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Security Technology, 2004. 38th Annual 2004 International Carnahan Conference on

Date 11-14 Oct. 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 75
  • Security technology decision tree tool

    Page(s): 91 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center has developed a decision tree tool, to help users implement security measures based on intrusion detection and automated video surveillance technology. The security technology decision tree tool (STDTT) is a computer application that leads the user through specification of security objectives, identification of constraints attributable to noninterference with mission, and consideration of possible security scenarios, with guidance in equipment selection as the outcome. Even if contractors perform the actual security design and implementation, STDTT will prepare in-house personnel to effectively assess whether proposed security designs are compatible with local activity, with personnel resources for assessment, response, and maintenance, and with year-round weather and terrain conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Risk assessment methodology for electric power transmission, RAM-TSM

    Page(s): 99 - 105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RAM-TSM includes both a methodology and a training program for assessing the security risk for high voltage power transmission systems. The methodology is based on the traditional risk equation: (Likelihood of Attack) * (Consequence) * (1-System Effectiveness) = Risk. A screening method is provided to help owners/operators prioritize their facilities and decide which require a full security risk assessment and warrant the expenditure of resources to perform it. The assessment process begins with a characterization of the facility including identification of the undesired events and the respective critical assets. Guidance for defining a design basis threat is included, as well as for using the definition of the threat together with the attractiveness of the target to estimate the likelihood of adversary attack at a specific facility. Relative values of consequence are estimated. Methods are also included for estimating the effectiveness of the security system against the adversary attack. Finally, relative risk is calculated. In the event that the value of risk is deemed to be unacceptable (too high), the methodology addresses a process for identifying and evaluating system upgrades in order to reduce risk. Upgrades include improving protection system effectiveness and/or mitigating consequences in order to reduce risk. View full abstract»

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  • Robohound™ remote explosives detection

    Page(s): 359 - 363
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With continued terrorist activities worldwide and the concern that explosive devices need to be detected in a variety of configurations while protecting individuals, there is a need to remotely detect potential explosive devices. Current handheld trace explosives detection sensors require the operator to stand within a few inches of a potential explosive device to ensure an adequate sample is collected. Because of the low vapor pressure of some explosives and the low vapor concentrations in airborne plumes emanating from a bulk explosive source, the sample collection method is critical when using an ion mobility spectrometer-based explosive detection sensor. The RoboHound™, a prototype remote trace explosive detection system, is under development at Sandia National Laboratories to address this issue. The RoboHound™ was designed for primary use in emergency response situations and could also be used for some checkpoint screening applications. The prototype uses a wheeled robotic platform with a manipulator arm and custom software for robotic controls; a chemical sample collector and preconcentrator; and a commercial explosives detector. The integrated system allows an operator to maneuver the system into position while remaining up to 100 feet away from a suspect vehicle, package, or other object, and take a sample for analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Applying the psychoacoustic audio watermarking technique in Internet digital traditional music museum in Vietnam

    Page(s): 285 - 288
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    In this paper we present the application of the psychoacoustic audio watermarking technique in our proposed Internet digital traditional music museum in Vietnam. View full abstract»

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  • National Safety & Security Field Operational Test: technologies to improve security and efficiency in the hazardous materials transport industry

    Page(s): 28 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been estimated by the U.S. DOT that more than 800,000 hazmat shipments of all classifications and quantities are transported daily; clearly hazmat transport is an essential component of the nation's freight transportation system. At the same time, hazmat shipments represent an area of great concern and potential vulnerability due to the various safety and economic consequences associated with accidents and terrorism. Although only a small percentage of hazmat shipments present a risk and/or danger, it is imperative for government and industry to work together to mitigate the possible vulnerabilities as well as develop and lest systems and solutions that will improve hazmat safety and security. The Hazardous Materials Safety and Security Field Operational Test (FOT is a joint FHWA and Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration-sponsored project). The HM FOT combines an analytical risk assessment with an integrated suite of commercial off-the-shelf technologies and tested them on vehicles transporting hazardous materials. Specifically, the technologies included arc: wireless satellite or terrestrial communications, untethered trailer tracking, routing and geo-fenced mapping software, panic buttons, biometrics and smartcards, electronic cargo data systems, intelligent onboard computers, and electronic cargo seals. The FOT focused on 13 different price tiers of technology in four test scenarios: bulk fuel - flammable gas and liquids; less-than-truckload -high hazard materials; bulk - chemicals; and truckload - explosives. The project objective of the FOT was to demonstrate technology efficacy for safety and security as well as fleet operational efficiencies. Additional research components analyzed legal implications and industry cost-benefits. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of color and shape for detecting and tracking security breaches in airports

    Page(s): 289 - 294
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an integrated surveillance system for detecting and tracking security breaches in airports. The first part of the system uses an overhead camera to detect security breaches in exit lanes using a motion-based segmentation algorithm, and the second part of the system tracks the detected target with a pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) camera using color and shape information. If an object comes into the exit lane from the wrong direction, the first subsystem detects a security breach and sends information to the second subsystem located inside the airport. The second subsystem then extracts the target that caused the security breach using motion-based segmentation and collects features for tracking. Color is initially used as the only feature and shape incorporated in a second step for a more robust tracking. View full abstract»

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  • Anti-trojan security module for biometric authentication tasks

    Page(s): 140 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (709 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When implementing biometric authentication systems, several problems related to security should be faced. These problems are mostly derived from the high sensibility of biometric data, and the feeling of governmental control when central databases are used. This paper introduces the work being done by the authors, to provide new means for overcoming them. This new solutions are focused on developing secure distributed systems, where the user is the one that handles his/her own biometric template. Although this could be done with state of the art technology, like smart cards, misuse of this technology, as well as lack of relines in Point of Service Terminals, demand improvements in identification tokens. These tokens will be based on smart card basic technology, improved with the ability of performing biometric processes internally, and with enhanced security mechanisms. View full abstract»

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  • IntelliFIBER™ fence sensor installation on alternative fence constructions

    Page(s): 156 - 163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Perimeter intrusion detection systems using linear acoustic sensing cable are now widely used. Steel chain-link is one of the most common and inexpensive fence barrier materials, so is usually the medium on which these "microphonic" fence detection systems are mounted. In earlier papers we addressed a new sensor product, IntelliFIBER™, which uses fiber-optic detection cables and described its performance when installed on such a barrier type. We reported how this fiber sensor has a variety of cable and other options that allow it to be adapted to the specific site need. However, we note that different countries or types of sites may have predominantly other fence constructions than chain-link, to meet their specific appearance or threat level needs for a delay or sensing barrier. Hence it is useful to indicate specifically how this new sensor can be installed and function for applications on those barrier types. For example in many countries there are what are termed "ornamental iron" or ornamental metal fences, consisting of angular or tubular rails and posts. We find that these are used extensively in VIP residences and industrial site headquarters, due to their attractive appearance. There are also a variant of these fences termed "palisade" fences that generally consist of vertical or arched rolled steel pales. One finds that these fences are used extensively in the UK in applications from tube stations to industrial campuses. Another fence construction consists of expanded metal panels, again used most extensively in European industrial sites but also in North America. With new terrorist threats of attack such fences may also have special constructions or modifications for high security, such as embedded vehicle anti-ram cables, or spiked toppings, which in turn require special sensor considerations. When deploying IntelliFIBER, as well as the fence type there are also specific mounting considerations for the sensor cable. For example it must be simply and economically mounted so as not to be easily damaged, and must not detract from the fence aesthetics. This paper considers the method of application of fiber optic sensors to these alternative barrier types. It describes deployment steps from mounting, to calibration for different types of thr- eats, to recording of performance. Actual test data from installations including our Sensor Integrated Test Environment (SITE) are reported, along with comparison data from chain-link fences in the same environment. View full abstract»

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  • Security risk assessment methodology for communities (RAM-C)

    Page(s): 106 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a number of security risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) for various infrastructures including dams, water systems, electrical transmission, chemical facilities and communities. All of these RAMs consider potential malevolent attacks from different threats, possible undesired events and consequences and determine potential adversary success. They focus on the assessment of these infrastructures to help identify security weaknesses and develop measures to help mitigate the consequences from possible adversary attacks. This paper focuses on RAM-C, the security risk assessment methodology for communities. There are many reasons for a community to conduct a security risk assessment. They include: providing a way to identify vulnerabilities, helping a community to be better prepared in the event of an adversary attack, providing justification for resources to address identified vulnerabilities and planning for future projects. The RAM-C process is a systematic, risk-based approach to assess vulnerabilities and make decisions based on risk. It has provided valuable information to community planners in making security risk decisions. View full abstract»

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  • Reversible and lossless data hiding with application in digital library

    Page(s): 226 - 232
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    Recently, the development of data hiding techniques to hide annotations, confidential data, or side information into multimedia attracts the attention of researchers in various fields, especially in digital library. One of the essential tasks in digital library is the digitization of arts together with the corresponding textural descriptions. The purpose of data hiding is to embed relating textural description into the image to form an embedded image instead of two separate files (text file and image file). The hidden textural description and the original host image can be extracted and reconstructed from the embedded image in the reverse data extraction process. However, the reconstructed host image will more or less be distorted by utilizing traditional data hiding methods. In this paper, we propose a novel lossless data hiding method based on pixel decomposition and pair-wise logical computation. In addition to the lossless reconstruction of original host images, the results generated by the proposed method can also obtain high data hiding capacity and good visual quality. Furthermore, the task of tampering detection can also be achieved in the proposed method to ensure content authentication. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of our proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Managing system design requirements information

    Page(s): 85 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Security Technology Department provides program support to design security systems and related improvements. During one of these projects, a relational database system was developed to categorize and to help cross match the requirements from several documents. A "design requirements" matrix was created that shows the requirements met by the improved security system. The system is flexible and easy-to-use. Even though it is only a prototype, the application's forms, queries, reports and the requirements data could be reused by other projects. The strengths of the system are the ability to use text searches of the database to aid in the categorization and customized reporting of the information from the requirements documents. A document's metadata (e.g., name, chapter, section, paragraph, etc.) is stored with the related text in the database. The security classification and other information associated with a paragraph are included. User defined "requirement categories" (e.g., alarms, barriers, fences, standoff) can be assigned to appropriate paragraphs from the requirements document. Relevant design document paragraphs can be matched with the "requirement categories". Selected lines can be included or excluded from the reports. The resulting customized reports can be reported or exported as Excel or rich text format files where additional formatting may be applied. View full abstract»

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  • Facial identification using transformed domain by SVM

    Page(s): 321 - 324
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a facial biometric identification system, using transformed domains such as discrete cosine transforms (DCT), fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and discrete wavelets transforms (DWT). As novel classifier system has been utilized a support vector machines (SVM) (Burges, 1998), and in addition, the way of computing transformed coefficients. With the above system, it has been obtained a simple and robust system with good results, upper to 98% with the ORL face database (400 images) from Olivetti Research Laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring visual abilities and visual knowledge of aviation security screeners

    Page(s): 258 - 264
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A central aspect of airport security is reliable detection of forbidden objects in passenger bags using X-ray screening equipment. Human recognition involves visual processing of the X-ray image and matching items with object representations stored in visual memory. Thus, without knowing which objects are forbidden and what they look like, prohibited items are difficult to recognize (aspect of visual knowledge). In order to measure whether a screener has acquired the necessary visual knowledge, we have applied the prohibited items test (PIT). This test contains different forbidden items according to international prohibited items lists. The items are placed in X-ray images of passenger bags so that the object shapes can be seen relatively well. Since all images can be inspected for 10 seconds, failing to recognize a threat item can be mainly attributed to a lack of visual knowledge. The object recognition test (ORT) is more related to visual processing and encoding. Three image-based factors can be distinguished that challenge different visual processing abilities. First, depending on the rotation within a bag, an object can be more or less difficult to recognize (effect of viewpoint). Second, prohibited items can be more or less superimposed by other objects, which can impair detection performance (effect of superposition). Third, the number and type of other objects in a bag can challenge visual search and processing capacity (effect of bag complexity). The ORT has been developed to measure how well screeners can cope with these image-based factors. This test contains only guns and knives, placed into bags in different views with different superposition and complexity levels. Detection performance is determined by the ability of a screener to detect threat items despite rotation, superposition and bag complexity. Since the shapes of guns and knives are usually known well even by novices, the aspect of visual threat object knowledge is of minor importance in this test. View full abstract»

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  • Use of modeling and simulation to support airport security

    Page(s): 247 - 251
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    Currently as well as in the past, an aggressive program to enhance security at airports throughout the United States has been pursued resulting in numerous advancements in the civil aviation security landscape. For government and industry planners concerned with future security improvements, being able to predict the overall impact of new technologies and/or procedures is an important issue, especially in the deployment of advanced airport security equipment. Recognized as part of the issue is that new security systems must be installed in and function as part of operating airports, which, throughout the entire process, must continue to handle ongoing operational requirements in a competitive and cost efficient manner to the satisfaction and safety of their customers - the airlines and traveling public. One approach to gaining a better understanding of this issue, as well as any new technologies and their impact in an airport's operational environment, is by using modeling and simulation tools. Modeling and simulation has become an effective way to target new technology advancements and operational concepts and to evaluate the behavior of complex systems, offering the opportunity to examine the complexities of the airport environment in a non-intrusive and cost-effective way, while also offering the means to evaluate, assess, and fine-tune equipment selections, configurations, and other operational factors without actually deploying or installing expensive security equipment or reconfiguring secure areas of the airport environment, unnecessarily interrupting passenger and baggage flow through an airport. In the long run, this will result in the implementation of more effective and efficient airport security solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Intruder detection systems for water-hatches at reservoir sites

    Page(s): 153 - 155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Security-hatch covers provide secure access for staff to underground assets that require protection. In the context of the water-industry, these hatches are used as an access point to reservoirs containing freshly treated drinking water. Access to reservoirs is required for valve repair and routine maintenance such as reservoir cleaning. The use of intruder detection systems is important, as there is a threat of contamination by toxic substances to freshly treated drinking water and of extortion by the threat of contamination. The Police Scientific Development Branch (PSDB) has evaluated security-hatch intruder detection systems for use by the water industry. The effectiveness of two detection systems was assessed when mounted inside a security-hatch and the hatch itself subjected to physical attack. A range of attack styles were 'weighted' based on their perceived likelihood, and an overall probability of detection was calculated for each system. This paper describes the technology behind intruder detection systems for protecting often remote, unattended water-hatches. It describes the capability of such systems for the protection of these hatches such as the false alarm performance, probability of detection and deployment methods. View full abstract»

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  • The design and testing of a portable vehicle crash barrier

    Page(s): 47 - 55
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    The most widely quoted and generally adopted vehicle barrier specification is the American Dept. of State specification SD-STD-02.01 published in April 1985 which in summary asks for the arrest of a 15000lb vehicle moving at 30, 40, or 50 mph within 3ft, 20ft or 50ft. The testing required to achieve this rating is clearly laid out in the standard documentation (SD-STD-02.01) and revolves around using a "pickup truck" of American manufacture. This specification has recently been reviewed and superseded by SD-STD-02.01, Revision A, published in March 2003. The essence of the recent revision is to lower the stopping distances available for each speed to 1 metre from the inner edge of the barrier. The engineering required to arrest the loads required in the DOS specification is very significant and consequently expensive, the endorsed barriers generally being bulky, complex and management/installation intensive. The simplest method of lowering traffic approach speeds is the introduction of mechanical speed limiters such as chicanes, speed humps and other mechanical traffic trainers. The cost of these items is normally inconsequential when compared with the cost of arresting a 15000lb (6820kg) truck moving between 30 and 50mph (48-81kmh). AVSelli embarked on a research, design and development program in February of 2003 to develop a range of vehicle barriers. The key design points that we identified and focussed on during our development were "return to service time" for the heavier barriers and "speed of deployment time" for the lightweight barriers. In the pursuit of these objectives we have designed a range of vehicle barriers for a variety of duty cycles and applications. All of these designs employ friction braking and distortion of designated members to absorb the energy of the vehicle impact rather than the more usual and well proved "immovable object style". View full abstract»

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  • The real privacy and security implications of the USA Patriot Act

    Page(s): 17 - 27
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    The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (USA Patriot Act) of 2001 has aroused the concern of privacy advocates as well as others who question its effectiveness in combating terrorism. The Act amended over 15 important statutes and significantly expands the authority of government to conduct investigations and monitor information transmitted over the Internet. This paper provides an overview of critical portions of the 10 Titles of the Patriot Act that relate to privacy and security and gives an objective assessment of its weakness, strengths, and effects on the lives of US citizens. The analysis will include the topics of "roving wiretaps", secret searches, harboring suspected terrorists, foreign intelligence gathering, money laundering, and tracking of Internet communications. Because the Act affects the US Bill of Rights, the consequences of the Act on the following Constitutional amendments will also be explored: 1) 1st Amendment - Right of Free Access to Ideas, Speech, Assembly, etc.; 2) 4th Amendment - Search and Seizure; 3) 5th Amendment - Self Incrimination, Due Process; and 4) 6th Amendment - Right to Counsel, Unbiased, Speedy Criminal Trial. View full abstract»

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  • The next generation of GUIDAR technology

    Page(s): 169 - 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The next generation of Guided Radar (GUIDAR) is based on Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radar signal processing. Just as spread spectrum technology has revolutionized the communications industry, UWB is dramatically changing radar signal processing. These advanced signal-processing techniques are adapted to leaky coaxial cable technology in the next generation GUIDAR to provide new features and enhanced performance. At the core of the new technology is an ultra high-speed digital correlator implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Complementary orthogonal codes based on Golay codes are used to produce thumbtack correlation functions simultaneously in multiple range bins. The net result is "near continuous wave (CW)" performance in forty to eighty 11.6-meter long-range bins with targets located within one meter along the length of cable. This is a dramatic improvement over the 3% duty cycle of the original GUIDAR and the typical 100 to 200 meter long zones of current CW leaky cable sensors. Orthogonal complementary codes are transmitted on each of two leaky coaxial cables. The response from two parallel receive cables is fed to a full synchronous detection receiver. The orthogonal nature of the code allows the composite coded pulse response to be de-multiplexed into the independent response for each of the two cables. This ultra-high speed correlation process involves the addition and subtraction of the sampled in-phase and quadrature-phase responses to the multiple range bin accumulators at 10 million samples per second. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive firewall model to detect email viruses

    Page(s): 197 - 198
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an adaptive approach to preventing the damage caused by viruses that travel via email. The approach protects intranet machines from outside infected machines by spreading email viruses. This directly addresses the two ways that viruses cause damage: less machines spreading the virus will reduce the number of machines infected and reduce the traffic generated by the virus. We present our firewall model and address how to detect email viruses based on protocol sanity, probabilistic estimation of maliciousness, and patterns recognition. View full abstract»

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  • Security and telecommunications

    Page(s): 56 - 60
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    The paper describes the current situation for the use of telecommunications in one Security Services Company in Europe, current evolutionary trends and a vision of the immediate future. The descriptions include telecommunications necessities between: (1) sensors and peripheral devices and central panels in security system installations; (2) security systems panels and alarm monitor stations; (3) guards and their surveillance monitor stations; (4) guards and the security systems attended by them; and (5) guards to guards. The paper tries to support a general view of the need for Security Companies to invest in telecommunications in order to improve the performance of services. View full abstract»

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  • Biometric system based in the feature of hand palm

    Page(s): 136 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (605 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we are going to use the drawings that form the characteristics of the hand palm, as are fold (commonly called lines of the hand), cracks, scars, and even fold of the fingers to verify and identify the persons. We propose a biometric system based on the hand palm image. On this way, a database of 500 hands belonging to 50 users has been built (10 hands by user). It has been studied two different methods for obtaining the parameters of the hand, by measures of textures and by measures of phalanges. The classifier system is a neural network, with back-propagation training algorithm on the Multilayer Perceptron. The found results are over 99% in verification system, and over 98% in identification system. View full abstract»

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  • N bit-wise modular multiplier architecture for public key cryptography

    Page(s): 221 - 225
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    Along with the progress of the information society, we are relying more and more on digital information processing with security. Cryptography plays an important role in a situation where unwanted eavesdropping or falsification has to be avoided. Public key encryptions including RSA require a huge number of arithmetic operations. Major part of its operation is modular multiplication with very large bit-width. This operation takes long time, and there is an advantage in hardware implementation of it. We propose the hardware implementation of N-bit-wise multiplier. It allows the operation performed at the speed 2 times the original performance for the same circuit size, or the circuit size reduced to approximately 60% for the same processing time. Employing the architecture proposed in this paper contributes to the performance improvement of encryption system and the reduction of chip size of encryption system. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless biomedical home security network - architecture and modelling

    Page(s): 69 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The term security network intelligence is widely used in the field of communication security network. A number of new and potentially concepts and products based on the concept of security network intelligence have been introduced, including smart flows, intelligent routing, and intelligent Web switching. Many intelligent systems focus on a specific security service, function, or device, and do not provide true end-to-end service network intelligence. True security network intelligence requires more than a set of disconnected elements, it requires an interconnecting and functionally coupled architecture that enables the various functional levels to interact and communicate with each other. This work presents a frame-structure, referred to as biomedical home security system (BHMS), to serve as wireless network architecture. The widespread BMHS networks are attractive infrastructures for next generation wireless networks. Providing interactive broadband services over BMHS networks is a major trend in communication and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks with broadband communication features well fitted to be the backbone of BMHS networks. Based on the proposed network architecture, this work addresses and investigates the problems of call setup and handoff handling. When designing and configuring an ATM-based broadband BMHS (B-BMHS), it remains difficult to guarantee the quality of service (QoS) for different service classes, while still allowing enough statistical sharing of bandwidth so that the network is efficiently utilized. These two goals are often conflicting. Guaranteeing QoS requires traffic isolation, as well as allocation of enough network resources (e.g. buffer space and bandwidth) to each call. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of illumination changes on the performance of Geometrix FaceVision® 3D FRS

    Page(s): 331 - 337
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This evaluation examined the effects of four frontal light intensities on the performance of a 3D face recognition algorithm, specifically testing the significance between an unchanging enrollment illumination condition (220-225 lux) and four different illumination levels for verification. The evaluation also analyzed the significance of external artifacts (i.e. glasses) and personal characteristics (i.e. facial hair) on the performance of the face recognition system (FRS). Collected variables from the volunteer crew included age, gender, ethnicity, facial characteristics, hair covering the forehead, scars on the face, and glasses. The analysis of data revealed that there are no statistically significant differences between environmental lighting and 3D FRS performance when a uniform or constant enrollment illumination level is used. View full abstract»

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