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Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • A new two-level model for multiclass freeway traffic

    Page(s): 189 - 200
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    A new freeway traffic model is presented, which is made up by two modeling levels. The regular traffic conditions are represented by means of a macroscopic multiclass model, whereas the nonrecurrent situations are described in terms of discrete events. The necessary synchronization mechanisms are sought for the overall model to allow it to be used as a simulation model, and some comments on how to statistically treat the real-world traffic data in order to obtain suitable input functions for the simulator are reported. The comparison between the real and the simulated evolution of some relevant traffic variables is provided to give a feeling of the model experimental validation phase View full abstract»

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  • Statistical properties of the RMS delay-spread of mobile radio channels with independent Rayleigh-fading paths

    Page(s): 201 - 204
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    The statistical properties of the RMS delay-spread for mobile radio channels with independent Rayleigh-fading paths are investigated. We give analytical formulas for the statistical distribution of the local RMS delay-spread for two independent paths (two-delay model). We show that there is a considerable difference between the mean RMS delay-spread and the expected value of the local RMS delay-spread if the number of paths is small; however, this difference vanishes for a large number of paths View full abstract»

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  • Phase measurements and characterization of mobile radio channels

    Page(s): 105 - 113
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    A channel phase measurement system based on stable quartz oscillators at the transmitter and at an I and Q receiver is presented. Observations of the phase behavior over a 910-MHz mobile radio channel in urban and semi-urban areas are made and related to the signals physical parameters. A method to characterize channel phase variations is proposed that corresponds to taking the second difference on the phase. Standard deviations of this phase variation measure are found to increase more or less linearly with distance in built-up areas, with a slope as high as 10° per km. Comparisons between measured and theoretical statistical distributions of the phase variations are made: while not meeting the χ-square test criteria, quadratic error tests supported by visual observation show that a Student's t distribution with two degrees of freedom, of the type used to describe the statistical characteristics of random FM, offers for practical purposes a useful statistical description of the measured phase variations View full abstract»

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  • Combined multiuser detection and diversity reception for wireless CDMA systems

    Page(s): 205 - 211
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    Code division multiple-access (CDMA) techniques using interference cancellation are being explored for the capacity increase in third-generation universal mobile telecommunications systems. However, multipath fading is a major constraint on the performance of wireless CDMA systems, with multipath propagation worsening the effects of multiple-access interference, and fading on propagation paths leading to the near far problem. Multiuser detection, exploiting the knowledge of other users to cancel multiple-access interference, has the capability of eliminating the near far problem and providing a significant capacity increase in CDMA systems. On the other hand, diversity techniques effectively combat the fading effects of the channel. This paper investigates multiuser receivers that combine explicit antenna diversity, RAKE multipath diversity, and multipath decorrelating detection. Both coherent reception with maximal-ratio combining and differentially coherent reception with equal-gain combining are analyzed. The results demonstrate a significant increase in up-link capacity over the conventional RAKE receiver, at the expense of complexity. In the case of limited receiver complexity, where the number of correlators is less than the number of resolvable paths at the RAKE front-end, antenna diversity is shown to be effective in reducing residual multiple-access interference View full abstract»

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  • Integrated alerting and system broadcast channel for a wireless access system

    Page(s): 157 - 163
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    A protocol is described which allows a wireless access system to dynamically multiplex the alerting, system information, and priority access request subchannels on its system-wide broadcast channel. These subchannels each have different requirements with respect to the message length and position within the framing structure; the described protocol meets each of their requirements. The protocol efficiently accommodates a wide range of alerting traffic levels and provides for efficient downloading of system information to subscriber units by using excess capacity when alerting traffic is low. It provides error detection capabilities above that provided by the radio channel alone and is easily extendible to accommodate other services such as paging and low bandwidth broadcast messaging. The flexibility provided by this protocol could permit a broad range of network architectures for wireless access View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of handoff algorithms using both absolute and relative measurements

    Page(s): 174 - 179
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    An analytic model has been previously developed for evaluating the performance of handoff algorithms based on relative signal strength measurements, i.e., the difference of signal strength from two base stations (BSs). The present authors have extended this analysis by including an additional criterion based on absolute signal strength in the handoff decision algorithm. The absolute signal strength is the averaged value of the received signal level from the current serving BS measured by the mobile unit. This value has to be below a fixed threshold to initiate a handoff (a necessary, not sufficient condition). In this way, the mobile unit should be assigned to a new BS if the absolute signal strength from the old BS drops below the threshold and the relative signal strength between the new and old BS reaches the hysteresis level. The model is proved to be sufficiently accurate by comparison with simulation. The effect of adding absolute signal strength is illustrated View full abstract»

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  • Signaling system performance evaluation for personal communications

    Page(s): 131 - 138
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    A key measure of wireless network performance is the amount of signaling information needed to deliver calls to mobile users. Estimates of the signaling system loading are widely available in recent literature. However, in all of the available publications the results are heavily dependent upon assumptions about user density, velocity, cell sizes, and other quantities related to the system and users. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the signaling system loading that can produce general results that are independent of these assumptions. The technique relies upon the definition of an index of mobility which aggregates several key quantities in a single measure. With this index as the independent variable, graphical results reveal the behavior of a system. This paper evaluates three protocols: GSM Pan-European Cellular, IS-41 North American Cellular, and Bellcore's PCS Access Service for Networks. The method is general and can be easily applied to a new system View full abstract»

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  • Comparing the PCS location tracking strategies

    Page(s): 114 - 121
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    The cache scheme has been proposed to reduce the location tracking overhead of a personal communications services (PCS) network. In the previous papers, we studied the cache scheme under the assumptions that the home location register (HLR) access time is constant and the portable residence times have an exponential distribution. This paper compares the cache scheme with a basic scheme (such as IS-41). We generalize the previous models by considering the queueing effect of the HLR (i.e., we model the HLR by an M/G/1 queue) and by considering an arbitrary distribution for the portable residence times. Our study shows that the cache scheme is likely to outperform the basic scheme when (1) the net traffic to the HLR in the basic scheme saturates and the hit ratio in the cache scheme is larger than zero, (2) the portable mobility is low with respect to the call arrival rate, and (3) the variance of the HLR service time distribution is large (for a fixed mean service time). We also indicate an intuitive result that the cache hit ratio is high for a high call arrival rate and low portable mobility. For a fixed mean portable residence time, we show that a higher cache hit ratio is expected for a portable residence distribution with larger variance View full abstract»

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  • Incoherent estimation on co-channel interference probability for microcellular systems

    Page(s): 164 - 173
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    Prasad and Kegel (1993) offered an approximate analysis of the co-channel interference (CCI) probability for a microcellular system that has multiple shadowed Rayleigh interfering signals and a shadowed Rician desired signal. In that analysis, coherent addition of summing multiple interfering signals was assumed. However, it has been shown that incoherent addition is a more realistic assumption (Prasad and Kegel 1991). In the present paper two approaches-approximation and exact analysis-for calculating the CCI probability under incoherent addition are given. The approximate analysis is extended from the macrocellular case. The exact analysis, newly developed in the present paper, is then used to check the accuracy of the approximation. It is shown that the results of the incoherent approximate analysis differ by an amount of 20~30%. In addition, the authors explore the effect of correlation between the shadowing interferers. They find that in a shadowed-Rician/shadowed-Rayleigh channel, the effect of this kind of correlation increases the CCI probability for cases having a small spread in shadowing and large reuse distance. But if the spread in shadowing is large, the result can be just the opposite-this correlation yields a better performance. It is also found that in a shadowed-Rayleigh (desired)/shadowed-Rayleigh (interfering) channel, regardless of degree of spread in shadowing, this correlation seems always to improve the performance View full abstract»

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  • Transmission analysis on the resonant-cavity combiner of mobile radio transmitters

    Page(s): 139 - 147
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    A general approach to the transmission loss analysis of resonant-cavity combiners of the type used in cellular and in other mobile radio systems is described. A simple closed-form solution is derived for a particular type of combiner in which the cavities are connected in a star configuration via transmission lines that are odd multiples of quarter-wavelength long at the center frequency. This is an exact solution at the center of the combiner band in which one cavity is tuned to this frequency and other cavities are tuned symmetrically in pairs about this frequency. For narrow-band combiners, such as those used in cellular systems, the transmission loss obtained from this solution should be accurate for the entire band. The analysis is valid over wide ranges of combiner parameters: loaded and unloaded Q's of cavities, frequency spacings, and the number of ways it is combined. The comparison of the analytic results with laboratory measurements, although limited in scope, shows that they are in good agreement View full abstract»

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  • The sub-rating channel assignment strategy for PCS hand-offs

    Page(s): 122 - 130
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    A new personal communications services (PCS) hand-off scheme is proposed. This scheme provides for hand-off to radio ports on which there is no free channel by “sub-rating” an existing connection. With sub-rating, an occupied full-rate channel is temporarily divided into two half-rate channels: one to serve the existing call and the other to serve the hand-off request. The blocking probabilities (combined forced terminations of existing calls and blocking of new call attempts) of this new scheme compare favorably with the standard scheme (nonprioritizing) and the previously proposed prioritizing schemes. The costs for this scheme are presented and discussed, as well as the additional procedural complexity of implementing on-the-fly sub-rating and the impact of continuing the conversation on a lower rate channel (which may lower speech quality of increase battery drain). Analytical models and simulations investigating the traffic impacts are presented, as are the results that show that even in the highest offered load considered a 3-min conversation in the busy hour experiences less than half a second of sub-rated conversation on average and only about 3% of the calls experience more than 5.12 s of sub-rated conversation. This scheme can increase capacity by 8-35% for systems with 1% call incompletion probability View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and analysis of the dynamic location registration and paging in microcellular systems

    Page(s): 82 - 90
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    A 0-1 integer programming model is considered to determine the most appropriate dynamic location registration (LR) area of each subscriber in microcellular systems. The minimization model of the LR area updating and paging signal costs is examined. The model is based on the subscriber characteristics, such as the call arrival rate and the velocity, as well as the regional information. The control channel blocking probabilities are considered as constraints to meet the service level of subscribers. A dynamic scheme which adaptively updates the size and shape of the LR area is developed by solving the minimization problem. Paging and location updating procedures are presented based on the dynamic procedure. The superiority of the proposed scheme is demonstrated with various computational results View full abstract»

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  • Channel assignment through evolutionary optimization

    Page(s): 91 - 96
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    The problem of assigning appropriate channels to the individual members of a cellular network is an important challenge facing network designers. Heuristics may be used to solve this problem, although in recent years parallel distributed methods have also been suggested. We investigate how an evolutionary inspired computing technique known as genetic algorithms (GAs) may be used. These global optimization techniques avoid many of the shortcomings exhibited by local search techniques on difficult search spaces. The new approach is tested on several problems of different sizes and complexity. The critical aspects of this technique and additional improvements are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum efficiency limits in mobile cellular systems

    Page(s): 33 - 40
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    In cellular mobile radio systems using coded modulations, the spectrum efficiency of the system is related to the cutoff rate and the cluster size. We evaluate the cutoff rate for M-ary QAM considering a coherent detection and a memoryless flat fading channel. Simulation results relate the cluster size to the signal-to-noise ratio and to the cutoff rate. We present the spectrum efficiency of the system as a function of the cutoff rate and show its limits in the classical cellular system. We apply the same procedure to examine the performance of systems using directional antennas with and without sectorization of the original cell surface. With our proposed representation, we can always determine the optimum spectrum efficiency of the modulation that maximizes the spectrum efficiencies of the different systems View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of DS-CDMA system with M-ary orthogonal signaling

    Page(s): 57 - 63
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    The effects of signature sequence on the performance of direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) systems employing Walsh M-ary orthogonal signaling are considered. The mean-squared value of multiple access interference (MAI) is derived by treating the signature sequence as deterministic. The numerical results show that Walsh orthogonal signaling changes the original properties of signature sequences, and a different choice of signature sequence results in significant performance difference. These results can be used as guides in selecting signature sequences for systems that employ Walsh M-ary orthogonal signaling View full abstract»

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  • An advanced permanent magnet motor drive system for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Page(s): 180 - 188
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    Availability of high-energy neodymium-iron-boron (Nd-Fe-B) permanent magnet (PM) material has focused attention on the use of the PM synchronous motor (PMSM) drive for electric vehicles (EVs). A new Nd-Fe-B PMSM is proposed for the drive system, which possesses high power density and high efficiency, resulting in greater energy and space savings. The design and optimization of the motor employs finite element analysis and computer graphics. Increasingly, a new PWM inverter algorithm is developed for the drive system, which can handle the nonconstant battery voltage source. An efficiency optimizing control is adopted to further improve the energy utilization of the drive system. Both the control strategy and the PWM generation are implemented in a single-chip microcontroller. As a result, the motor drive achieves high power density, high efficiency, and compactness. A prototype of the 3.2 kW battery-powered drive system has been designed and built for an experimental mini-EV View full abstract»

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  • A sequential soft-decision decoder for Reed-Solomon codes applied to encoded PSK in Rayleigh-fading channels

    Page(s): 97 - 104
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    A soft-decision stack algorithm with a variable-bias-term branch metric and accurate channel state information estimate is applied to a Reed-Solomon-encoded phase-shift keying (PSK) system in the presence of memoryless Rayleigh fading. To compensate for the variable decoding delay inherent in sequential decoding algorithms, a time-out mechanism is used by the inner decoder: if a time-out occurs before complete decoding of a given block, the decoder declares an erasure. An erasures-and-errors correction decoding algorithm is implemented at the outer decoder to recover any incorrect or incompletely decoded inner code words. Simulation results show that significant improvement over uncoded modulation can be achieved with this approach with moderate cost in decoding complexity View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum-efficient call control in a dual-mode TDMA cellular system

    Page(s): 148 - 156
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    This study deals with a call control strategy in a dual-mode time-division multiple access (TDMA) cellular system, which provides services both to analog and digital calls. Since analog calls consume the frequency resource several times as much as digital calls, we consider a call control strategy of the threshold type that the number of active analog calls is restricted within a prespecified level. Given the arrival rates and the grade of service (GOS) for both types of calls in the cells, two nonlinear integer optimization problems are considered for a multicell system as well as for a single cell system. One problem is to find the threshold parameters for optimizing the relevant objective measures. The other is to obtain the minimum numbers of required channels in the cells satisfying the GOS of both types of calls. The solution methods for the two kinds of optimization problems are devised based on the properties of the objective function and the blocking probabilities of both call types. The efficiency of the proposed algorithms is verified by extensive computational experiments with realistic input data View full abstract»

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  • Linear distortion correction using a feedforward system

    Page(s): 74 - 81
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    The application of the feedforward amplifier linearization technique to the removal of both harmonic and intermodulation distortions is well understood and has been discussed in the literature. An additional benefit of the feedforward technique, which has received relatively little attention, is that of so-called linear distortion removal. Linear distortion is a term used to describe the nonideal gain and phase response (e.g., frequency response ripple) present in all practical amplifiers, and it is possible to significantly improve these parameters, in a practical application, using the feedforward technique. This paper discusses the improvements in this area, which may be achieved by utilizing the feedforward technique, demonstrates mathematically how they arise, and presents both simulation and practical results to demonstrate the effect for various types of gain and phase response nonlinearity View full abstract»

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  • Error rate analysis of differentially encoded and detected 16APSK under Rician fading

    Page(s): 1 - 11
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    Mobile radio systems require highly bandwidth efficient digital modulation schemes because of the limited resources of the available radio spectrum. A theoretical analysis of bit error rate (BER) is presented for the differential detection of differentially encoded 16-level amplitude/phase shift keying (16DAPSK) under Rician fading in the presence of Rayleigh faded co-channel interference (CCI) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Differential detection comprises eight-level differential phase detection (DPD) and two-level amplitude ratio detection (ARD). Exact expressions for probability distributions of differential phase noise and amplitude ratio are derived for the BER calculation. The calculated BER performance of 16DAPSK is presented for various values of Rician fading K factor, Doppler spread of diffused component, and Doppler shift of the specular component, and is compared with that of 4-16DPSK. It is shown that 16DAPSK is superior to 16DPSK and requires 1.7 (1.6) dB less Eb/N0 (SIR) at BER=10-3 in Rician channels with K=5 dB View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic channel allocation technique based on Hopfield neural networks

    Page(s): 26 - 32
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    The interest in global spectrum allocation techniques is growing with the always increasing spectrum demand for (cellular) mobile communications. However, the best algorithms suffer from high computational times that reduce the possibility of a practical implementation. This paper deals with a dynamic channel allocation (DCA) technique based on an energy function whose minimization gives the optimal allocation. Due to the particular formulation of such an energy function, the minimization can be performed by a Hopfield neural network for which a fast hardware implementation has been recently proposed in the literature. The performance of the proposed DCA technique is derived by computer simulations. Comparisons with a classical fixed allocation technique (FCA) and a different DCA technique are shown to highlight the better performance of the proposed DCA technique View full abstract»

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  • Overlay of cellular CDMA on AMPS forward and reverse link analysis

    Page(s): 51 - 56
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    The forward and reverse link capacities of code division multiple access (CDMA) and analog cellular system in North America (AMPS) are derived when they are overlaid. Formulas that describe the relationship between the number of CDMA and AMPS users for a given carrier to interference ratio (C/I) of each are presented. A nonlinear system that reduces the power of narrow-band interference is introduced. Simulation results are presented for one narrow-band interferer View full abstract»

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  • 16-state nonlinear equalizer for IS-54 digital cellular channels

    Page(s): 12 - 25
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    A performance evaluation for a number of equalizers for frequency selective fading channels has been carried out. Linear and decision feedback equalizers have been considered. IS-54 digital cellular channels based on TDM concepts have delay spreads that result in at most one data symbol of overlap. Using a standard fading model, we find that a 16-state sequence estimator, following a receive filter matched to the transmitter filter, provides excellent performance for delay spreads from zero to one symbol interval. It is a low-complexity detector, and for this situation it is superior to both linear and decision feedback equalizers in this application. We assume perfect channel state information to establish ultimate performance. In practical applications, at most three complex samples of the overall channel impulse that includes the receiver filter must be estimated. The frequency selective channel is a two-path model with time variation following standard Doppler variations for IS-54 channels and co-channel interference is included. We present results for both root-raised-cosine filtered π/4-DQPSK and QPSK modulation formats. In the appendix, we provide an analysis to support our best result. It is shown that if the interbeam delay is one symbol interval on a slowly varying, two-beam channel, and maximum likelihood sequence estimation has a performance that attains Mazo's (1991) matched filter lower bound, even when the root-Nyquist receiver filter is only matched to its transmitter filter counterpart and not to the complete channel response View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive truncated MLSE receiver for Japanese personal digital cellular

    Page(s): 41 - 50
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    This paper describes a dual-mode Japanese personal digital cellular receiver that uses an adaptive truncated symbol-spaced maximum-likelihood sequence-estimation (MLSE) equalizer in one mode and a tangent type differential detector in the other. The receiver employs a channel estimation and symbol synchronization procedure that uses the known phase shifts between successive symbols in the synchronization word. Per-survivor processing is used to track the channel variations and carrier frequency offset. Simulation results are presented for multipath Rayleigh fading channels having various delay profiles. Comparisons between the regular symbol-spaced truncated MLSE equalizer and a fractionally spaced truncated MLSE equalizer are also furnished View full abstract»

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  • Group 3 error-free facsimile terminal for analog cellular networks

    Page(s): 64 - 73
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    A Group 3 error-free facsimile terminal for use in an analog cellular network has been developed. This facsimile terminal is provided with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T, formerly CCITT) T.30 recommendation protocol and an adaptive error control scheme (AECS) for Group 3 communication and error-free communication. The AECS monitors the channel conditions and selects the optimum error correction code. The ITU-T V.27ter is used as the modulation method and the transmission rate is 4800 bps. This system is compatible with the modified Huffman (MH), modified READ (MR), and modified modified READ (MMR) image data compression codes. The average communication time of this facsimile terminal is 40 s per page while moving through the analog cellular network View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology covers land, airborne, and maritime mobile services, vehicular electrotechnology, equipment, and systems identified with the automotive industry.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Yuguang Michael Fang
University of Florida