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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Utilizing a low cost 3D packaging technology for consumer applications

    Page(s): 1095 - 1102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)  

    This paper demonstrates how a low cost three-dimensional packaging (multichip module-vertical) technology can be utilized to implement systems for consumer applications. In any application where system cost, volume and mass are important, this packaging technique can be advantageous, particularly in the rapidly growing portable electronics industry. To illustrate this we present a general-purpose, low-cost camera and image processing system in the new packaging technology. This can be used in multimedia, surveillance and smart vision applications View full abstract»

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  • A novel FM demodulation scheme

    Page(s): 1103 - 1107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB)  

    An alternative approach for FM signal demodulation using differentiators is proposed. This mew approach, which can be realized in IC form, does not require an envelope detector or filter explicitly, thus enabling a fast and accurate response. Analytical and numerical results, in addition to experimental results, are presented View full abstract»

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  • A low complexity predicted vector quantization scheme

    Page(s): 1108 - 1117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (984 KB)  

    The use of spatial prediction schemes had been adopted in vector quantization for enhancing the coding fidelity and visual quality in image compression. Despite the improvement, these schemes are generally computationally expensive and hence increase the complexity of the encoders and decoders. Two predicted vector quantization techniques are reported. The proposed methods are economical and simple to implement, and provide reasonable improvement over the classical LBG algorithm View full abstract»

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  • The Grand Alliance HDTV video encoder

    Page(s): 1014 - 1019
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    Members of the digital high definition television (HDTV) Grand Alliance have jointly designed and constructed a high definition video encoder as part of an overall HDTV broadcast system. The encoder accepts video in either 1080 line (30 Hz) interlaced format or 720 line (60 Hz) progressive format, and produces a bitstream compliant with the Motion Picture Experts Group version 2 (MPEG-2) standard. The encoder processing includes large-area motion estimation, adaptive telecine processing, and an advanced rate control mechanism. The paper describes the hardware architecture and implementation trade-offs of this encoder View full abstract»

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  • Performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system in terrestrial TV channels-a statistical analysis

    Page(s): 986 - 990
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    In this paper, the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in terrestrial TV channels is investigated. Using a statistical channel model, the results will be derived semianalytically for OFDM systems. In this study, we give outage probability characteristics for terrestrial digital TV systems. We obtain results for two kinds of equalization methods and additionally for a system without equalization View full abstract»

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  • Colour image interpolation for high resolution acquisition and display devices

    Page(s): 1118 - 1126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB)  

    Spatial interpolation is an important technique that is often used to perform an image zoom or to simply recover an original image from its downsampled version. The rapid advancements in hardware, both in acquisition and display devices, has made it possible to process high resolution digital colour images. However, the multichannel nature of colour images demands sophisticated signal processing algorithms that take into account the existing interchannel correlations when performing image expansion. Many conventional linear approaches exist. Nevertheless, these produce artifacts in the form of blockiness, jagged lines, and blurring in the interpolated image. In addition to this, these methods perform independently in each colour plane, thereby neglecting the colour component correlation. A set of nonlinear vector FIR-median hybrid (VFMH) filters are applied to the interpolation problem. These schemes are based on the class of vector order statistic filters which have desirable properties, such as the preservation of edges and image details, and the preservation of interchannel correlations. Colour images are interpolated from their downsampled versions and all of the techniques are compared, both, quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Experimental results indicate that VFMH filters produce better quantitative, and visually pleasing results than linear techniques View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of pilot symbol assisted 16 QAM in the Rayleigh fading channel

    Page(s): 1138 - 1141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    The paper proposes the performance of a pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) using Gaussian interpolation and Wiener interpolation method. Although QAM is the most spectrally efficient modulation, it is rarely applied in mobile channels because of multipath fading. A PSAM system estimates and compensates fading. The paper shows the performance of the PSAM in the case of using Gaussian interpolation and Wiener interpolation, respectively. Computer simulation results shows that the performance of Wiener is better than that of Gaussian interpolation View full abstract»

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  • Trick play schemes for advanced television recording on digital VCR

    Page(s): 1159 - 1168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB)  

    Three technical elements that together implement trick-play modes of digital VCR for ATV recording are proposed: a data arrangement format, a trickplay tracking algorithm, and a coefficient extraction algorithm. First, an efficient tape format is carefully designed for fast forward and reverse playbacks at various speeds. It can accommodate two pickup head configurations. The success of this formal relies on a reliable trick-play tracking scheme. This tracking scheme is capable of automatically driving the pickup heads to trace the correct trajectory in typically less than 350 ms. Lastly, an adaptive coefficient extraction algorithm is presented, which produces fairly good quality trick-play images under severe bit limitation. A related issue is to choose a balanced bit budget that provides a good compromise between picture spatial quality and temporal quality. Simulations at a video recording bit rate of 25 Mb/s have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system View full abstract»

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  • Parallel programmable algorithm and architecture for real-time motion estimation of various video applications

    Page(s): 1069 - 1079
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    This paper describes a parallel architecture for a new motion estimation algorithm that combines full search block matching with sparse search. Our solution caters to a wide variety of applications with various video data rates and various search ranges. Hence our architecture is programmable. Our solution also estimates the motion vector in real-time by using parallel processing. The multigrid algorithm works in maximum three sequential passes. Detailed data flow diagrams show the exact data use at every processor at every cycle time. This data flow is formalized with the derivation of exact analytic expressions. The 64-processor architecture consists of four clusters of 16 processors each, all working concurrently with each cluster working in a pipelined fashion. Novel hardware structures are designed to meet the data flow, requirements of the different passes. Enormous data reuse is performed to minimize the on-chip data storage. The novel VLSI architecture can easily be implemented on a single chip View full abstract»

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  • A function-pipelined architecture and VLSI chip for MPEG video image coding

    Page(s): 1127 - 1137
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    A function-pipelined architecture is presented for MPEG video image coding. Also, based on a 0.8 μm SPDM CMOS technology, a VLSI chip has been designed and implemented for such an architecture. The chip consists of 43,066 transistors and has a die size of 6,673 μm×5,260 μm (or 0.36 cm2). In the future, with such a VLSI chip, a coding processor will be developed for improving the performance of the MPEG video encoding system under development View full abstract»

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  • A new digital surround processing system for general A/V sources

    Page(s): 1174 - 1180
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    A new surround processing algorithm is proposed for the sensible reproduction of non-encoded conventional stereo sources as well as Dolby encoded ones. The proposed method synthesizes the additional sound channels to expand the output from the conventional two channels to four or five. The directivity of auditory events is enhanced by the direction enhancement algorithm whose performance can be optimized to both cases of Dolby encoded and non-encoded sources. Also, spectral balance among the channels is tuned up to minimize the defects arising from processes such as coloration of timbre. A surround processing system based on the proposed method was implemented using a custom DASP (digital audio signal processor) chip and showed a much satisfactory performance for the various non-encoded sources as well as Dolby encoded sources View full abstract»

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  • An infra-red remote control system designed for universal control

    Page(s): 1089 - 1094
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    Remote control is already part of the everyday life. However, there is no truly universal remote control which can control all appliances at home. This paper proposes an infra-red remote control system which can make it a possibility. The system is based on an innovative link procedure and is demonstrated in a system controlling main switches. The hardware and software details are described. An ASIC chip for the receiver is designed to simplify the integration with main switches View full abstract»

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  • HD-SAT modems for the satellite broadcasting in the 20 GHz frequency band

    Page(s): 991 - 999
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    This paper introduces the HD-SAT project and describes the two satellite modems designed for high definition digital television broadcasting by satellite in the 20 GHz frequency band. The graceful degradation satellite modem uses layered modulation (TCM-8PSK/QPSK) to increase service continuity in this rain-attenuation sensitive band. The 45-70 Mb/s TCM-8PSK modem demonstrates the feasibility of domestic variable rate receivers by using digital demodulation techniques suitable for very highly integrated implementations. Together these modems, both of which have been the subject of prototype demonstration and tests, address the essential functional and implementation issues of the Ka band for digital HDTV broadcasting View full abstract»

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  • Teletext data change detection and noiseless data compression

    Page(s): 1061 - 1068
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)  

    The full channel teletext system is a high speed data broadcasting system. Pages of information are broadcast in a cyclic manner. The detection of data change in the information pages is necessary for data analysis, database update and retransmission. Lossless data compression is also necessary to enhance the data throughput in rebroadcasting and to reduce the storage requirement. Performing data change detection and data compression in real time using a software approach in a small machine is impossible for such high speed data. The authors describe the algorithms that are suitable for hardware implementation for both data change detection and noiseless data compression. They also illustrate the use of cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and dictionary based compression scheme using a hashing function to detect changes and compression respectively in the teletext pages View full abstract»

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  • An automatic TV tuner alignment system

    Page(s): 1050 - 1060
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    A new approach to automatic TV tuner alignment is presented. It contains two aspects, i.e. hardware (consisting of piecewise-linear transcoders) and software algorithms (which optimize the transfer functions of these transcoders with respect to measured data points). This approach allows one to choose the desired tuner performance and it yields a major improvement of the performance/price ratio compared to the conventional solution. More precisely, the performance is defined by the maximum frequency mistuning of each RF filter. For given transcoder memory sizes, the proposed approach improves the performance (i.e. decreases mistunings) by a factor of 2.7 to 4.5. Or, for a given performance, it reduces the transcoder memory sizes by a factor of 2. The target performance considered is a maximum frequency mistuning of 600 kHz in the overall frequency band of operation. This target is reached with a memory containing only 90 bits per RF filter. The proposed approach is also a good candidate for future high-definition TV standards, which will require lower frequency mistunings. Besides its use in TV tuner alignment, it is attractive in all systems requiring very simple and/or fast adaptive transcoders. It may be applied to the automatic electronic tuning of integrated active filters and phase shifters View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of television direct pickup (DPU) in a GTEM cell

    Page(s): 1010 - 1013
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)  

    The requirements of the new cable bill specify the amount of signal a television tuner may receive over the air, this is known as direct pickup (DPU). DPU is readily definable in terms of antenna parameters. The theoretical basis and measurement technique used to quantify the DPU of a television tuner using a GTEM is examined View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic noise and echo cancellation microphone system for videoconferencing

    Page(s): 1150 - 1158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    Acoustic noise and echo cancellation using two adaptive filters and the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is the most effective technique of reducing acoustic noises and echoes in a hands-free telephone system. Unfortunately, high order filters are required in this traditional structure, which results in high cost, slow convergence, and high excess mean-square and numerical errors. The paper presents a new acoustic noise and echo cancellation microphone (ANECM) system, which consists of two closely-spaced directional microphones pointing in opposite directions and two low order adaptive filters. By using two highly correlated microphone signals, the ANECM system provides satisfied performance at much lower cost than the traditional techniques. To test and perfect the design, computer simulations were conducted based on real data collected from a typical conference room View full abstract»

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  • A magnetic deflection up-date: field equations, CRT geometry, the distortions and their corrections

    Page(s): 963 - 978
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB)  

    The evolution of the magnetic deflection yoke to wide angles and high performance, and the modification of cathode-ray-tube (CRT) structures has responded to ever-more-demanding performance in diverse applications. This article probes the past to extract those basics by which precise deflection performance of CRT systems may be calculated. Development of beam-patch plots from a yoke's magnetic-field plot leads to a simplified equivalent constant-strength field. The characteristics of yoke behavior are established. An ideal yoke configuration, which does not distort the electron beam's focused spot, is identified. Its angular deflection is proportional to field strength; response is linear. A unified treatment of diverse CRT geometries provides precise deflection equations. Geometric distortion components are identified, their equations developed, and correction methods described View full abstract»

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  • A PC-based MPEG compressed data decoder

    Page(s): 1169 - 1173
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    A PC-based MPEG compressed data decoder card is presented. The decoder serves as a PC add-on card and is capable of decoding MPEG compressed data from compact discs (CD) for display on PC monitors. The MPEG decoder is able to accept both MPEG1 audio packets and MPEG1 video packets which conform to the ISO/MPEG1 system and video bitstreams respectively View full abstract»

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  • New RF signal processor IC design for the Mini Disc system

    Page(s): 1032 - 1038
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    The paper presents a new RF signal processor IC for the MD (Mini Disc) system. The authors have developed an RF signal processor IC with higher performance, smaller size and lower power consumption. This chip contains I/V converters, RF amplifiers, an ALPC (automatic laser power control), an ADIP (address in pregroove) demodulator, a FE low band amp and switch blocks all in one chip View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid coding method for digital HDTV

    Page(s): 1080 - 1088
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)  

    Digitally transmitted video images suffer from sudden degradation in picture quality at high channel noise levels. This is due to the variable length coding and the large synchronization blocks used. To remedy that, we propose encoding the DCT coefficients by a hybrid fixed and variable length coding compression scheme. This method improves the compression ratio by approximately 20% and increases the system's resistance to channel errors. To fortify the transmitted bits against channel noise we then use a synchronization method which restricts the effects of an error to a 32×16 pixel picture block. The resulting combined scheme (1) significantly improves the error resistance characteristic of the system, (2) eliminates the abrupt picture degradation, and (3) does not alter the original data transmission rate View full abstract»

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  • A study on the interchangeability of the center-rotating drum VCR

    Page(s): 979 - 985
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    A new method to measure tape motion on the helix guide of the drum was developed. As a result, real-time and high precision observations were accomplished, accordingly, the optimum mechanical conditions were decided and good track straightness was achieved View full abstract»

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  • Residential customer premises equipment in a telecommuting application

    Page(s): 1000 - 1009
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)  

    Telecommuting is likely to be an early application involving multimedia in the home. A number of companies are actively exploring this application as a means of answering employee needs as well as obtaining better use of the employer's facilities and reducing commuting waste. In this application a worker at home is connected with his office by video, audio, and computer network. Telephone and fax communication is usually included in the requirements. Other multimedia applications are some subset of the telecommuting application. The author examines some of the elements required for telecommuting, from the perspective of equipment requirements in the home, with an orientation to communications via a cable television system. Cable television systems offer the bandwidth to permit high speed data communications, required for certain file transfer requirements, as well as video conferencing. The requirements extend to equipment installed in the home, to the method with which the cable interfaces with the home, and to the requirements of a consolidated modem which handles all services View full abstract»

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  • Integrated optical detection circuit for magneto-optical drives

    Page(s): 1039 - 1049
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (668 KB)  

    An integrated optical circuit (IOC) combining all the detection functions of a standard magneto-optical reading head (MO reading, focus and tracking control) is presented. The reading function is achieved by mean of a patented interferometric circuit. For tracking control, the well-known push-pull method has been applied and adapted to integrated optics. For focus control, an original method based on multimode interference, using the benefits of integrated optics has been successfully tested. The implemented technology is based on a silicon substrate with a silicon nitride core between two silica cladding layers (Si-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2). This technology is a low cost technology that is well adapted for mass production. The optical components of the circuits are made by standard “hard contact” photolithography and reactive ion etching. Several wafers with about 50 devices have been processed and characterised. In particular, the detection signals have been compared with the detection signals delivered simultaneously by a standard commercial MO drive. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of an integrated detection device for a MO drive View full abstract»

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  • A high speed Reed-Solomon decoder

    Page(s): 1142 - 1149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  

    The Reed Solomon code (RS code) has been widely employed in digital audio/video equipment owing to its excellent capability for correcting burst errors and relatively easy implementation. The authors propose an architecture for an error correction circuit suitable for high-rate data decoding of the Reed-Solomon code. The circuit has encoder and decoder functions by 2 symbol random error correction as well as 4 symbol erasure correction. 23 Mbyte/s rate of data decoding is sufficient for compressed video signals of high-definition as well as those of standard-definition TVs View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583