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Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • From the Editor's Desk: A Time for Reflection

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  • President's Message: IAS Annual Meeting

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  • Society News

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  • Awards

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  • Conference News

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  • Chapter News

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  • Power Electronics, Book Review

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  • Commentary

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  • Conference Calendar

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  • Power system compatibility with industrial process equipment

    Page(s): 11 - 15
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    Who has the responsibility of preventing power quality induced downtime for industrial process equipment? Some say the electric utility should provide power free from abnormal variations. Others have said that manufacturers must build equipment that can tolerate any electrical disturbance. Perhaps users should design or specify their industrial systems to be insensitive to power variation. This article presents an overview of a panel of representatives from each of these groups discussing the answer to this question View full abstract»

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  • Investigations of voltage flicker in electric arc furnace power systems

    Page(s): 28 - 34
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    Operation of rapidly varying loads such as AC and DC arc furnaces in large industrial power systems will cause voltage flicker on the utility system. System planning will help in determining the available short-circuit duty at the point-of-common-coupling to keep the voltage flicker within acceptable limits. Perceptible flicker limit curves are useful in determining the amount of flicker in a system. Short-circuit voltage depression calculation is one technique to estimate the amount of expected flicker in a system. On-site field tests with equipment that will accurately capture multiple frequencies will aid in measuring the existing voltage flicker. The authors discuss flicker estimation and field tests as well as harmonic filter tuning effects on voltage flicker. The ultimate determination whether unacceptable voltage flicker exists in a system will be complaints from customers served by the utility system actually experiencing objectionable or noticeable flicker View full abstract»

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  • Refinery-utility collaboration to increase value

    Page(s): 4 - 10
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    Severe pressures to reduce costs, improve reliability, and generate higher shareholder value have helped to promote a successful change in the relationship between a major Canadian petroleum refinery and a large electrical utility. The relationship has evolved from a traditional customer/supplier relationship to a new business approach based on collaboration. New ideas have created win-win situations for both organizations. The new business approach has produced improvements in electrical power supply reliability, better equipment reliability, reductions in operating and maintenance costs through maintenance effectiveness and improved safety, and sharing of technical expertise and data. In addition, this new business approach has led to fresh ideas in business practices, maintenance practices, energy efficiency, electrical power monitoring, application of advanced relaying technology, and the setting of performance targets. This article describes the specific application of new technical and business ideas that have been implemented and the significant benefits that have been captured. To date, over $500,000 in annual benefits have been created. The article goes on to outline future possibilities, which could double the annual benefits View full abstract»

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  • Power disturbance and quality: light flicker voltage requirements

    Page(s): 20 - 27
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    Emphasis on power quality has brought renewed attention to the old subject of light flicker. There is a need to review the technical basis for flicker tolerance curves used as guides to satisfactory installations. More or less frequently recurring low-amplitude voltage disturbances can cause electric lights to flicker. Light flicker voltage requirements prescribe the maximum permissible voltage fluctuations the system can tolerate without annoying light flicker. These limits on allowable voltage fluctuations are the topic of interest to power systems engineers, more so than the broader subject of light flicker. The author discusses the historical perspective of light flicker and permissible voltage fluctuations. The effect of such fluctuations on light flicker and the symptoms associated with flicker are then discussed. Human vision aspects of light flicker are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • History [origin of the inverter]

    Page(s): 64 - 66
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    David Prince probably coined the term inverter. It is unlikely that any living person can now establish with certainty that Prince (or anyone else) was the originator of this commonly used engineering term. However in 1925 Prince did publish an article in the GE Review (vol.28, no.10, p.676-81) cited “The Inverter”. His article contains nearly all important elements required by modern inverters and is the earliest such publication to use that term in the open literature. Prince explained that an inverter is used to convert direct current into single or polyphase alternating current. The article explains how: “the author took the rectifier circuit and inverted it, turning in direct current at one end and drawing out alternating current at the other”. Subsequent development of the inverter is discussed as are rectifier devices View full abstract»

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  • A case study of main service short time demand intervals

    Page(s): 35 - 40
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    Section 220-36 of the 1990 National Electrical Code is an optional method to calculate the the service entrance and main panel size for new restaurants. When Section 220-36 is used for design it frequently results in smaller service entrance and main panel sizes than the “standard or conventional” method. Cost studies have shown that about two-thirds of all new restaurants could use Section 220-36 and experience construction cost savings of $3000 to $30000. Several restaurant chains have utilized the new article in the design and construction of their their new restaurants. There have been no reported problems related to the use of Section 220-36 in those restaurants that have been built using that section of the code. Some electrical engineers and others have speculated that since use of NEC 220-36 will result in smaller service sizes, a restaurant may experience nuisance tripping. This is likely to happen, it is theorized, when the restaurant opens for the day and all the food preparation equipment is turned on. This article reports the results of a case study showing that nuisance tripping is not likely to be an issue View full abstract»

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  • A voltage sag study in an industry with adjustable speed drives

    Page(s): 16 - 19
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    This article presents voltage sag measurements and their analysis, which were performed in two industries for a period of 17 months. Voltage sags are caused by faults in the utility's transmission system, since both industries are fed by a 115 kV line, but from different circuits. Even faults in 230 or 400 kV lines are felt by the industries' entrance substation as voltage sags. These events cause interruptions in important continuous processes because the adjustable speed drives (ASDs) involved are sensitive to voltage variations. It is shown that, with the measurements made, ASDs are more sensitive to voltage sags than data processing equipment, according to the tolerance curve shown in C51. Also identified were ASDs that tripped more frequently with voltage sags. This allowed the selection of problem areas in both industrial plants, requiring a more detailed analysis in order to select some type of power line conditioning equipment View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Industry Applications Magazine reports on the development and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; and the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Landis "Lanny" Floyd