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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • Date March 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Special Issue on Electrical Therapy of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Strategic Technology Management [Book Reviews]

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • John G. Brainerd and Project PX (ENIAC) [Scanning the Past]

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB)

    Fifty years ago this month, the Proceedings of the Radio Engineers (IRE) included an article by John G. Brainerd on Project PX or ENIAC, which had recently been completed at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. The author had served as supervisor of the wartime project and was a professor of electrical engineering at the university. ENIAC was an acronym for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Comp... View full abstract»

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  • Using computer models to understand the roles of tissue structure and membrane dynamics in arrhythmogenesis

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):334 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2328 KB)

    The merging of hypotheses and techniques from physics, mathematics, biomedical engineering, cardiology, and computer science is helping to form increasingly more realistic computer models of the heart. These models complement experimental and clinical studies that seek to elucidate the mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis and improve pharmacological and electrical therapies. This paper reviews the curre... View full abstract»

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  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):468 - 479
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1244 KB)

    The electrical design challenges for implantable defibrillators are discussed based on the following criteria: device evolution, system architecture, therapy delivery, mid heart activity sensing circuits. The discussion includes the incidence of sudden cardiac death and the clinical requirements of device hardware. System architecture includes the three dependent entities that define the system mi... View full abstract»

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  • Experimental techniques for investigating cardiac electrical activity and response to electrical stimuli

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):417 - 427
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB)

    One of the goals of experimental research in the areas of cardiac electrical activity and effects of stimulation has been to understand basic physiological responses of the heart to electrical stimulation. It is thought that electrical stimulation produces a distribution of current or an electric field in the heart that alters the transmembrane voltages of heart cells. This leads to changes in sta... View full abstract»

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  • The laws of electrical stimulation of cardiac tissue

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):355 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)

    Classic description of the criteria for cardiac stimulation is by the strength-duration curve which may be presented for current, energy, or charge. Minima for each of these occur at different waveform durations. The fundamental mechanism by which the stimulus is effective is altering the polarization potential of the cell membranes in the heart. Partial depolarization of these cells initiates a c... View full abstract»

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  • Implantable pacemakers

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):480 - 486
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)

    Advances in cardiac pacing have greatly reduced the size of pacemakers, while improving their longevity and reliability, expanding their clinical applications and increasing their sophistication in terms of programming and automatic features. Significant reductions in the size of pacing systems have been mainly due to improvements in power sources, increased circuit integration, hybrid packaging, ... View full abstract»

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  • Detection algorithms in implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):428 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2088 KB)

    Presents a review of the evolution of tachycardia fibrillation detection algorithms designed for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) including those that have been incorporated into first, second, and third generation devices. The major emphasis of this review is an overview of the development of new and innovative means for improved detection in next-generation devices. Time-domain and ... View full abstract»

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  • Detrimental effects of electrical fields on cardiac muscle

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):366 - 378
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1452 KB)

    The use of controlled electrical shock as a therapy to manage cardiac arrhythmia is a practice commonly used today. High intensity electrical fields are generated near the shock electrodes, and if the electrodes are placed directly on or inside the heart as is often the case, tissue injury and dysfunction may result if the shock intensity is too high. Many factors influence the degree of dysfuncti... View full abstract»

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  • External defibrillators and emergency external pacemakers

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):487 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2172 KB)

    The first experimental defibrillation occurred in 1900. Zoll first achieved external defibrillation of a human heart in 1956 and the first commercial external manual defibrillators were introduced in 1961. The author discusses the steady improvements in manual defibrillator performance which have occurred since 1961, particularly relating to added functionality, event documentation, and telecommun... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical behavior of defibrillation and pacing electrodes

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):446 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)

    This article discusses the electrodes and their interfaces for internal and external defibrillation and external pacing applications. Of primary concern is the nature of the current delivery and distribution at the electrode-tissue interface and the techniques that may be used to generate a uniform distribution of current density in order to minimize pain and burning. The cost of achieving a unifo... View full abstract»

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  • The effect of externally applied electrical fields on myocardial tissue

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):379 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1308 KB)

    The explanation of the response to electrical stimulus by macroscopic regions of cardiac tissue in terms of the behavior of membrane ion channels requires mathematical models that span the range of spatial scales from the single cardiac cell to the entire heart. This is accomplished by the bidomain model, which successfully characterizes the electrical properties of the heart and the effect of ext... View full abstract»

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  • Cardiac pacing electrodes

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):457 - 467
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1784 KB)

    On the surface, the cardiac pacing lead is just a simple cable that connects the pulse generator to the heart. The simple appearance of the lead is very misleading, however. The size, longevity, and features of the pulse generator and the patient's safety depend to a large extent on the performance of the lead. The pacemaker must assure that the heart will contract with each stimulus. Thus the pac... View full abstract»

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  • The mechanism of defibrillation and cardioversion

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):392 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB)

    Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation is responsible for over 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. The only treatment for this fatal arrhythmia is electrical defibrillation of the ventricle. During the initial seconds of ventricular fibrillation, multiple reentry circuits cause action potentials to occur rapidly with a cycle length determined primarily by the cellular... View full abstract»

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  • Ablation for the treatment of arrhythmias

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):404 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2228 KB)

    Surgical ablation of supraventricular cardiac arrhythmias has been rendered obsolete by the various modalities of electromagnetic transcatheter ablation techniques. Any ablation technique, including surgery is essentially the controlled destruction of a substrate which is acting as a source or a critical circuit limb of an arrhythmia. The most successful and popular modality is radio frequency (RF... View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University