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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Society President's message: The Industry Applications Society - Where do we go from here? [Guest Feature]

    Publication Year: 1996
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  • An iterative learning control method with application for CNC machine tools

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 66 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    A proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) type iterative learning controller is proposed for precise tracking control of industrial robots and computer numerical controller (CNC) machine tools performing repetitive tasks. The convergence of the output error by the proposed learning controller is guaranteed under a certain condition even when the system parameters are not known exactly and unknown external disturbances exist. As the proposed learning controller is repeatedly applied to the industrial robot or the CNC machine tool with the path-dependent repetitive task, the distance difference between the desired path and the actual tracked or machined path, which is one of the most significant factors in the evaluation of control performance, is progressively reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed learning controller can improve machining accuracy when the CNC machine tool performs repetitive machining tasks View full abstract»

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  • Sprinkler systems in electrical control rooms: cause for anxiety or responsible safety design?

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 25 - 30
    Cited by:  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    Fire protection in electrical control rooms can be a controversial subject, but it is an important one, especially in today's highly regulated society. The prospect of using sprinkler systems around electrical equipment can cause anxiety. Conducting a risk analysis, considering available options, selecting appropriate protection, and being prepared for emergency response will result in an optimum design and safe operation. One company's recommended practice serves as a basis for guidelines on how to choose appropriate fire protection for electrical control rooms View full abstract»

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  • A novel dehumidification technique using electric field

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 36 - 40
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    A completely new concept of dehumidification is presented. The polar nature of the electronic bond structure between oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a water molecule is utilized to attract them using an electric field. It is possible to single out and remove the water molecules from the air inside a room to make the room dehumidified. A theoretical formulation is developed and a simple experiment was performed to validate the theory. Unlike the conventional dehumidification process, this process does not involve any condensation of the moisture and hence requires a very small amount of power. The technique can also be very useful for air-conditioning as well View full abstract»

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  • Electrostatic painting of nonconductive surfaces with water-base paints

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 90 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    Electrostatic corona painting on nonconductive surfaces normally requires a ground-connected conductive precoating of the surface in order to dissipate the continuously incoming ionic charge from the corona gun. If the surface charge does not flow to ground, the resulting surface electric field will repel a substantial amount of the incoming paint. The authors present a new painting method consisting of generating ultrasonically atomized electrically charged water particles behind the nonconductive surface to be painted. The paint spraying is carried out with a mechanical spray gun maintained at ground potential. The water base paint becomes charged by induction under the influence of the space charge behind the nonconductive surface to be painted. As the resulting charge on the water base paint particles is of opposite polarity to that of the ultrasonically atomized electrically charged water particles cloud, all propelling electric fields converge toward the surface to be painted. The results show excellent transfer efficiencies View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of appropriate pole number combinations for brushless doubly fed machines applied to pump drives

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 189 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    Three alternative brushless doubly-fed induction machine (BDFM) pump drive configurations are investigated as a replacement for a 60 hp wound rotor induction machine drive. The BDFM, utilizing a bidirectional power converter to realize precise (synchronous) speed control, is shown to require a power electronic converter of substantially reduced rating which can result in significant system cost savings. In addition, the BDFM system offers controlled, unity power factor operation. A procedure for analyzing BDFM designs is presented (with examples) and steady state performance results are predicted for the BDFM pump drives. This paper explains the design decisions that are made in regards to power converter rating and pole-pair selection View full abstract»

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  • Torque prediction using the flux-MMF diagram in AC, DC, and reluctance motors

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 180 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)  

    This paper uses the flux-MMF diagram to compare and contrast the torque production mechanism in seven common types of electric motor. The flux-MMF diagram is a generalized version of the flux-linkage versus current (ψ-i) diagram for switched-reluctance motors. It is illustrated for switched-reluctance, synchronous-reluctance, induction, brushless AC, brushless DC, interior PM and commutator motors. The calculated flux-MMF diagrams for motors with the same electromagnetic volume, airgap, slotfill, and total copper loss are shown and are used to compare the low-speed torque and torque ripple performance. The motor designs used were reasonably optimized using a combination of commercially available motor CAD packages and finite-element analysis View full abstract»

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  • Droplet charge-to-mass ratio measurement in an EHD liquid-liquid extraction system

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 146 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)  

    The application of a high voltage electric field to enhance the rate of mass transfer in liquid-liquid extraction has been an active subject of investigation in recent years. The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) forces generated by electric fields at a liquid-liquid interface have a potential application in chemical processing industry solvent extraction processes. In this work, the charge-to-mass ratio of droplets formed in an EHD liquid-liquid extraction system has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The results reported from the present investigation, extending from the single discrete droplet regime (at low applied voltages) to the dispersed multi-droplet regime (at high applied voltages), indicate that the modified Rayleigh instability model and Vonnegut and Neubauer model can explain maximum droplet charge acquired in liquid-liquid systems, especially the modified Vonnegut and Neubauer model which can predict most of the experimental results when the applied electric field is high enough and EHD forces become dominant View full abstract»

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  • Low NOx thermophotovoltaic generator

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 41 - 46
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    Fiber matrix burners incorporating “superemissive” ceramic materials were tested to obtain the relationship between power generation and the pollutant emissions. The tested variables were the following: equivalence ratio, fuel input, and inlet air temperature. One important objective was to achieve maximum efficiency of electricity generation at the lowest level of NOx emissions. It was found that NOx emission under these specific conditions does not depend on inlet air temperature in the ranges from 20 to 200°C. This phenomena suggests that “thermal NOx” is not a significant contributor of NOx emission in these types of burners. The test data indicate that the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power output increased by a factor of 2 by increasing the combustion temperature while the NOx emissions were stable. The result of these findings is that high efficiency, low polluting TPV-power generation is feasible. The basic technology responsible for the low NO x emission and the electric power generation is being further developed for use in high-efficiency appliances, generators, and total energy systems View full abstract»

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  • Permanent magnet linear motors for short strokes

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 161 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    The use of new powerful permanent magnet materials such as neodymium-iron-boron alloys can greatly improve the performance of electrical machines. The paper analyzes the impact of their use on linear motors with particular emphasis on fast action over strokes on the order of 5 to 20 mm. Closed-form formulae, which link the travel time to the stroke and heat dissipation limit of the device, are established. These formulae are used to compare various machine configurations, some of which were devised specifically for this application. It is shown that permanent magnet linear motors feature very fast travel times, but can do so only at low duty cycles. For that reason, two-spring actuators, though not as fast for single motion are superior when higher frequencies of operation, are required View full abstract»

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  • Design of nonaxisymmetrical image intensifiers

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 93 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    The concept of a nonaxisymmetrical X-ray image intensifier is presented in this paper. Instead of cylindrical electrodes, as in the conventional device, this intensifier is equipped with planar electrodes. Each one consists of some number of elementary quadrilateral patches, which are mutually insulated from each other and supplied with the proper voltages. The algorithm for determining potentials which must be supplied to the elementary electrodes is described in the paper. The algorithm has been validated by comparing the electric field distributions in both configurations. Details of the electric field distribution are also helpful in evaluating the optical characteristics of the intensifier View full abstract»

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  • A rule-based fuzzy logic controller for a PWM inverter in a stand alone wind energy conversion scheme

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 57 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (98)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    The paper presents a rule-based fuzzy logic controller to control the output power of a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter used in a stand-alone wind energy conversion scheme (SAWECS). The self-excited induction generator used in SAWECS has the inherent problem of fluctuations in the magnitude and frequency of its terminal voltage with changes in wind velocity and load. To overcome this drawback the variable magnitude, variable frequency voltage at the generator terminals is rectified and the DC power is transferred to the load through a PWM inverter. The objective is to track and extract maximum power from the wind energy system and transfer this power to the local isolated load, This is achieved by using the fuzzy logic controller which regulates the modulation index of the PWM inverter based on the input signals: the power error; and its rate of change. These input signals are fuzzified, that is defined by a set of linguistic labels characterized by their membership functions predefined for each class. Using a set of 49 rules which relate the fuzzified input signals to the fuzzy controller output, fuzzy set theory and associated fuzzy logic operations, the fuzzy controller's output is obtained. The fuzzy set describing the controller's output (in terms of linguistic labels) is defuzzified to obtain the actual analog (numerical) output signal which is then used to control the PWM inverter and ensure complete utilization of the available wind energy. The proposed rule-based fuzzy logic controller is simulated and the results are experimentally verified on a scaled down laboratory prototype of the SAWECS View full abstract»

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  • On the dynamics of the electric field induced breakdown in lipid membranes

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 125 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    Electric field methods are powerful tools for cell characterization and manipulation. Important biotechnological applications, e.g., electrofusion of cells or electroinjection of macromolecules into living cells, rely on membrane breakdown. Despite the widespread use of these techniques, the process of membrane breakdown is poorly understood: a better understanding can be expected to lead to higher efficiencies. The present study used planar lipid bilayers in order to limit the number of experimental parameters. Membrane rupture was induced by careful application of short electric field pulses: measurement of the subsequent increase in membrane conductivity with time permitted the underlying mechanism to be characterized. The initial process of pore formation starts a few μs after the onset of the pulse, and the ensuing breakdown of the entire lipid membrane occurs within about a millisecond (pore widening velocity of a few cm/s). The kinetics of the pore-opening process could be influenced qualitatively by adding surfactants and lipid-attached macromolecules, respectively. Changing the effective mass per unit area of membrane, which could be brought about by using known percentages of lipids with covalently bound, hydrophilic polymers, allowed a model for the pore widening process to be quantitatively tested View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of induced EMF waveforms and torque ripple in a brushless permanent magnet machine

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 195 - 200
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)  

    Permanent magnet machines with trapezoidal back EMF waveform have been the subject of several papers in the past. The simplicity in control and the absence of an absolute position sensor makes this type of motor very attractive. Idealized analysis of such a machine is simple and will result in trapezoidal or square wave back EMF waveforms depending on the assumptions made. In the case of an idealized quasi-square wave current excitation, a ripple-free torque will be obtained. The actual back EMF waveform of these machines depends on the flux density and the conductor distributions. This in turn is a function of the magnet magnetization and the stator tooth and slot structure. In applications where a fairly smooth torque is needed, these machines are made with either the stator slots or the rotor magnets skewed by one slot. This paper deals with the analysis of the back EMF waveform and of the torque ripple waveform of such a machine when the stator slots or rotor magnets are skewed by one slot. The analysis takes into consideration the actual stator conductor distribution and the effect of magnet magnetization on the back EMF waveform. An empirical formula is developed for the magnet flux density distribution which could be used for various magnetization conditions of the magnet. Experimental results are included to confirm the analytical results View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of spark ignition of a gas cooktop flame

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 31 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    One of the energy-saving devices used on gas cooking appliances to eliminate the standing pilot is a spark ignition system. For safety, an ignition system must start promptly and be active whenever flowing gas is not ignited. To minimize noise and nuisance shock hazard, ignition must occur quickly and the sparking must be stopped as soon as ignition occurs and remain off as long as the flame is present. To accomplish both of these requirements, ignition systems have been devised which use the electrical current rectification property of a flame to sense it. These systems spark whenever the gas valve is on and a flame is not present. The factors affecting the performance of a spark ignition system are numerous, complex, and transient. All of these properties make quantification of performance difficult. A system is described which can evaluate the overall performance of ignition systems over significant periods of time and varieties of operating conditions and organize the resulting data into simple, quantifiable forms for evaluation and comparison. Some examples are presented View full abstract»

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  • On the use of an ionic pump in a convector heater

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 80 - 89
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB)  

    The possible use of an ionic pump in order to increase the air flux in a convector heater is examined. The functioning of such an electro-aerodynamic heater is modeled. The distribution of space charge injected by a set of point electrodes and the influence of the temperature of the heating resistor on back emission and breakdown voltage are more particularly studied. The results on a test cell and on a prototype agree with the prediction of a mean flow velocity varying as the square root of the product Id of the current I and the gap d of the pumping device. The problems met in practical application are briefly discussed View full abstract»

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  • Preliminary pilot plant tests of a corona discharge-electron beam hybrid combustion flue gas cleaning system

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 131 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    Pilot power plant tests of a corona discharge-electron beam hybrid combustion flow gas cleaning system have been conducted. Gas flow rate of the test loop is a heavy oil fired boiler flue gas with 1200 Nm3 /h, and one electron beam generator (500 kV×30 mA) is used with a corona discharge ammonia radical injection system (60 kV×5 mA), SO2, CO, CO2, NH3, NO, NOx and O2 gases are monitored. The results show that up to 85% of NOx and 98% of SOx in flue gases are removed under a corona discharge-electron beam hybrid operations with significant small amount of leaked ammonias from exhaust flue gases View full abstract»

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  • Self-adjusting diagnostic system for the manufacture of crystal resonators

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 73 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    In the development of a diagnostic system to monitor the condition of the frequency tuning process, fuzzy logic can be applied in recognition of unnatural statistical control chart patterns. The heuristics for reasoning is based on the principles behind statistical process control. With the experience of an expert in troubleshooting, one can derive the necessary knowledge to associate the pattern of a control chart to a set of known physical causes. Since these causes related to the unnatural statistical patterns are not independent, it is difficult to precisely associate the chart distribution patterns to the known causes. Furthermore, the causes of problems dealt with will also vary with time. Hence, by means of neural networks, it is possible to learn the association of fuzzily deduced chart patterns to plausible causes in order to achieve an optimum operating condition View full abstract»

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  • RCD snubber revisited

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 155 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The use of the polarized RCD turn-off snubber configuration across switching devices is popular because of its simplicity and use of only passive components. This configuration is limited by the fact that all capacitor-stored energy is dissipated in the discharge resistor. In this paper, it is shown that with the addition of a ferrite transformer to the standard RCD arrangement, in excess of 70% of the energy stored on the snubber capacitor may be passively recovered into the DC supply. Performance of this passive recovery snubber is supported by theoretical, simulated and practical results View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy logic applied to motor control

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 51 - 56
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    Today, home appliance applications require more and more features such as motor speed adaptations to multipurpose accessories, user friendly interfaces, and security features. Such new requirements can be achieved through a low-end microcontroller-based electronic control using the fuzzy logic approach. Nowadays, most of fuzzy logic-based controls are only limited to a complicated ranking management of user interfaces, sensors, and actuators, corresponding to a slow software speed operation. This paper proposes a totally different use of fuzzy logic. In this case, fuzzy logic is implemented in a standard microcontroller to regulate the speed of a universal motor by a real time adjustment (every 30 millisecond) of the motor current. This microcontroller directly tunes the motor current by means of a chopper converter. Starting from a basic food-processor application, the paper practically shows how a fuzzy logic approach can be applied to build a closed speed regulation loop from a very low cost tacho-generator. Practical guidelines are successively given from the initial concept analysis phase, up to the final generation of the executable code to be loaded in the microcontroller. The paper also gives the practical procedure to define the input parameters and to build fuzzy logic rules when using the fuzzy logic development tool. Finally, the major benefits of this paper lie in an original approach where fuzzy logic is applied to fast “real-time” regulation loop without requiring any specific expertise in conventional methods of regulation. Benefits are discussed and concrete results are given View full abstract»

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  • Control of ammonia and odors in animal houses by a ferroelectric plasma reactor

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 113 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The objective of this study was to develop an electric air-cleaning system for animal houses to control noxious gases and odors. An AC-powered ferroelectric packed-bed plasma reactor was tested for its ability to decompose ammonia and odors in the air. Four important parameters that affect reactor performance were investigated: gas residence time in the reactor (four test levels, 0.2 to 1.3 s), power voltage (six levels, 0 to 15 kV), power frequency (two levels, 60-Hz and 18-kHz), and initial ammonia concentration (three levels, 21, 27 and 55 ppm). Up to 95% ammonia decomposition efficiencies were obtained under a combination of test conditions. The packed-bed plasma reactor was effective in decomposing odors in the air taken from a swine house View full abstract»

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  • Development of a microwave clothes dryer

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 47 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    A laboratory test model of a microwave clothes dryer was constructed and tested over a wide range of test variables, including number of magnetrons and use of auxiliary heat. The tests identified three distinct operating modes: (1) cool drying, which uses only microwave energy and drying occurs at less than 105°F; (2) fast drying, where microwave drying is superimposed on conventional drying; and (3) efficient drying, where the use of microwave energy with waste heat recovery from the power supply results in significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional dryers View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state, lumped-parameter model for capacitor-run, single-phase induction motors

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 169 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    This paper documents a technique for deriving a steady-state, lumped-parameter model for capacitor-run, single-phase induction motors. The objective of this model is to predict motor performance parameters such as torque, loss distribution, and efficiency as a function of applied voltage and motor speed as well as the temperatures of the stator windings and of the rotor. The model includes representations of both the main and auxiliary windings (including arbitrary external impedances) and also the effects of core and rotational losses. The technique can be easily implemented and the resultant model can be used in a wide variety of analyses to investigate motor performance as a function of load, speed, and winding and rotor temperatures. The technique is based upon a coupled-circuit representation of the induction motor. A notable feature of the model is the technique used for representing core loss. This methodology takes advantage of the speed of digital computation which permits a search of parameter space to find a parameter set that best matches the measured motor performance. Finally, an example of the technique is presented based upon a 3.5 kW, single-phase, capacitor-run motor and the validity of the technique is demonstrated by comparing predicted and measured motor performance View full abstract»

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  • Formation of chemical species and their effects on microorganisms using a pulsed high-voltage discharge in water

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 106 - 112
    Cited by:  Papers (135)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)  

    The primary mechanism for sterilization of microorganisms by high-voltage pulses has been considered to be an electrical breakdown of the cell membrane. However, it is expected that many kinds of chemically active species would be generated by an electrical discharge in a needle-plate or rod-rod electrode system. Therefore it is necessary to identify the chemical species produced by the discharge and to investigate lethal effects of the active species on microorganisms. In the present study, the formation of active species in water (without O 2 flow) and their effects on yeast cells were investigated using needle-plate electrodes. In the presence of the streamer discharge, H and OH radicals were detected by means of emission spectroscopic analysis of the discharge light. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also detected by absorption spectrophotometry using a reaction of peroxidase and catalase. The effect of the electrical conductivity of the water on the formation of the active species was investigated. Maximum ·OH and H2O2 concentrations were obtained at a water conductivity of about 10-5 S/cm. The H2O2 formation mechanism was considered to be a recombination reaction of ·OH. The lethal effects on beer yeast of ·OH and H2O2 generated by the pulsed electrical discharge in water were also investigated. It was found that ·OH had almost no effect in reducing the survivors. However, the H2H2 did kill the yeast cells: the logarithm of the survival ratio decreased linearly with increasing H2O2 concentration View full abstract»

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  • Decomposition of gaseous organic contaminants by surface discharge induced plasma chemical processing-SPCP

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 118 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (49)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)  

    The decomposition performance of the surface induced plasma chemical processing (SPCP) for chlorofluorocarbon (83 ppm CFC-113 in air), acetone, trichloroethylene, and isopropylalcohol was experimentally examined. In every case, very high decomposition performance, more than 90 or 99% removal rate, is realized when the residence time is about 1 second and the input electric power for a 16 cm3 reactor is about 10 W. Acetone is the most stable compound and alcohol is most easily decomposed. The decomposed product-analysis by a gaschromato-massspectrometer has just started but very poor results are obtained. In fact, some portion of the isopropylalcohol may change to acetone which is worse than alcohol. The necessary energy to decompose one mol gas diluted in the air is calculated from the experiments. The necessary energy level for acetone and trichloroethylene is about one-tenth or one-fiftieth of that for chlorofluorocarbon View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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