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Power and Energy Conference, 2004. PECon 2004. Proceedings. National

Date 29-30 Nov. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 64
  • Power system restoration - the graceful degradation phase

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1 - 12
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  • On site dynamic testing of the power swing blocking element in distance relay

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 158 - 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power systems are subjected to a wide range of small and large disturbances during operation. The power system must adjust to these changing conditions and continue to operate satisfactorily and within the desired bounds of voltage and frequency. The power system should be designed to survive disturbances such as double circuit faults and lost of a large generator. Recently Peninsular Malaysia experienced a major system disturbance in the north resulting in a partial blackout. This paper describes the investigation carried out pertaining to the operation of power swing blocking element in distance relay which is the cause of the major disturbance .On site dynamic testing of the power swing blocking element was performed by using the OMICRON advanced transplay module. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical analysis of leakage current level in correlation with environmental stresses for solid insulating material under tracking test

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 295 - 298
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Environmental pollution can cause the insulator material to become progressively coated with dirt and chemicals in the long run. In the presence of wet atmospheric conditions, the leakage current flows due to the development of conducting path across the insulator surface. The level of leakage current depends on the surface wetting and the degree of electrolyte contamination as well as the environmental factors. An analytical approach based on dimensional analysis technique is applied to develop a mathematical model of leakage current in correlation with the environmental stresses. In order to verify the developed model, an inclined-plane tracking test is conducted on the polymeric insulating materials. The experimental work is carried out by measuring the magnitude of surface leakage current at different levels of contamination. Simulation results of the model have shown good agreement to the experimental results and provide useful information on describing the test condition of the tracking test procedures. View full abstract»

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  • A rule-based expert system for harmonic load recognition

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 19 - 24
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    This paper presents a new method for identifying the different types of single phase nonlinear loads as sources of harmonic disturbances in a power system. The method combines the use of signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques. Fast Fourier transform and fractal analyses have been used to extract features of the harmonic signatures of the various nonlinear loads from the sampled input current waveforms. Intelligent and automatic harmonic load recognition process is achieved by using a rule-based expert system. The expert system has been verified using real measurements and the results show that the system give accurate identification of the single phase nonlinear loads such as personal computer, fluorescent lights, uninterruptible power supply and oscilloscope. View full abstract»

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  • Costs optimization for unit commitment and economic load dispatch in large scale power systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 190 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power generation business profit depends on the power systems operational costs. Finding an optimal solution to the unit commitment (UC) and economic load dispatch (ELD) is one of the smart strategies that being practiced by most of power producers. UC and ELD main problems are to find the minimum total fuel cost and fast computation simulation time scheduling of UC and ELD. Obtaining the best solution to these two problems lead to remarkable saving in the power system operational cost Lagrangian relaxation (LR) is one of the best solution methods to UC and ELD problems. The approach is more efficient and easier than other methods in solving large-scale problems. Lately, the emerging of bundling methods (BM) improves the weakness of LR. Through BM, the LR dual functions are updated at the higher level. With the use of interior point method as an initialization method this paper presents LR and BM based solution technique to UC and ELD problems. It is based on application of the said techniques to thermal units consisting of 45 generators. A comparison has been made with a data taken from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and the results found from this system have been compared to that of TNB results. View full abstract»

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  • Transformer less halogen lamp step-down converter

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 263 - 267
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    The main aim of this paper is to presents the development of low cost design for 35 W transformer less halogen lamp step down converter from 240 VAC to 12 VAC in stable output. This paper presents the methodology of solving the critical problem and circuit design of a halogen dimmer without utilizing the isolation transformer. This approach increased the efficiency and minimizes the power losses through transformer. The design focused on low power losses, low cost design and stable output voltage included environment factor such as dirty AC lines, surge current and harmonics. It is found the power loss is 3 W through step down resistor for firing circuit and NTC. View full abstract»

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  • The potentials of palm oil as a dielectric fluid

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 224 - 228
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Petroleum and mineral based fluids have, for almost one century, been used for cooling and insulation purposes. Their popularity' stems out of their availability and cheapness. However, recent evidence has shown deficiencies with these fluids. They have low properties especially flash and fire points and most importantly low dielectric break down voltage. The most serious of these shortcomings is the inability to meet up with health and environmental laws. This is because they are not organic and hence not biodegradable; their spillage takes very long time to decompose. These developments have led to seeking alternatives in vegetable based fluids. The fluids tried and confirmed to be used as dielectric fluids include castor oil, coconut oil, soya bean oil, rapeseed oil etc. This work has measured the properties of palm oil against the IEEE C637 and ASTM D section for possible use as a dielectric fluid. The result shows that treated palm oil has break down voltage of 75 kV/mm, flash point >220), fire point (>220) and moisture content (0.08%). Hence this has shown the potential of palm oil as a dielectric fluid. However future work should focus on further investigation before field application. Malaysia as a country stands a lot of gains in this type of research, since it is a world is leader in palm oil production. View full abstract»

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  • The instability effect of constant power loads

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 175 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The sub-system interaction and instability phenomena is a common problem in the distributed power system (DPS). The interaction arises because each individual converter has internal control function such as to regulate the converter output voltage, which results in the converter tends to draw a constant power and therefore has a negative incremental input impedance. The constant power and negative input resistance characteristic potentially have a de-stabilizing effect on the electrical supply system. The paper presents the analysis, theoretical design and simulation of a simple DC DPS. The analysis of the LC filter and its damping parameters were given. The effect of the negative input resistance of the CPL on the filter was analysed using small-signal input resistance of the load. The passive damping method was used to reduce the system interaction between the converters. The results were verified by MATLAB Simulink simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of a closed loop controller for bidirectional high-frequency link inverter

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 67 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a closed loop controller for bidirectional high-frequency link inverter. Deadbeat control is adopted to achieve fast dynamic response. The controller consists of inner current loop and outer voltage loop. To improve overall performance of the system, additional decoupling networks are employed. Output voltage decoupling network is included to improve the response of current loop; while load current decoupling network is used to increase the robustness of the inverter towards load variation. Simulation results are presented for the closed loop system under linear and nonlinear loads. It is shown that the control method provides good dynamic response with low total harmonic distortion, even under full-bridge rectifier loads. View full abstract»

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  • Unified series-shunt compensator: modeling and simulation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 55 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the model and simulation of a unified series-shunt compensator (USSC). An accurate model of the USSC is developed aimed at examining its capability in mitigating power quality problems in a power distribution network. The USSC simulation model comprises of two 12-pulse inverters which are connected in series and in shunt to the system. A generalized sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPVVM) switching technique is developed in the proposed controller design for fast control action of the USSC. Simulations were carried out using the PSCAD/EMTDC electromagnetic transient program to validate the performance of the USSC model. Simulation results verify the capabilities of the USSC in performing voltage sag compensation, flicker reduction, voltage unbalance mitigation, power flow control and harmonics elimination. View full abstract»

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  • Loss reduction in distribution networks by network reconfiguration: a two stage solution approach

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 241 - 246
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    In this paper, a simplified load flow method is developed for solving radial distribution networks that involves only the evaluation of a simple algebraic expression of voltage magnitudes. A general formulation of the network reconfiguration for loss minimization is given for optimization of distribution loss reduction and a solution approach is presented. The solution algorithm for loss minimization has been developed based on a two-stage solution methodology. The first stage of this solution algorithm finds a loop, which gives the maximum loss reduction in the network. For this purpose a simple-to-use formula, called loop loss reduction formula has been developed. To find a branch exchange, which results in the maximum loss reduction in the loop, the second stage applies a proposed technique called distance-center technique. Therefore, the solution algorithm of the proposed method can identify the most effective branch exchange operations for loss reduction, with minimum computational efforts. The software for proposed solution algorithm is capable of performing optimum reconfiguration for a radial distribution network for any number of buses and laterals. The proposed feeder reconfiguration is tested with 33-bus IEEE test system and the results are compared with Baran and Wu's method. View full abstract»

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  • Asymmetrical multilevel inverter using ratio-three based sources

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 137 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a base-three ratio for the selection of asymmetrical multilevel inverter voltage source. The advantage is the optimum output voltage quality for a particular power circuit configuration. The series H-bridges topology with four-cell per arm inverter has been investigated. This configuration conventionally forms a 9-level inverter when used in symmetrical multilevel inverter. However with the proposed voltage selection in asymmetrical multilevel inverter, the number of levels increases to 81. A lookup table-based controller has been designed and shown to provide high quality output voltage for a wide range of modulation index. Simulation has been conducted to show that the optimum output voltage quality has been produced. Examination of the switching signals reveals that the higher voltage cells operate at lower frequency. Investigation on the input currents of the inverter shows that the higher power H-bridge cells require unidirectional current if the load power factor is high enough. View full abstract»

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  • A fuzzy logic based current modulation for torque ripple minimization in switched reluctance motors

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 46 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a fundamental control issue in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives - the torque ripples. Normally, torque ripple minimization is achieved by using a look-up table, i.e., the look-up table uses stored magnetic characteristics to provide the reference current. A number of techniques for the generation of reference current profiles that minimize the torque ripples have been suggested. But because of highly nonlinear characteristics of the SRM, all these schemes are not fully successful. Our work deals with a novel algorithm for generation of current waveforms by iterative modulation of the reference current pattern by using a gain for minimizing the torque ripple. This gain is computed with the aid of fuzzy logic, which is well suited to compensate for the nonlinearities of the system. Simple two-phase-on current scheme is used for the study. Performance of the proposed strategy is verified by simulation. View full abstract»

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  • A PSPICE-based design of DC-DC converter systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 73 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new approach to using PSPICE in designing DC-DC converter systems is introduced in this paper. In this new approach, the power stage and control loop design equations are programmed in PSPICE. For this purpose, an option available in PSPICE called analog behavioral modeling (ABM) is used. By doing so, the parameter of power stage and the component values of the error amplifier can be easily obtained by means of PSPICE DC analysis. The methodology of development is presented in some detail. A design example is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach In designing DC-DC converter systems. View full abstract»

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  • The solder wire fuse protection for power electronic devices

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 52 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fuses have been produced over hundred of years and are in use throughout the world in large numbers. They are the common protective device for the over current protection. They perform the vital role of protecting electrical equipments and networks and ensure that the faults are removed in minimum time and the continuity of supply is maintained to consumers at high level. The fuses are also used to prevent the power electronic devices and circuit from damage. This paper experimentally determines the different fuse characteristics of a rewirable fuse in the saline water. Solder wire has been tested for fuse protection. The experimental setup has been designed to carry testing of fuse in different quenching media with different lengths of wires. The experimental results show that semiconductor devices can be protected with an ordinary rewirable solder wire fuse. The joule integral (I2t) heating of solder wire is faster compared to costly semiconductor fuse with better fuse characteristics. The experimental results show, based on the I2t of the device, that the solder wire with particular length and diameter can be used to replace the fast acting semiconductor fuse with negligible cost. These fuses can be used for experimental work where it could be easily replaced but for commercial use special casing can be designed to handle the problem of replacement after the fuse is blown. The new method of fuse design is suggested where a simple rewirable fuse with almost negligible cost that can protect the semiconductor devices. This project is to determine experimentally the different fuse characteristics of a rewirable fuse in the saline water, distilled water and oil. Three different diameters of fuse wire have been tested for fuse protection. The experimental setup has been designed to carry testing of fuse in different quenching media. View full abstract»

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  • A review of under-frequency load shedding scheme on TNB system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 170 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Safe operation of a power system requires that system frequency be kept within a specified range. When the generation is insufficient due to disturbances, the frequency might fall under the minimum allowable value, which may lead to system blackout if not properly counteracted. This frequency decline may be corrected by shedding certain amount of load so that the system is back into balanced state. This paper reports a case study on Malaysia's TNB system. UFLS scheme used by TNB was reviewed. Then modification and improvement was made to reflect the current changes in the system making the scheme more up to date. Effect of having more stages to reduce over shedding and combination of different amount of load at each stage are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative study of the switching energy losses between Si PiN and SiC Schottky diode

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 216 - 219
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    paper is to compare the switching energy losses of the silicon carbide Schottky diode with the silicon PiN diode. The comparison is done using an inductive load chopper circuit simulated with Pspice, a type of circuit analysis software. Both diode models used for the simulation are from Infineon; the silicon carbide Schottky (SDP04S60, 4 A/600 V) and silicon PiN (IDP06E60, 6 A/600 V). View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized stochastic control of multi-machine power systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 195 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A decentralized feedback control scheme is proposed for optimization of large-scale systems. First, local controllers are used to optimize each subsystem, ignoring the interconnections. Next, an additional compensating controller was applied to minimize the effect of interactions and improve the performance of the overall system. At the cost of the suboptimal performance, this optimization strategy ensures stability of the systems under structural perturbations. To account for the modeling uncertainties, both a local Kalman filter and recursive least square algorithm are used to estimate all local states and interactions for each subsystem. The controller uses these estimates, optimizes a given performance index and then regulates the system. A sample three-bus system is given to illustrate the proposed methodologies. View full abstract»

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  • Review of control strategies for power quality conditioners

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 109 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active power filter appears to be a viable solution for power quality conditioning. With the emergence of fast computing devices, control strategies for active filters are continually changing aiming at near perfect compensation. This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art control techniques in active filters and reactive power compensation. Considerable attention is paid to the reference voltage/current estimation and control strategies. Several techniques are discussed and compared in terms of performance and implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial-immune-based for solving economic dispatch in power system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 31 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an artificial immune system based optimization approach for solving the economic dispatch problem in a power system. Economic dispatch determines the electrical power to be generated by the committed generating units in a power system so that the generation cost is minimised, while satisfying the load demand simultaneously. The developed artificial immune system optimization technique used the total generation cost as the objective function and represented as the affinity measure. Through genetic evolution, the antibodies with high affinity measure are produced and become the solution. The simulation results reveal that the developed technique is easy to implement, converged within an acceptable execution time and highly optimal solution for economic dispatch with minimum generation cost can be achieved. The result also confirms that AIS based optimization technique can be a useful tool for solving optimal solution in economic dispatch problem, which involves a large number of generating units and at the same time to comply with a large number of constraints. View full abstract»

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  • A proposed strategy of implementation for load shedding and load recovery with dynamic simulations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 185 - 189
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric load shedding is implemented to maintain the generation power margin at nominated level when load demand is higher than electric supply. This prevents the widespread system collapse when a fault occurs. The scope of study consists of system analysis, design and simulation. Dynamic simulations are performed using the ERACS power analysis software. When the frequency falls below preset level at a certain rate, a predetermined amount of load will be removed to restore the system frequency. Important design considerations for this scheme are the maximum anticipated overload, number of load shedding steps, size of load shed at each step and frequency relay settings. Load restoration after load shedding can only be executed after the system has recovered completely and its normal frequency is restored. Loads should be restored in small blocks sequenced by time delay between successive restorations to allow frequency stabilization. A case study is carried out on PETRONAS Penapisan Melaka, whereby a load shedding scheme is designed for its upcoming cogeneration plant. Dynamic simulations performed indicate that the load shedding design is feasible and able to halt frequency collapse due to generation loss. The design strategy, calculations and justification are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • An analysis and design of a star delta transformer in series with active power filter for current harmonics reduction

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 94 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis and design of a star delta transformer in series with active power filter linked to grid lines are carried out. The development of active power filter which consists of voltage reference, triangular generator to generate pulse width modulation with half inverters is simulated. The current injection network of half inverter in series with three phase of a star delta transformer which is interconnected to grid lines is also discussed. It is observed that the reduction of harmonics at grid lines was significantly reduced. The simulation results show that the total harmonic distortions are reduced within range of 45% - 50% and 97% - 99% at distributions and neutral lines respectively. Also, the distortions of sinusoidal waveform at grid lines were improved. View full abstract»

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  • Basic design aspects of micro hydro power plant and its potential development in Malaysia

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 220 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hydro power plants convert potential energy of water into electricity. It is a clean source of energy .The water after generating electrical power is available for irrigation and other purposes. The first use of moving water to produce electricity was a waterwheel on the Fox River in Wisconsin in 1882. Hydropower continued to play a major role in the expansion of electrical service early in this century around the world. Hydroelectric power plants generate from few kW to thousands of MW. They are classified as micro hydro power plants for the generating capacity less than 100 KW. Hydroelectric power plants are much more reliable and efficient as a renewable and clean source than the fossil fuel power plants. This resulted in upgrading of small to medium sized hydroelectric generating stations wherever there was an adequate supply of moving water and a need for electricity. As electricity demand soared in the middle of this century and the efficiency of coal and oil fueled power plants increased, small hydro plants fell out of favor. Mega projects of hydro power plants were developed. The majority of these power plants involved large dams, which flooded big areas of land to provide water storage and therefore a constant supply of electricity. In recent years, the environmental impacts of such large hydro projects are being identified as a cause for concern. It is becoming increasingly difficult for developers to build new dams because of opposition from environmentalists and people living on the land to be flooded. Therefore the need has arisen to go for the small scale hydro electric power plants in the range of mini and micro hydro power plants. There are no micro hydro power plants in Malaysia and the smallest category of hydro power plants in Malaysia is mini hydro with a capacity between 500 kW to 100 kW. This paper discusses the conceptual design and development of a micro hydro power plant .The overall estimation and calculation of a 50 kW power plant has been carried out. Software is also developed using MATLAB to calculate the total head, discharge rate, type of turbine for the micro hydro power plants, once the capacity is known. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study on the performances of the boost PFC circuit

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 143 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power factor correction (PFC) circuit using boost converter for low power applications are developed and analyzed in this work. Average current mode control is utilized in this work to control the circuit in the closed loop system. Simulation is done for the boost PFC circuit to validate the designed parameters. Furthermore, an experimental circuit is developed to verify and compare the results with the simulation. The frequency spectrum of the input current is then compared with the EN/IEC61000-2-3 standard on harmonic distortion. The dynamic response of the input current and output voltage are discusses as well. A 500 W output load is first chosen to illustrate the performances of the circuit. Several values of output load and input voltage would conclude the overall performance of the circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Development of high efficiency boost converter for photovoltaic application

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 153 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a development of high efficiency boost converter for photovoltaic application is presented. The design aimed to create a completely self-contained unit capable of converting light energy from the sun into electrical energy. The initial goal was to build a device that could provide a stable 24 Vdc output, from a fluctuating direct current-linked input voltage from the photovoltaic array. The typical application of this boost converter is to provide a DC power supply for inverter either for grid connected or standalone system. To perform the optimum operation for the design topology the simulation software PESIM was utilised. The chip UA3843A was used in order to get the specification target. The 120 W converter has been developed with 1.2% of maximum output voltage ripple and the capability of efficiency is achieved more than 85%. View full abstract»

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