transmissions are achieved through the “capture” capability of receivers. The hybrid reservation-polling multiple access mechanism used in CDPA is able to integrate any kind of traffic and guarantees almost immediate retransmission of packets that are not captured, thus assuring their correct reception. Finally, the packet-switching approach allows connectionless communications with any base station (BS), and eliminates the need for extra radio traffic in managing handovers. This turns out to be very effective in local area systems where the required high bandwidth is obtained by using a pico-cell structure. We present the CDPA architecture, discuss some implementation issues, and evaluate its performance under a variety of system parameters and operating conditions, using analytical and simulation methods View full abstract»

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  • Common packet data channel (CPDC) for integrated wireless DS-CDMA networks

    Page(s): 735 - 749
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    A common packet data channel (CPDC) architecture is proposed to support bursty, packet-based services in direct sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) integrated wireless access networks. The architecture employs an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) strategy in the forward CPDC link and a spread ALOHA-type random access strategy in the reverse CPDC link. A congestion control algorithm using base station broadcast and portable terminal random delay call reattempt is described. A performance analysis of the CPDC architecture and algorithms is carried out, and formulas for the bit error rate, blocking probability, system delay time, transmission time, and waiting time for packet data calls are derived. The interference caused by a CPDC to stream services in the network is determined, and the capacity of a CPDC is evaluated in terms of the number of packet data subscribers that can be served with a specified grade of service (GOS) View full abstract»

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  • Throughput analysis of DS/SSMA unslotted ALOHA system with fixed packet length

    Page(s): 750 - 756
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    Throughput analysis of direct-sequence spread spectrum multiple access (DS/SSMA) unslotted ALOHA with fixed packet length is presented. As the levels of multi-user interference fluctuate during the packet transmission, we calculate the packet error probability and the throughput by considering not only the number of overlapped packets but also the amount of time overlap. On the assumption that packet generation is Poisson, the system can be thought as the queueing system M/D/∞. With Gaussian approximation of multi-user interference, we obtain the throughput as the function of the number of chips in a bit, the packet length, and the offered load of the system. We also analyze the channel load sensing protocol (CLSP), and obtain the optimum threshold of CLSP View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of distributed measurement-based dynamic channel assignment in local wireless communications

    Page(s): 698 - 710
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    The diverse environments emerging for wireless communication applications could render the centralized prediction-based channel assignment methodology, conventionally employed in cellular radio networks, impractical. The distributed measurement-based approach seems to be a more practical solution. We evaluate and compare several distributed measurement-based algorithms for dynamic channel assignment (DCA). Their performance is also compared with a centralized prediction-based algorithm. It is found that a simple aggressive algorithm with the use of a threshold, known as the least interference algorithm (LIA), performs the best View full abstract»

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  • A fully distributed power control algorithm for cellular mobile systems

    Page(s): 692 - 697
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    Several distributed power control algorithms that can achieve carrier-to-interference ratio (CIR) balancing with probability one have been proposed previously for cellular mobile systems. In these algorithms, only local information is used to adjust transmitting power. However, a normalization procedure is required in each iteration to determine transmitting power and, thus, these algorithms are not fully distributed. In this paper, we present a distributed power control algorithm which does not need the normalization procedure. We show that the proposed algorithm can achieve CIR balancing with probability one. Moreover, numerical results reveal our proposed scheme performs better than the algorithm presented in Grandhi et al. [1994]. The excellent performance and the fully distributed property make our proposed algorithm a good choice for cellular mobile systems View full abstract»

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  • Optimal location of transmitters for micro-cellular radio communication system design

    Page(s): 662 - 673
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    This paper is concerned with the mathematical modeling and analysis of a radio communication system design problem that seeks an optimal location of a single transmitter, or that of multiple transmitters, in order to serve a specified distribution of receivers. The problem is modeled by discretizing the radio coverage region into a grid of receiver locations and by specifying a function that estimates the path-loss or signal attenuation for each receiver location, given a particular location for a transmitter that communicates with it. The resulting model is a nonlinear programming problem having an implicitly defined objective function of minimizing a measure of weighted path-losses. Specializations of three nonlinear optimization algorithms, namely, the Hooke and Jeeves' method, the quasi-Newton, and conjugate gradient search procedures are investigated for solving this problem. The technique described here is intended to interact with various propagation prediction models and may be used in a CAD system for radio communication system design View full abstract»

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  • Polling deregistration for unlicensed PCS

    Page(s): 728 - 734
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    The FCC has allocated the spectrum between 1850-1910 and 1930-1990 MHz for licensed personal communications services (PCS) and the band between 1920-1930 MHz for unlicensed PCS (UPCS). This paper describes a polling deregistration protocol for a wireless access communications network which would support interoperability between licensed personal communications services (PCS) and unlicensed-PCS (UPCS). We show how the protocol can be efficiently implemented in the personal access communications system (PACS) for licensed PCS and in the PACS-Unlicensed Version B (PACS-UB). An analytical model is proposed to analyze the performance of the polling protocol. A cost function is derived, which can be used to estimate the optimal polling frequency View full abstract»

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  • A multiple access scheme for wireless access to a broadband ATM LAN based on polling and sectored antennas

    Page(s): 596 - 608
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    An adaptive polling scheme for multiple access in a broadband wireless local area networks (LANs) is proposed. It is designed to accommodate asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic with a large and variable range of bit rates. The radio architecture is microcellular, with switched sectored-beam antennas and a small frequency reuse factor. Features of the multiple access scheme include polling rate depending on a terminal's average bit rate, fixed-length frames divided into segments corresponding to base antenna sectors, and automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) for error control, combined with randomized sector segment ordering. The steady-state performance (cell loss, call blocking and dropping probabilities, waiting time, and buffer occupancy) are evaluated by simulation for an open indoor environment, and for handoff, ARQ, and simple power control enhancements; focusing mainly on the effects of the propagation and interference conditions View full abstract»

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  • Spectral efficiency and optimal base placement for indoor wireless networks

    Page(s): 651 - 661
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    In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing the spectral efficiency of cellular indoor wireless networks by adjusting the location and power of the base-stations. Focusing on the downlink, we derive general network access criteria for mobiles on the indoor floor for systems that employ omnidirectional antennas and adaptive antennas arrays at the base-stations, in order to show and explain the advantages of the use of spatial diversity. Multiple access capability measures that depend only on energy are defined for both schemes. They are then used as the cost function for the solution to the optimal base-station placement problem, for a single-frequency system. Both continuous and combinatorial approaches have been applied to the solution of the optimization problem, and near-optimal solutions have been obtained. We show that the use of adaptive arrays yields greater capacity when increased cell-area overlap is allowed. The optimization methods, channel prediction methods, and a graphic user interface are parts of an integrated software environment that we developed in support of our investigation and which is described View full abstract»

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  • Selection diversity combining with multiple antennas for MM-wave indoor wireless channels

    Page(s): 674 - 682
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    Presents predetection and postdetection combining schemes for selection diversity reception with multiple antennas for MM-wave indoor radio channels. For those combining schemes, a reduction in complexity is achieved by limiting the number of combined signals to small values and by increasing the number of received signals. Bit error rate (BER) performance of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) with predetection combining of selected signals (CSS) and BER performance of differential BPSK with postdetection CSS are analyzed for slow fading and Rayleigh-distributed envelope statistics. Predetection maximal ratio combining of signals that comes from a single group or several groups of diversity channels as well as postdetection combining of received signals for groups of channels are considered. In comparing predetection combining with groups (PCG) and predetection combining of the best signals (PCB), we observe that the required SNR for achieving a certain BER is approximatively the same (with PCG having a slight advantage of 0.5 dB) for a given number, N, of diversity channels and L combined signals. Furthermore. PCG is equivalent to PCB for L=N since both techniques then correspond to conventional predetection maximal ratio combining (MRC), PCG and PCB are also equivalent when L=1 as both schemes then correspond to conventional selection combining. A small degradation of approximately 2 dB in the required SNR is observed when postdetection diversity reception with groups (PDG) is used instead of PCG. For L=N, PDG reduces to post detection MRC. The PDG technique is considered more suitable than PCB or PCG for MM-indoor wireless systems View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT