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Semiconductor Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Nov 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 10 of 10
  • Modeling of chemical-mechanical polishing: a review

    Page(s): 382 - 389
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    This paper gives a survey of the status of today's modeling of chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). Most existing models describe specific aspects of CMP, such as the flow of the slurry or the bending of the polishing pad. However, as yet no model describes the entire available process. This paper critically reviews existing models with respect to generality, in particular, the different assumptions of the models are investigated. Furthermore, the models are compared and the controversial treatment of physical effects is discussed View full abstract»

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  • An accurate and efficient model for boron implants through thin oxide layers into single-crystal silicon

    Page(s): 408 - 413
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)  

    This paper presents a computationally efficient and accurate depth profile model for boron implants through a thin (0-50 nm) oxide layer into single-crystal silicon. This is the first reported model with explicit dependence on all of the key implant parameters, which include oxide thickness, implant energy, dose, tilt angle, and rotation angle. The detailed effects of thin oxide layers on the tilt and rotation angle, as well as the dose and energy dependencies of boron profiles, have been studied as the basis of the model. It is shown that this model is able to predict the profile dependencies very well, including subtle, unexpected behavior of the implanted profiles for certain implant conditions. The model has been implemented into SUPREM 3, SUPREM 4, and FLOOPS in order to demonstrate its capabilities View full abstract»

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  • High performance 3.3- and 5-V 0.5-μm CMOS technology for ASIC's

    Page(s): 440 - 448
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB)  

    Process integration of two manufacturable high performance 0.5-μm CMOS technologies, one optimized for 5.0 V operation and the second optimized for 3.3-V operation, will be presented. The paper will emphasize poly-buffered LOGOS (PBL) isolation, MOS transistor design using conventional and statistical modeling to reduce circuit performance sensitivity to process fluctuations, gate oxide and gate length control, and hot carrier reliability of the transistors. Manufacturing and simulation data for both 3.3- and 5.0-V technologies will be shown. The nominal ring oscillator delay is measured for both 3.3- and 5.0-V technologies as 80 ps. Therefore, 5.0-V technology equivalent speed is achieved in the 3.3-V technology with a reduction in power consumption by a factor of 2.4 View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-three-dimensional modeling of sub-micron LOCOS structures

    Page(s): 390 - 401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB)  

    A quasi-three-dimensional simulation of local oxidation is presented. The approach employs the solution of three-dimensional oxidant diffusion, a set of analytical solutions which can predict two-dimensional local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) shape and parameterization to consider the three-dimensional oxidation enhancement effects. A synthesis step is used to combine the three-dimensional oxidant profile and two-dimensional analytical solutions for the creation of full three-dimensional LOCOS shapes. Oxidation characteristics are investigated based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements that produce three-dimensional structural effects such as the bird's eye phenomena. The narrow window and narrow mask effects on the bird's beak length are simulated and compared with SEM photographs obtained using AFM measurements. Differences between two- and three-dimensional oxidation effects are shown by the comparison of simulation and experiments View full abstract»

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  • Yield loss mechanisms in MOS-gated power devices

    Page(s): 451 - 453
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    Defects which cause yield loss in MOS-gated power devices are discussed. Design and fabrication of a test element group for analysis of gate to source shorts in MOS-gated power devices are described. Experimental results obtained from these test elements are presented, based upon which it is demonstrated that gate to source shorts in power MOS-gated devices occur mainly along the edge of the polysilicon gate. The contact window opening step has been found to have a strong influence on the density of gate to source shorts View full abstract»

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  • Modeling dynamic clustering of arsenic including non-negligible concentrations of arsenic-point defect pairs

    Page(s): 414 - 418
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)  

    The time dependent deactivation of RTA-activated arsenic-doped samples was studied for chemical concentrations from 2·1020 cm-3 to 1·1021 cm-3 in the temperature range from 700°C to 900°C using a newly developed experimental set-up. It is based on the use of homogeneously doped SOI material which helped to avoid experimental problems, allowed a repeated usage of the same samples, and simplified the interpretation of the electrical measurements. The dependence of the active concentrations after long-time anneals on the total concentration indicated that the deactivation behavior can be described by a simple cluster law. But even at low concentrations it was reported in the literature that the electron concentration is significantly below the total arsenic concentration. This was attributed to pair formation between arsenic atoms and intrinsic point defects. Intended as an engineering model, the model proposed here combines both approaches and gives a consistent dynamical description of the electrically active arsenic concentration from low to high concentrations View full abstract»

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  • Trajectory split method for Monte Carlo simulation of ion implantation

    Page(s): 402 - 407
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    A new method for the acceleration of two- and three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of ion implantation into crystalline targets is presented. The trajectory split method ensures a much better statistical representation in regions with a dopant concentration several orders of magnitudes smaller than the maximum. As a result, the time required to perform a simulation with comparable statistical accuracy is drastically reduced. The advantages of the new approach have been confirmed by a thorough statistical analysis View full abstract»

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  • Thermal modeling of a wafer in a rapid thermal processor

    Page(s): 432 - 439
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    A model, using geometric optics, has been developed to calculate the illumination of a wafer inside a rapid thermal processor. The main parameters of the model are: the processing chamber geometry, the lamp number and location, the reflector characteristics, and the wafer temperature. Each incident light component, i.e., direct or reflected, is identified, its contribution to the illumination of the wafer is calculated through a 3D analytical model, and the corresponding contour maps are depicted. Then, the heat diffusion equation is numerically solved in two dimensions, and thermal maps of a Si wafer are given versus various experimental conditions, such as the effect of patterning the reflectors, of individually adjusting the electrical power applied to each lamp, and the impact of rotating the wafer or using crossed lamp banks. The latter method, while being easy to implement, is shown to give excellent thermal uniformity View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous three-dimensional time-domain finite-difference electromagnetic simulation for photolithographic applications

    Page(s): 419 - 431
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB)  

    The parallel electromagnetic simulation program TEMPEST has been generalized to analyze three-dimensional problems in photolithography. TEMPEST, which has been made available on the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, combines together techniques for rigorous simulation of electromagnetic scattering and diffraction, a novel and efficient absorbing boundary condition, and synthesis of partially coherent images including the effects of optical system aberrations. The electromagnetic solution is based on the time-domain finite difference method, but exploits the power of parallel computer architectures. Equations suitable for parallel implementation are given. Simulation time is fifteen to twenty minutes with 64 M simulation nodes on a CM-5 with 512 nodes and 16 GBytes of memory. The usefulness and effectiveness of the program for photolithographic applications are demonstrated by considering problems in projection printing of polarization and transmission effects in contact holes, and reflective notching which causes undesired exposure in photoresists View full abstract»

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  • A manufacturable process to improve thermal stability of 0.25-μm cobalt silicided poly gate

    Page(s): 449 - 451
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB)  

    A CoSi2 salicidation process using a thin titanium capping layer is developed to improve the thermal stability of deep submicron CoSi2/poly stacks. 50 nm CoSi2 was uniformly formed on 0.25-μm wide poly lines. The electrical results show that the lines formed by a capping process using Ti can withstand higher thermal treatment (750° C for 30 min) without significant degradation. This work shows that the modified CoSi2 process should be considered for 0.25-μm CMOS applications View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing addresses the challenging problems of manufacturing complex microelectronic components.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief

Anthony Muscat
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Harshbarger Bldg., Room 134
1133 E. James Rogers Way
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ  85721