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Humanoid Robots, 2004 4th IEEE/RAS International Conference on

Date 10-12 Nov. 2004

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  • Sensor-based biped gait generation scheme for humanoid - implementation and evaluation

    Page(s): 656 - 671 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new gait generation method, called sensor-based biped gait generation, for humanoids is proposed here. The proposed method chooses a gait generating method from a set of prepared ones according to sensor measurements of robot's environment and to its behavior state. A gait generator that is based on the proposed method is designed and implemented onto an original humanoid to demonstrate its effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization of quasi-passive pneumatic muscle walker

    Page(s): 627 - 639 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A passive dynamic walker can walk down a inclined floor without any actuators. When the passive dynamic walking is modified to use actuators, it is called "quasi-passive walking". This locomotion is efficient in energy consumption. In this study, a pneumatic muscle actuator is used for quasi-passive walking. It is more difficult to control the pneumatic actuator than the usual electric motor. One of the approaches to realize stable walking with pneumatic actuators is a design of the robot such that the dynamics of the robot are operated by simple controller. In this paper, a simple control law is proposed, and the relationship between input and output by real biped robot is observed. We also check the performance of the control by observing that the robot descends a small difference in level. View full abstract»

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  • Humanoid trajectory generation: an iterative approach based on movement and angular momentum criteria

    Page(s): 576 - 591 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, data from human walking suggest that angular momentum at the center of mass (CM) is highly regulated throughout the gait cycles. In this paper, we propose a humanoid robot trajectory generation that minimizes angular momentum at CM while maintaining balance based on the moment criterion. This moment criterion is equivalent to the zero moment point (ZMP) stability criterion. Because of the extensive computational requirement of the problem, we first utilize spline interpolation of the desired movement snapshots to generate an initial humanoid robot trajectory, and then an iterative adaptation of the humanoid robot trajectory to maintain angular momentum within the desired boundary subject to the ZMP balance constraint is investigated and derived. Numerical simulation was conducted to verify the validity of the proposed trajectory generation method. View full abstract»

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  • An analytical method on real-time gait planning for a humanoid robot

    Page(s): 640 - 655 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies the real-time gait planning for a humanoid robot. By simultaneously planning the trajectories of the COG (center of gravity) and the ZMP (zero moment point), the fast and smooth change of gait, can be realized. The change of gait is also realized by connecting the newly calculated trajectories to the current ones. While we propose two methods for connecting two trajectories, i.e. the real-time method and the quasi-real-time one, we show that the stable change of gait can be realized by using the quasi-real-time method even if the change of the step position is significant. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by simulation and experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Motion capture from inertial sensing for untethered humanoid teleoperation

    Page(s): 547 - 565 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (753 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the design of a modular system for untethered real-time kinematic motion capture using sensors with inertial measuring units (IMU). Our system is comprised of a set of small and lightweight sensors. Each sensor provides its own global orientation (3 degrees of freedom) and is physically and computationally independent, requiring only external communication. Orientation information from sensors is communicated via wireless to host computer for processing. We present results of the real-time usage of our untethered motion capture system for teleoperating the NASA Robonaut. We also discuss potential applications for untethered motion capture with respect to humanoid robotics. View full abstract»

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  • Series damper actuator: a novel force/torque control actuator

    Page(s): 533 - 546 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel force/torque control actuator called series damper actuator (SDA) is proposed, modeled and analyzed. Compared to conventional force/torque control schemes and series elastic actuator (SEA), SDA has good output force/torque fidelity, low output impedance and large force/torque range. Furthermore, varying damping coefficient endows the SDA with more advantages and makes the system more versatile. An experimental SDA system is developed, in which a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper is employed as the series damper. The experimental results show that SDA system is an effective force/torque control actuator. View full abstract»

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  • Affective communication system with multimodality for a humanoid robot, AMI

    Page(s): 690 - 706 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB)  

    Nonverbal communication plays a vital role in human interaction. To interact sociably with a human, a robot has to recognize and express emotions like a human. It also has to speak and determine its autonomous behavior while considering the emotional status of a human. In this paper, we present an affective human-robot communication system for a humanoid robot, AMI that we designed to communicate multi-modally with a human through dialogue. It communicates with humans by understanding and expressing nonverbal communication through channels such as facial expressions, voice, gestures and postures. Interaction between human and robot is made possible through the affective communication framework presented in this paper. The framework enables a robot to catch emotional status of current user and to respond appropriately. As a result, the robot naturally engages in dialogue with a human; it chooses appropriate conversation topics and behaves appropriately in response to human emotions. Moreover, the human partner perceives the robot to be more human-like and friendly, thus enhancing the interaction between the robot and human. View full abstract»

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  • Acquisition of a biped walking pattern using a Poincare map

    Page(s): 912 - 924 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm for biped walking in which the robot learns to appropriately place the swing leg. This decision is based on a learned model of the Poincare map of the periodic walking pattern. The model maps from a state at a single support phase and foot placement to a state at the next single support phase. We applied this approach to both a simulated robot model and an actual biped robot. We show that successful walking patterns are acquired. View full abstract»

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  • Prioritized multi-objective dynamics and control of robots in human environments

    Page(s): 764 - 780 Vol. 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We characterize the dynamics of multiple prioritized control objectives and we present a framework that can simultaneously control these objectives by providing decoupled closed-loop dynamics within their priority level. This controller is suitable for robots that operate in human environments, where they face multiple contacts and must comply with multiple control criteria. We explore several cases including constrained hand tracking and compliant multi-objective control. View full abstract»

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  • 2004 4th IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (IEEE Cat. No. 04EX989)

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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • 2004 4th IEEEIRAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots Nov. 10-12, 2004 Santa Monica, CA Proceedings

    Page(s): i
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Copyright

    Page(s): ii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): iii - vi
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  • MERTZ: a quest for a robust and scalable active vision humanoid head robot

    Page(s): 513 - 532
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2058 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design and construction of MERTZ, an active-vision humanoid head robot, with the immediate goal of having the robot runs continuously for many hours a day without supervision at various locations. We address how the lack of robustness and reliability lead to limitations and scalability issues in research robotic platforms. We propose to attend to these issues in parallel with the course of robot development. Drawing from lessons learned from our previous robots, we incorporated various fault prevention strategies into the electromechanical design. We have implemented a preliminary system, integrating sensorimotor, vision, and audio in order to test the full range of all degrees of freedom and enable the robot to engage in simple visual and verbal interaction with people. We conducted a series of experiment where the robot ran for $2 hours within 9 days at different public spaces. The robot interacted with a large number of passersby and collected at least 100,000 face images of at least 600 individuals within 4 days. We learned various lessons involving the robustness of current design and identified a set of failure modes. Lastly, we present the long term research direction for the robot. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in the development of anthropomorphic fluidic hands for a humanoid robot

    Page(s): 566 - 575
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New lightweight anthropomorphic hands are presented for application in a humanoid robot. These hands possess 13 to 15 degrees of freedom and are driven by flexible fluidic actuators that are integrated in the finger joints. The compact design of the hands contains a pressure unit that is housed in the metacarpus. Alternatively, the pressure unit can be mounted externally, which leads to a further mass reduction. The new design and its performance shall be described in the present article. View full abstract»

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  • Momentum compensation for fast dynamic walking of humanoids based on pelvic rotation of contact sport athletes

    Page(s): 592 - 607
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method of momentum compensation around the perpendicular axis during fast dynamic waking of humanoid robots. In order to perform a task using the arms during a walk, it is desirable that the upper body part, i.e., the arms and the trunk, should not be used for the momentum compensation and should be dedicated to the task. In this paper, a particular walk called trunk-twistless walk is investigated which is experientially acquired by contact sport athletes. An antiphase rotation of the pelvis against the swing leg is observed compared to a normal walk. This Characteristic of the pelvic rotation is implemented to a humanoid. A method of determining the rotation of the humanoid's waist is proposed coupling with the pitch angle of the swing leg. The proposed walk achieves the whole walking motion including the momentum compensation only by the lower body. It is confirmed that the stance foot torque around the perpendicular axis is reduced compared to a standard humanoid walk without twisting the trunk OF swinging the arms. The improvements on the straightness of the walking trajectory and the stability of the upper body during a fast dynamic walk are also confirmed. View full abstract»

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  • A framework for remote execution of whole body motions for humanoid robots

    Page(s): 608 - 626
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1766 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a framework for the remote execution of whole body motions for humanoid robots. Humanoid robots are biped machines which usually possess more than 20 degrees of freedom(D0F). The complexity of their multi-DOF structure and the difficulty in maintaining postural stability make the whole body operation of humanoid robots fundamentally different from traditional fixed-base manipulators or stable-base mobile manipulators. Getting hints from human conscious and subconscious motion generations, we propose a method of generating whole body motions which integrates operator??s command input and the robot??s autonomous functions. Instead of giving commands to all joints all the time, the operator selects only the necessary points of the humanoid robot??s body for manipulation. This paper first explains the concept of the system and the framework for integrating operator??s command and autonomous functions in whole body motion generation. Using the framework, we constructed autonomous functions for maintaining stability constraint while satisfying the desired trajectory of operation points and a workspace extension autonomy which changes utilization of body parts. Finally the paper reports on the implementation of the proposed method to teleoperate a 30 DOF humanoid robot HRP-2 using only two 3 DOF joysticks. Experiments teleoperating HRP-2 confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Whole-body cooperative balanced motion generation for reaching

    Page(s): 672 - 689
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses a constructing method of a system that realizes whole body reaching motion of humanoids. Humanoids have many redundant DOFs for reaching, and even the base can be moved by making the robot step. Therefore there are infinite postures as solutions of final reaching posture, and there are also infinite solutions for reaching trajectory that realizes a final reaching posture. It is, however, difficult to find an appropriate solution because of the constraint of dynamical balance, relatively narrow movabIe range for each angle. We prepared basic postures heuristically, and a final reaching posture is generated by modifying one of them. This method enables to implement heuristics easily, such as, kneeling down is suitable for reaching near the ground. Methods that compose the reaching system, such as, basic posture selection, modification of posture for generating final reaching posture, balance compensation, footstep planning to realize desired feet position, and generation and execution of whole body motion to final reaching posture are described. Reaching to manually set position, and picking up a bat at various posture using visual information are shown as experiments to show the performance of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical manipulation learning of unknown objects by a multi-fingered robot hand

    Page(s): 726 - 740
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a learning method for multi-fingered manipulation of unknown objects. The method is a combination of higher-order local autocorrelation (HLAC), principal components analysis (PGA), and mean-shft clustering. Our results show that the different geometric restrictions of manipulation maximize the variance in the space of Feature vectors identified by HLAC analysis. As a result, the data corresponding to each manipulatory act are clustered in a high-dimensional space in accordance with the restrictions via PCA. Mean shift clustering method classify the clusters which correspond the restrictions. The efficacy of the proposed method is shown by means OF handling experiments of given diameter caps subjected to rotational restriction. View full abstract»

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  • Towards single-arm reaching for humanoids in dynamic environments

    Page(s): 749 - 763
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of humanoid agents or robots reaching to arbitrary targets in environments with static and dynamic obstacles has not yet been investigated in detail. Typical approaches include using randomized motion planning or performing simple planning (i.e., linear interpolation between initial and target positions and orientations of the hand) in operational space, hoping that inter-link and agent-environment collisions do not occur. In this paper, we test the most popular algorithms for motion generation for singlearm reaching in environments with randomly placed obstacles of random sizes. Additionally, an attempt is made to formalize the concept of motor primitives, and a motor primitive implementation is tested in the aforementioned experiments. An analysis of the efficacy of the algorithms for reaching in static environments is conducted, and the extensibility of the algorithms towards reaching in dynamic environments is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Biologically valid jaw movements for talking humanoid robots

    Page(s): 781 - 793
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    In this work, we describe our preliminary efforts in the scope of humanlike learning from demonstration (LFD) for creating biologically valid jaw movements toward building a phonetically and visually synchronized trainable talking robot mouth system. Numerous studies show perception of naturalness and similarity to humans are important issues for the acceptance of social robots. For example, it is discomforting if the robot does not exhibit humanlike eye and jaw movements or fails to pay attention to the task. We also expect that giving robots realistic mouth movements which match the auditory signal not only enhances the perception that the robot is talking, but can also increase the intelligibility of the speech uttered by the robot especially under acoustically noisy conditions. Humanlike learning from demonstration based jaw movement creation utilizes auditory and visual sensory information to acquire perceptual and visual motor skills from human. For each sound unit, the acquired visual motor trajectories are stored in a database called experience library. Initial demonstration of our proposed system indicates that the correlation between the audio and the generated jaw movements is preserved for both the virtual and the hardware platforms. View full abstract»

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  • Multisensor-based human tracking behaviors with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    Page(s): 794 - 810
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For communication robots, it is important to find a communication partner and attract his or her attention in daily environments. In this paper, we propose a method for communication robots to detect and track a human actively in order to communicate with him or her. We apply Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) to human detection and tracking behaviors with a humanoid robot that has four types of sensors. Thus, by utilizing our method, the robot can detect and track humans with irregdar motion in complicated daily environments. While tracking a human, it tries to attract attention by verbal and nonverbal communication. We verify the validity of our method by performing experiments with a humanoid-type communication robot named Robovie. View full abstract»

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