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Date 20-23 Sept. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 148
  • Test program sets and vertical testability

    Page(s): 603 - 609
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic combat (EC) operations are critically important in establishing and maintaining air supremacy. The joint services electronic combat system tester (JSECST) is the most recent test system fielded to support EC systems - providing maintainers test program sets (TPS) that quickly and effectively perform end-to-end (ETE) testing of EC systems, and assist in identification of the failed line replaceable unit (LRU), RF cable, or antenna assembly. This paper focuses on how the JSECST may be used to test modern EC systems including both radar warning receivers and jammers. Case studies from current test program set (TPS) design and integration highlights the unique problems associated with flightline TPS development. Subjects addressed include: which faults are critical to mission effectiveness? How good is aircraft/system built-in-test (BIT)? What is the test strategy? What are the stimulus and measurement requirements and how does the TPS optimize the testing to minimize runtime? How do we ensure vertical testability?. View full abstract»

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  • Interface test adapters (ITA) "Design to Build" a primer on rapid availability, reduced cost, and improved maintainability

    Page(s): 124 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interface test adapters (ITAs) are truly the place where the "rubber meets the road" in any automated test system (ATS). As the primary electrical interface between the ATS and the unit under test (UUT), the ITA occupies a critical juncture in the overall effectiveness of the ATS concept. For military applications where identical ITA configurations will be produced to support various field or depot installations, ITA reliability, repairability, and cost of production are valid considerations in evaluating design concepts. This paper outlines a "Design to Build" approach that applies to all ITA programs and that is currently being successfully applied to a DoD program that requires interface of a Teradyne Spectrum 9000 Series ATS (using a two-tier mass connection panel) with various units to be tested (line and shop repairable). The design approach described results in an ITA that can be: 1) easily and cost effectively produced (in various quantities to support deployment schedules); 2) electrically configured to replicate legacy system design in a rapid and accurate manner (for non-supportable legacy ATS replacement programs); 3) adapted to various configurations to support a range of UUTs at a field or depot facility; and 4) easily repaired as the removable case design allows full ITA electrical access for troubleshooting and repair. In illustrating the "Design to Build" concept, this paper addresses considerations affecting ITA electrical design, structural integrity, and subassembly concepts. View full abstract»

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  • LM-STAR® technology support solution

    Page(s): 129 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    LM-STAR® was developed as a commercial, low cost, CASS compatible, scaleable tester for factory and depot use. Since its development in 2000, LM-STAR® has morphed over time into two major production variants. The first variant was produced in 2002 for support of the next generation F-16 Block 60 aircraft. The second variant is in production today for the F-35 on the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program. Other variants are being configured for support of CASS TPS and other military prime item systems. Numerous LM-STAR® configurations have been delivered in 2003 and will continue into 2005 on the current JSF System Design and Development (SDD) program. Depot support will be harmonized with the factory development environment to significantly reduce the total operating costs of the aircraft. Throughout the multi-year development of LM-STAR® we have defined, incorporated and implemented next generation commercial technologies (commonly known as NxTest) into an architecture that was developed to support an open framework and standard interfaces. These commercial based technologies were added to stay abreast with emerging avionic technologies for both the F-16 and F-35 aircraft. As LM-STAR® continues to embrace and support additional aircraft avionics, it will need to evolve and stay aligned with the latest commercial test initiatives. This paper overviews the technologies used and planned for LM-STAR®, all while preserving TPS harmonization from the OEM factory through end-item depot support. View full abstract»

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  • The Spanish standard automatic test system (SAMe) experience

    Page(s): 550 - 556
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the process and effort started 6 years ago for the definition, design and manufacturing of the new standard test system (known as SAMe) for the Spanish MOD. Due to proliferation of different and old test systems and obsolescence problems in some of them, the Spanish MOD faced the development of a new standard able to support past and future weapon systems. This paper outlines the history of this design, based in requirements from different test systems (designed to be compatible with HTE, CASS and GPATE between others) and describes the final SW and HW SAMe architecture. Based on COTS, flexible and open architecture, easy to upgrade, easy maintenance, two different versions for use in the lab or in the field, integrated self-test and self-calibration utilities, on-line documentation are some of the SAMe main features commented in this paper. In parallel with the SAMe development, INDRA is also doing an important effort in TPS migration from other test system to the SAMe platform. It is described in this paper the low cost TPS off-load strategy for F18 WRAs and SRAs that allow to replace the old HTE by the new SAMe, as well as the migration of TPSs for the AV8B+ from CASS to the SAMe with just small SW modifications. Specific SW tools and the intermediate interface test adapter (IITA) had to be developed to support this migration strategy. Finally, it is commented the present situation of the SAMe philosophy, with two SAMe already installed in the military bases supporting the F18 and AV8B aircraft with the migrated TPS. Four additional SAMe are under contract and three more to come. Now that base platform is defined, the future includes the development of new extensions for radar and electrooptic weapon systems. Future means also an important R&D effort to include into the SAMe platform SW and HW enhanced technologies in line with the future ATS requirements (ATML, synthetic instruments, reduced footprint, ...). View full abstract»

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  • The Airbus A380 - an AFDX-based flight test computer concept

    Page(s): 460 - 463
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Commercial aircraft are in the process of defining new standards with the introduction of the Airbus A380, which involves the latest digital information techniques, such as the AFDX onboard realtime network. The AFDX standard, a major innovation in aircraft technology, first used with the Airbus A380, introduces telecom Ethernet-based technology, as well as a switch connection topology, rather than part-to-part links or buses. Airbus and CES partnered to develop a general-purpose building block, which allows the simulation, test or connection of any AFDX connected equipment. Integrated into different packages, ranging from the small equipment tester, through the complete aircraft integration test bench, up to the full flight test computer. Hence the name "AFDX General-Purpose Test Platform". In the flight test applications, it provides the interface between the AFDX avionic world and the commercial Ethernet switches, through multiple AFDX inputs to a twin Ethernet output router. Redundancy and precise time control of the data transmission have been incorporated in the specification. Also of special interest, is a very advanced source synchronized datation system able to guarantee a perfect time alignment of all data directly at the entry in the flight test computer. This paper will describe the different modular elements of the ground and flight test computers, as well as the hardware and software tuning and performance analysis tools, which have been developed around these computers. All of these elements are now in operation and have shown that AFDX tools are a real concept, which can be reused for other programs. View full abstract»

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  • Teaching old tricks to new dogs

    Page(s): 376 - 380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes why transferring test programs and fixtures from obsolete automatic test equipment (ATE) to new equipment is not as simple as it should be. No one would argue that technology has made major advances on test in the last 30 years. Today, speed, overall performance, computing power and software tools are more sophisticated than 20 or 30 years ago, when the first ATE appeared. As these ATE are now heading for retirement and as the programs they were supporting still have a long life to live, one would think legacy replacement with new ATE to be a simple task. Unfortunately, this is seldom the case. We realize that old ATE had a number of cards up their sleeves to deal with. For example, high voltage technology, lack of computer aided engineering (CAE) data, requirements for parametric tests, extensive usage of the guided probe, and many other aspects might be not so simple to be reproduced with modern, yet powerful ATE. The paper shall identify the specific constraints involved with old technology and give examples of success stories where new ATE has been adapted to respond to the challenge. Paraphrasing (in reverse) and old saying, it will be like "teaching old tricks to new dogs.". View full abstract»

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  • Sustainment of legacy automatic test systems: lessons learned on TPS transportability

    Page(s): 217 - 222
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sustainment of legacy automatic test systems (ATS) saves cost through the reuse of software and hardware. The ATS consists of the automatic test equipment (ATE), the test program sets (TPSs) and associated software. The associated software includes the architecture the TPSs run on, known as the control software or test station test executive. In some cases, to sustain the legacy ATS, it is more practical to develop a replacement ATE with the latest instrumentation, often in the form of commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware and software. The existing TPSs, including their hardware and test programs, will then need to be transported, or translated, to the new test station. In order to understand how to sustain a legacy ATS by translating TPSs, one must realize the full architecture of the legacy ATS to be replaced. It must be understood that TPS transportability does not only include translating the original TPS from an existing language (such as ATLAS) to a new language (such as 'C') to run on a new test station, but includes transporting the run-time environment created by the legacy ATS. This paper examines the similarities and differences of legacy ATE and modern COTS ATE architectures, how the ATS testing philosophy impacts the ease of TPS transportability from legacy ATE to modern day platforms and what SEI has done to address the issues that arise out of TPS transportability. View full abstract»

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  • Applying innovative Web based technology to modernize a system engineering software tool used to analyze and project requirements and utilization of automatic test equipment

    Page(s): 570 - 575
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Web based CASS implementation plan (CIP) is a software management tool that is being modernized jointly by Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Lakehurst (NAWCAD LKE) and Naval Air Station Patuxent River (NAS PAX). Modernization and automation of this software tool increases program manager's (PM) ability to suitably manage, track, and allocate automatic test equipment (ATE) with an added ability to identify quantities of operational test program set (OTPS) needed for acquisition. The methodology employed to achieve modernization of Web based CIP, facilitates access to output reports through PMA-260 Web page. By implementing innovative technology and open systems architecture design, PMA-260 is able to achieve a user-friendly Web-based software management tool that provides accurate information and timely reporting. View full abstract»

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  • Running a DTS-70 test system on a 21st century PC

    Page(s): 62 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Large investments on the order of billions of dollars were spent in the 1960's and 1970's developing automated test systems based on 16-bit minicomputers like the HP 1000, the Nova/16-bit Eclipse and the PDP-11. These systems revolutionized the test industry. As decades passed, requirement changed to indefinite support and continuation and these issues threaten to erase their historical success. Migration has proven to be both expensive and time consuming. The engineering expertise for legacy (original) testers is often already retired and the required documentation may be difficult to locate. Finding COTS peripherals and instruments in today's marketplace that connect in yesterday's ways can seem impossible. The costs for software patches and certification only serve to drive simple, but well meant goals into very costly migration projects. In an ideal model, the solution would mostly be a drop-in replacement with some modern technology. At NAVSEA NUWC-Keyport, a PC emulation successfully replaced a DTS-70 minicomputer. This project used the Strobe Data Kestrel Co-Processor as a replacement for the HP 1000 E-Series minicomputer. A case history of the upgrade at the US Navy NUWC-Keyport is provided, covering the steps and issues faced with the conversion, particularly replacing the hardware, software and microcode in the DTS-70. The end product is a turnkey approach, which offers ease and economy of migration, productivity improvement and increased reliability, as well as adding new features without altering any of the original software code. View full abstract»

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  • Automation design for 4G mobile Internet communication systems testing

    Page(s): 18 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that the system testing is the bottleneck in many system design and development life cycle, due to the lack of the reliable testing system and effective test methodology. Furthermore, the rapid advancement of telecommunication technologies also brings the high obsolete rate of systems under testing, thus a well designed test system is practically useless, if it can not be developed in the least time at the lowest-cost. Automation of the system test is the key to develop the fast, adaptable and reliable test systems to meet the technical and economical challenges of testing telecommunication system. The work presented here is an automated testing system design for the Flash-OFDM™ mobile Internet communication system (R. Dolan, 2001). The novel hardware/firmware design and the nature of sophisticated software of the Flash-OFDM™ mobile Internet system have brought in a great difficulty for completing the system test in the given testing time. However, the success of developing and using the automated testing system allows us to systematically verify design functions and measure the performance of such advanced system within an adequate time period. As the results, the fault discovery rate has been significantly increased and deep hidden problems have been discovered in very early stage. View full abstract»

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  • Real time visualization of sensor data in aircraft

    Page(s): 389 - 394
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In-flight tools for monitoring sensor data and subsystem status on aircraft provide warning for crews when the electronic signal falls outside of an established norm. The data is presently translated by trained personnel via on-screen algorithms to enable trouble shooting at the site of the discrepancy. Through the process of animated representation of data flowing through the bus systems, visual representation the effects of the failure and the prediction of the probable failed component or subsystem are available without the present interaction required to navigate through these algorithms. Data is additionally stored, mined, and used as a prognostic for future component or subsystem failures. The result is a tool that is easier to monitor and that is increasingly accurate in the prediction of failure prior to actual occurrence. Using this application, less training is required for personnel to interpret data from the sensors, both in-flight and during maintenance cycles. The paper addresses the creation process for this application, examining software tools that were considered and rejected as well as the processes that are being used to build the application. It examines both failures and successes in structuring the software and will examine the process of data mining for prognostic software. As every driver or aircraft pilot crosschecks his panel of instruments he looks at two types of instruments, those that indicate real-time information like the speedometer or airspeed indicator, and those that indicate out-of-bounds information usually seen as red lights or fuel low warning lights. Whether analog or digital, information is presented in such a way that the viewer may quickly know when something has gone wrong. It would be more useful for the driver or pilot to know when something is in the process of going wrong, and to be able to correct problems before they actually occur. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic multiple fault diagnosis with imperfect tests

    Page(s): 395 - 401
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault diagnosis is the process of identifying the failure sources of a malfunctioning system by observing their effects at various test points. It has a number of applications in engineering and medicine. In this paper, we present a near-optimal algorithm for dynamic multiple fault diagnosis in complex systems. This problem involves on-board diagnosis of the most likely set of faults and their time-evolution based on blocks of unreliable test outcomes over time. The dynamic multiple fault diagnosis (dMFD) problem is an intractable NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. Consequently, we decompose the dMFD problem into a series of decoupled sub-problems, and develop a successive Lagrangian relaxation algorithm (SLRA) with backtracking to obtain a near-optimal solution for the problem. SLRA solves the sub-problems at each sample point by a Lagrangian relaxation method, and shares Lagrange multipliers at successive time points to speed up convergence. In addition, we apply a backtracking technique to further maximize the likelihood of obtaining the most likely evolution of failure sources and to minimize the effects of imperfect tests. View full abstract»

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  • IVI drivers - new requirements for IVI conformance

    Page(s): 181 - 184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With any new standard, users are concerned with the process vendors use to assure their products conform to the standard. Uniform conformity benefits all users by reducing the effort required to integrate products from different vendors. The IVI Foundation has spent over four years developing a specification and conformance infrastructure to assure IVI drivers are conformant. All future IVI drivers have to adhere to these requirements to be considered conformant. This paper describes the newly released conformance specification and infrastructure. The paper covers the following issues: the history of the conformance process, how drivers are tested to assure compliance, IVI's public list of conformant drivers, how conformance is policed, and IVI's conformance dispute arbitration process. View full abstract»

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  • The new DoD automatic test systems executive organization

    Page(s): 2 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In 1990, the DoD Inspector General began a series of audits which led to language in the FY-1994 Appropriations Bill recommending that the Secretary of Defense direct a DoD ATS acquisition policy and establish a formal implementation mechanism to ensure strategy compliance. On 29 April 1994, USD (A&T) established DoD ATS policy and appointed the Navy as the DoD Executive Agent for ATS. NAVAIR PMA260 was appointed by Navy to serve as the ATS Executive Agent Office. The EAO organized an ATS Management Board that consisted of the Colonel/Navy Captain level ATS principals from each of the services. A number of Integrated Product Teams were established under the EAO and AMB to carry out the main technical functions of the EA. In 1997, the services formally agreed via a Joint Memorandum of Agreement on the various policies, procedures and organizational responsibilities to be implemented. On 31 March 2003, the General Accounting Office (GAO) submitted a report which made several recommendations to the Secretary of Defense. In response to the GAO Report, OSD(AT&L) directed the services to perform an assessment of the EA function. A Joint Service IPT was chartered to define alternative approaches to executing the ATS EA role and to provide an ATS EA assessment report that contained a recommended course of action. OSD directed that the AMB continue to serve as the DoD coordinating body for ATS matters, that NAVAIR PMA260 be directed to continue the Executive Agent Office functions as the DoD ATS Executive Directorate, and that Service Acquisition Executives agree upon procedures for ATS acquisitions in a new Joint MOA. This new JMOA defines the revised DoD ATS organizational structure and details responsibilities and procedures to be followed throughout DoD for ATS acquisition and modernization. View full abstract»

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  • Where does the hardware end and the software begin?

    Page(s): 136 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Before integrated engineering process teams and system engineering concepts, hardware and software development groups often had walls between them. These walls were intellectual, emotional, departmental, and usually physical. Design a piece of hardware and throw it over the wall to the software group to program up. Now, in the days of immensely dense application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and flash memory, there is a tremendous blurring between hardware and software. In fact, there is an implied expectation that military and consumer devices can be reprogrammed (patches and upgrades) in the field - perhaps even wirelessly (e.g., the software radio, cell phones, MP3 players). In an integrated system design, the functional allocation of requirements may change even after deployment! The increase in processors' speed is competing with the (previously) advantageous speeds of hardware. Functions performed in software may become functions executed in hardware and vice versa. Analog circuits are being replaced by their digital equivalents. What are the impacts of this transition to reprogrammable devices? This presentation addresses these issues and more. View full abstract»

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  • Portable diagnostic reasoning for improved avionics maintenance and information capture & continuity

    Page(s): 518 - 524
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current avionics maintenance and repair is a complex process that presents many opportunities for improved diagnostic methods and better capture and retention of on-board and at-wing data to be incorporated into the maintenance and logistics chain. High occurrences of built-in-test (BIT) false alarm, cannot duplicate (CND), and no fault found (NFF) statistics indicate the need for improvements in the maintenance process. Capture and preservation of fault and maintenance data with situational context can support off-board repair processes and provide opportunities for data mining to identify rogue units and emerging or otherwise undetected patterns. Previous papers by the authors have described open-systems architecture and innovative reasoning processes to capitalize evidence sources and decrease diagnostic ambiguity while preserving information continuity through the logistics chain. In this paper, the authors describe an at-wing modular application for portable maintenance aids, building upon open architecture designs and utilizing reusable, modular components to enhance diagnosis and reduce ambiguity. ReasonPro - at Wing™ presents a direct opportunity for increased diagnostic accuracy and ambiguity reduction through a better understanding of system dependencies and interactions. The technology is being embedded into a personal data assistant (PDA) to facilitate multiple element in the maintenance process. ReasonPro - at Wing™ implements onboard information sources and automated reasoning techniques that extend BITs with environmental data and data maturation processing through the support of automated data warehousing and mining. View full abstract»

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  • Real world applications of synthetic instrumentation

    Page(s): 434 - 439
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A current focus of many instrumentation and automatic test equipment (ATE) designers is the area of synthetic instrumentation. This instrumentation, which consists of physically separate building blocks or modules, provides the opportunity to reduce the system's overall hardware content by eliminating common hardware functionality located within each traditional instrument. This modular design provides opportunities for lower lifecycle cost, smaller physical packages and increased capabilities through module upgrades. However, the design of synthetic instrumentation and its integration into an ATE system poses technical challenges not typically seen with traditional instrumentation. Traditional instrument developers are now faced with the challenge of determining how their existing and future modules, for example a digitizer or waveform generator, satisfy a portion of the requirements of a synthetic instrument. ATE developers are challenged to identify the proper set of modules, primarily commercial off the shelf (COTS), that together satisfy the system level requirements. In addition, they must address instrumentation concurrency, synchronization, switching, and develop a software and hardware architecture that supports future upgrades as technology advances. Each of these issues requires a strong system engineering discipline that can develop a robust system architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling it both ways: hybrid diagnostic modeling and its application to hierarchical system designs

    Page(s): 576 - 582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hybrid diagnostic modeling (HDM) is an extension of diagnostic dependency modeling that allows the inter-relationships between a system or device's tests, functions and failure modes to be captured in a single representation (earlier dependency modeling approaches could represent the relationships between tests and either functions or failure modes). With hybrid diagnostic modeling, the same model can be used for early evaluations of a design's diagnostic capability, creation of hierarchical FMECAs, prediction of diagnostic performance, and generation of actual runtime diagnostics. This paper examines issues associated with the application of HDM to hierarchical systems, including: the types of diagnostic inference used to interpret the relationships between functions and failure modes, the correlation of functional and failure-based reliability data, and diagnostic assessment using hybrid diagnostic models. View full abstract»

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  • "FST - a good investment"

    Page(s): 540 - 545
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The realities of a TPS's development project costing across the life cycle can be summed up simply by the cliche': "pay me now or pay me later". Everything costs something - there are no free lunches. However, the good news is, we can often find an assortment of cost-effective 'lunches.' And we can control them - or at least, to some extent, mitigate them to manageable levels. Ideally, we are charged to manage to the life cycle - directed to minimize the life cycle cost. It is always our charge to manage the cost over the life cycle - not just under our watch. In this paper we focus qualitatively, a bit, on one excellent cost management opportunity in the investment in the FST, as a full member of the acquisition team for offloaded TPSs as well as during the ISE phase of a system's life. It gets the ultimate "go to person(s)" involved, up front and early, in the design, development and eventual delivery. View full abstract»

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  • Getting under the hood: an approach to creating modular, reconfigurable instrumentation systems

    Page(s): 325 - 330
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the implementation of an approach to user accessible signal processing functions within the instrument module itself. Topics covered are the evolution of instrumentation from traditional monolithic bench and rackmount to current modular designs, the forces driving these changes, and the current and future directions of instrumentation evolution. Electronic systems have been rapidly evolving, driven by advances in semiconductor technology that provide increased capability in a smaller package. Concurrently, instrumentation systems have benefited from this evolution. Stimulus and measurement functions that a few decades ago were implemented with analog circuitry and took up multiple racks of space can be implemented with digital processing functions. View full abstract»

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  • An artificial neural network architecture for application in general diagnostics

    Page(s): 402 - 406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The application of computing rapidly advanced the test field, particularly the development of automatic test equipment (ATE). Typically the application of computers has been focussed on the control of instrumentation, allowing a large number of complex tests to be performed, with relatively little human interaction. The main development in computing that has propagated to the test environment has been the increase in processing power, allowing a greater number of faster, more complex tests and diagnosis to be performed. One area of development, that has not been adopted so rapidly, is the application of Artificial Intelligence (Al). The foundations of modern artificial neural network (ANN) theory were developed half a century ago, and although the application of neural networks can be difficult, their use is becoming increasingly widespread. This paper discusses a methodology that will allow Al to be applied, in an ad hoc fashion, in to the contemporary test arena, eliminating the need to for a link between LRU design and ANN development. View full abstract»

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  • Using open networking standards over MIL-STD-1553 networks

    Page(s): 117 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over the past several decades, the MIL-STD-1553 networking technology has found use in a number of military and aerospace platforms including applications on aircraft, ships, tanks, missiles, satellites, and even the International Space Station. In developing software applications for these platforms, the use of modern, open networking standards such as TCP/IP is often a preferable solution. The Internet Protocol (IP) provides communications routing, and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable delivery to the application level. Furthermore, higher-level protocols such as HTTP, FTP, etc can be utilized in a TCP/IP environment. Though these open communications standards are preferable for many situations, the MIL-STD-1553B standard does not immediately lend itself to TCP/IP communications. One of the reasons for this is the fundamental difference between the MIL-STD-1553B networking standard, which relies on a bus controller to control communications, and other data link layer networking protocols such as IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) which are CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) networks, and are thus decentralized. Despite differences in MIL-STD-1553B networking and more traditional data link layer networking protocols, there is nothing fundamentally preventing IP communication over a 1553 network. We have implemented a method of encapsulating IP datagrams within MIL-STD-1553B data messages that allows for transparent use of Internet Protocol (IP) APIs at the application level. Our system allows legacy 1553 messages to also be transported over the network, and even allows legacy messages to take a higher transmission priority over IP traffic. We analyze the advantages of such a system and the performance level we have achieved with our implementation of this concept. View full abstract»

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  • Bob Heinonen of Texas Heros Portrays

    Page(s): v
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (17 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Making a choice between an emulator or software migration

    Page(s): 223 - 225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many current automatic test systems employ legacy computer systems. These systems have software packages that have been proven over years of use. Unfortunately, the hardware for these computer systems is fast becoming unsupportable. The owners of these systems are faced with a choice to either translate the software to work with a modern computer system or replace the legacy computer with an emulator that will run the same programs with only minor software modifications. These alternatives must be evaluated not only from the viewpoint of current functionality but also future functionality as well. The failure to take into account the proper evaluation criteria can result a financial impact that can seriously impact the usefulness of the computer system. This paper discusses the evaluation criteria that should be applied when making that decision. These factors will be analyzed in terms of both financial and technical implications. View full abstract»

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  • Embedded oil analysis sensor implementation joint effort by Common Embedded Diagnostics (CED) and Army oil analysis program (AOAP)

    Page(s): 546 - 549
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    The focus of this effort is to find a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), in-line oil condition sensor suitable for use in Army tactical, wheeled and track vehicles. The inline oil condition sensor notify the soldier in the field that oil maintenance is required. The anticipated benefit is the reduction in labor hours for both the maintainer and AOAP lab personnel expended in drawing, shipping, and analyzing oil samples. The main thrust is to support the Army's transition from reactive maintenance to proactive maintenance, from demand logistics to anticipatory logistics, and eventually from diagnostics to prognostics. The sensor visually notify the soldier by different colored lights when the condition of the oil merits changing due to depleted additives or out of tolerance total acid number merits testing due to contaminant detection, or simply merits replenishing due to low oil level is low. The sensor needed is self-calibrating and with built in memory for use in trend analysis. The output data is made available to the Army's Surface Health Usage Monitoring System (SHUMS) for further analysis via one of the standard buses, such as J1708, 1553 or 1939. A cost analysis performed by the assistant product manager, Common Embedded Diagnostics (CED), office of the product manager, test measurement and diagnostic equipment (PM TMDE) is included. View full abstract»

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