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Communications Magazine, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • Front cover - IEEE Communications Magazine - Front cover

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Communications Magazine - table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 2 - 4
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  • Conferences: where people meet [the president's page]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 6 - 8
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  • Society members named to fellow grade [Society News]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 10 - 12
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  • WCET certification: an international effort

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 14
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  • Celebrating 25 years of the IEEE/OSA journal of lightwave technology [society news]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 16 - 18
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  • Building a cooperative P2P-TV application over a wise network: the approach of the European FP-7 strep NAPA-WINE

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 20 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (54 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Introduction TV services over the Internet can be provided by either exploiting IP multicast functionalities or relying on a pure peer-to-peer (P2P) approach. The first technique will only work on a network infrastructure controlled by a single broadband operator due to limitations of IP multicast facilities. The main goal of the project is the study of a future system suitable for HQTV live streaming over the Internet based on P2P technology, or a P2P-HQTV system. The major focus is on overcoming today's pure layered approach through a cooperative paradigm in which the application and network layers cooperate to optimize the quality of service offered to end users. View full abstract»

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  • Conference calendar

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 24 - 26
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  • New products

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 28
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  • Cognitive radio communications and networks [guest editorial]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 30 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The seven articles focus on the feature topic of cognitive radio communications and networks. The articles are summarized here. View full abstract»

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  • Spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: requirements, challenges and design trade-offs

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 32 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (210)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Opportunistic unlicensed access to the (temporarily) unused frequency bands across the licensed radio spectrum is currently being investigated as a means to increase the efficiency of spectrum usage. Such opportunistic access calls for implementation of safeguards so that ongoing licensed operations are not compromised. Among different candidates, sensing-based access, where the unlicensed users transmit if they sense the licensed band to be free, is particularly appealing due to its low deployment cost and its compatibility with the legacy licensed systems. The ability to reliably and autonomously identify unused frequency bands is envisaged as one of the main functionalities of cognitive radios. In this article we provide an overview of the regulatory requirements and major challenges associated with the practical implementation of spectrum sensing functionality in cognitive radio systems. Furthermore, we outline different design trade-offs that have to be made in order to enhance various aspects of the system's performance. View full abstract»

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  • A survey on spectrum management in cognitive radio networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (264)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio networks will provide high bandwidth to mobile users via heterogeneous wireless architectures and dynamic spectrum access techniques. However, CR networks impose challenges due to the fluctuating nature of the available spectrum, as well as the diverse QoS requirements of various applications. Spectrum management functions can address these challenges for the realization of this new network paradigm. To provide a better understanding of CR networks, this article presents recent developments and open research issues in spectrum management in CR networks. More specifically, the discussion is focused on the development of CR networks that require no modification of existing networks. First, a brief overview of cognitive radio and the CR network architecture is provided. Then four main challenges of spectrum management are discussed: spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing, and spectrum mobility. View full abstract»

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  • Toward secure distributed spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (59)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio is a revolutionary technology that promises to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem and to bring about remarkable improvement in spectrum utilization. Spectrum sensing is one of the essential mechanisms of CR and is an active area of research. Although the operational aspects of spectrum sensing are being studied actively, its security aspects have attracted very little attention. In this paper, we discuss security issues that may pose a serious threat to spectrum sensing. Specifically, we focus on two security threats - incumbent emulation and spectrum sensing data falsification - that may wreak havoc in distributed spectrum sensing. We also discuss methods for countering these threats and the technical hurdles that must be overcome to implement such countermeasures. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced estimation of configuration capabilities in cognitive radio

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cognitive radio is a highly promising answer to the complexity and heterogeneity characterizing the beyond 3G wireless scenario. In this context, this article advances from the field of interference sensing to the fields of (basic) reasoning and robust reasoning. Interference sensing is concerned with the acquisition of interference related measurements for frequency bands of interest. The article describes how a cognitive radio system can reason on these measurements to obtain estimations for the capabilities of alternate configurations, especially in terms of achievable transmission capacity and coverage. Subsequently, it focuses on robust reasoning, namely, on enhancing these estimations by employing machine learning, which constitutes an important aspect of cognitive radio. Several relevant solutions are sketched and explained, with a view to providing a complete picture. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy logic for cross-layer optimization in cognitive radio networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 64 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The search for the ultimate architecture for cross-layer optimization in cognitive radio networks is characterized by challenges such as modularity, interpretability, imprecision, scalability, and complexity constraints. In this article we propose fuzzy logic as an effective means of meeting these challenges, as far as both knowledge representation and control implementation are concerned. View full abstract»

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  • Cognitive functionality in next generation wireless networks: standardization efforts

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 72 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (107 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article discusses recent standardization efforts related to cognitive radio focusing on the work of IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 41, formerly known as IEEE 1900. Some important tasks to be performed by the CR standardization community also are presented. These tasks will expedite the introduction of CR devices to the market while promoting a fair use of scarce radio resources. Some avenues for using the currently available standards for rapid deployment of CR devices, such as ISO standards, also are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Multicarrier communication techniques for spectrum sensing and communication in cognitive radios

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 80 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this tutorial article we review different multicarrier communication methods for the physical layer of cognitive radio systems. There, secondary users need to dynamically and reliably determine spectral holes, and transmit data in these resources without interfering with other parts of the frequency band. To satisfy the first, each SU has to be equipped with a spectrum analyzer. To satisfy the second, it is widely accepted that a multicarrier modulation technique should be adopted. Moreover, to maximize efficiency, it has been recognized that the side-lobes of each subcarrier band must be minimized. Much of the attention in the present literature emphasizes on the use of conventional OFDM, exploiting the fact that fast Fourier transform (FFT) as part of the OFDM modulator can also be used for channel sensing. Herein, we discuss the performance of OFDM, and also introduce filterbanks for multicarrier communication and spectral analysis in a CR setting. Moreover, the multitaper method has been proposed as an effective method for spectrum analysis. Our article provides an insight into the pros and cons of these technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Security in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks: part II [guest editorial]

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 86 - 87
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    The seven feature topic articles focus on security in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. This is the second part of this feature topic. The first part was published in the February 2008 issue. View full abstract»

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  • Security in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 88 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vehicular communication networking is a promising approach to facilitating road safety, traffic management, and infotainment dissemination for drivers and passengers. One of the ultimate goals in the design of such networking is to resist various malicious abuses and security attacks. In this article we first review the current standardization process, which covers the methods of providing security services and preserving driver privacy for wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) applications. We then address two fundamental issues, certificate revocation and conditional privacy preservation, for making the standards practical. In addition, a suite of novel security mechanisms are introduced for achieving secure certificate revocation and conditional privacy preservation, which are considered among the most challenging design objectives in vehicular ad hoc networks. View full abstract»

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  • Secure localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 96 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (94 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the military and emergency preparedness class of applications, wireless sensor networks have a number of desirable characteristics, such as being autonomous systems that can be deployed in a remote - possibly hostile - environment and can perform tasks like battlefield surveillance or enemy tracking, as well as monitor the security of military facilities. One of the main challenges in this kind of application is security. Due to their key role in WSNs and also their fragility, localization systems can be the target of an attack that could compromise the entire functioning of a WSN and lead to incorrect military plans and decision making, among other problems. In this article we show how current localization systems are vulnerable to these security attacks, and how existing techniques can be used to prevent or impede these attacks in WSNs. View full abstract»

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  • Situation awareness mechanisms for wireless sensor networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 102 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless sensor network should be able to operate for long periods of time with little or no external management. There is a requirement for this autonomy: the sensor nodes must be able to configure themselves in the presence of adverse situations. Therefore, the nodes should make use of situation awareness mechanisms to determine the existence of abnormal events in their surroundings. This work approaches the problem by considering the possible abnormal events as diseases, thus making it possible to diagnose them through their symptoms, namely, their side effects. Considering these awareness mechanisms as a foundation for high-level monitoring services, this article also shows how these mechanisms are included in the blueprint of an intrusion detection system. View full abstract»

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  • Future trust management framework for mobile ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 108 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (114 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In mobile ad hoc networks nodes should collaborate with each other to support the functions of the network. The trust management framework, which evaluates the trust of participating nodes, is used to force nodes to cooperate in a normal way. We make an effort to design a robust and attack-resistant trust management framework for the future. In this article we describe the vulnerabilities of and possible attacks on existing frameworks. An objective trust management framework is proposed to overcome these vulnerabilities. We provide a theoretical basis and skeleton for this framework. The performance evaluation and security analysis are provided showing the effectiveness and robustness of the OTMF compared with existing frameworks. View full abstract»

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  • Accountability for wireless LANs, ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 116 - 126
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Accountability is an extremely important issue in computer and network systems. One of the goals of accountability is the capability to trace an event (e.g., the leaking of secure information or an outside attack), even after the event occurred so that the causes can be determined. This article first provides a survey of accountability with a general overview of the topic, using electronic patient records and various computer and network attacks as a model. Then, it describes and analyzes practical framework applications of accountability systems. An insurable network architecture, called A-NET is proposed. Then, an algorithm to achieve true accountable administration is proposed, namely, that an administrator's activities must be accountable. Finally, accountability for wireless LANs, ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks are studied. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting and avoiding wormhole attacks in wireless ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 127 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A particularly severe attack on routing protocols in ad hoc networks is the so-called worm- hole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for replay at that remote location. When this attack targets specifically routing control packets, the nodes that are close to the attackers are shielded from any alternative routes with more than one or two hops to the remote location. All routes are thus directed to the wormhole established by the attackers. In the optimized link state routing protocol, if a wormhole attack is launched during the propagation of link state packets, the wrong link information percolates throughout the network, leading to routing disruption. In this article we devise an efficient method to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the OLSR protocOLSR protocolol. This method first attempts to pinpoint links that may potentially be part of a wormhole tunnel. Then a proper wormhole detection mechanism is applied to suspicious links by means of an exchange of encrypted probing packets between the two supposed neighbors (endpoints of the wormhole). The proposed solution exhibits several advantages, among which are its nonreliance on any time synchronization or location information, and its high detection rate under various scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Securing wireless sensor networks against aggregator compromises

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 134 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A common approach to overcome the limited nature of sensor networks is to aggregate data at intermediate nodes. A challenging issue in this context is to guarantee end-to-end security mainly because sensor networks are extremely vulnerable to node compromises. We propose three schemes to secure data aggregation that rely on multipath routing. The first guarantees data confidentiality through secret sharing, while the second and third provide data availability through information dispersal. Based on qualitative analysis and implementation, we show that by applying these schemes, a sensor network can achieve data confidentiality, authenticity, and protection against denial of service attacks even in the presence of multiple compromised nodes. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications systems (PCS), ISDN, and more.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Osman Gebizlioglu
Huawei Technologies