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System Sciences, 2005. HICSS '05. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on

Date 6-6 Jan. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 690
  • Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1
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  • Introduction: Advances in Teaching and Learning Technologies Minitrack

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2
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  • Learning Effectiveness in Web-Based Technology-Mediated Virtual Learning Environment

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3a
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A framework that delineates the relationships between learner control and learning effectiveness is absent. This study aims to fill this void. Unlike previous research, this study compares the learning effectiveness between two learning environments: traditional classroom and Technology-mediated Virtual Learning Environment (TVLE). Our work focuses on the effectiveness of a TVLE in the context of basic information technology skills training. Grounded in the technology-mediated learning literature, this study presents a framework that addresses the relationship between the learner control and learning effectiveness, which contains four categories: learning achievement, self-efficacy, satisfaction, and learning climate. In order to compare the learning effectiveness under traditional classroom and TVLE, we conducted a field experiment. Data were collected from a junior high school of Taiwan. A total of 210 usable responses were analyzed. We identified four results from this study. (1) Students in the TVLE environment achieve better learning performance than their counterparts in the traditional environment; (2) Students in the TVLE environment report higher levels of computer self-efficacy than their counterparts in the traditional environment; (3) Students in the TVLE environment report different levels of satisfaction than students in the traditional environment; and (4) Students in the TVLE environment report higher levels of learning climate than their counterparts in the traditional environment. The implications of this study are discussed, and further research directions are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Strategies Employed By Participants In Virtual Learning Communities

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3b
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper examines the learning behavior of online students in an asynchronous learning environment. We employ the theoretical lens of an online community of inquiry, to understand how students build an understanding of course concepts as part of an online community of learning. Findings are presented from a study of an online, graduate University course. Student behavior was analyzed to investigate the detailed learning strategies employed by various students. An e-learning framework was devised, that identifies various types of behavior, each of which is associated with the distinct needs of an online learning process. We conclude with the reflection that we may need many different types of course interactions for different types of learning role. View full abstract»

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  • Students as Teachers and Teachers as Facilitators

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4a
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    Teaching students computer technologies sometimes requires untraditional teaching methods in schools, as it is not uncommon that students possess more advanced computer skills than teachers in today’s classrooms. In this paper, we present our study of a course website design project in a public high school to investigate new teaching strategies in technology education. We observed how students and teachers shifted roles during the project, i.e., students became technology consultants and trainers while teachers, although still acting as facilitators of the process, also became learners. This role-shifting resulted in augmented learning outcomes for the student. For the teacher, the challenge of adopting the unconventional role of teacher-as-student required a new teaching paradigm, bringing to light the inherent tensions brought about by such role changes and skill differentials. Lessons we learned from this study are discussed as well as suggestions for teachers and schools that are interested in adopting this approach. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of a Discussion Tool on Collaborative Learning and Social Network Structure within an Organization

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4b
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This study investigated the social network structure of booking officers at the Honolulu Police Department and how the introduction of an online discussion tool affected knowledge about operation of a booking module. Baseline data provided evidence for collaboration among officers in the same district using e-mail, telephone and face-to-face media but showed minimal collaboration between officers in different districts. On average, knowledge of the booking module was low. After introduction of the online discussion tool the social network structure changed, showing an increase in collaboration between different districts and an increase in knowledge of the booking module, even though frequency of collaboration did not increase significantly. The study suggests that the formation of new collaborative ties and passive participation ("lurking") are more significant for learning through information sharing in social networks than raw frequency of interaction. View full abstract»

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  • Leaders and Followers In Student Online Project Teams

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4c
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper reports an empirical study that explores how leadership behaviors emerge and are distributed in online student teams, and the relationship of emergent leadership patterns to various outcomes. Two patterns of emergent leadership were identified: strong and weak leadership. Results suggest that weak leadership is at least equally effective and may be more effective than strong leadership in producing positive team outcomes. Weak leadership may also produce interaction patterns more conducive to the educational objectives of a "community of inquiry" model. View full abstract»

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  • Collaborative Knowledge Construction through Shared Representations

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 5a
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the question of how activity mediated by shared representations-notations that are manipulated by more than one person during a collaborative task-might constitute knowledge construction activity. The paper begins with a brief review of theoretical perspectives on how representations mediate collaborative knowledge construction, to identify the kinds of events we would look for as evidence of knowledge construction in via a representational medium. Then the paper draws on data from a prior study in which participants collaborated via a graphical representation as well as a verbal "chat" tool, to identify instances of such events and illustrate ways in which the activity of two individuals can be coupled and joined into a larger cognitive (and sometimes knowledge construction) activity distributed across the persons and representations they are manipulating. View full abstract»

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  • Peer Evaluations of Collaborative Learning Experiences Conveyed Through an Asynchronous Learning Network

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 5b
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    The value of project-based, collaborative learning activities has been well established in the literature. For both students and faculty, fair and meaningful evaluation of the collaborative assignment is an overarching concern. Since the group-interaction elements of this type of assignment are of great interest - especially in terms of measuring such constructs as group productivity, division of labor, and teamwork skills and detecting instances of social loafing - evaluation cannot be based solely on the instructor's assessment of the final product produced by the team. A blending of instructor, self, and peer assessment is indicated but the problems associated with gathering, weighing, and analyzing the data from such a multi-faceted evaluation are quite daunting. There is, however, little consensus on what data is available and how it can be effectively processed to facilitate evaluation of the teamwork in collaborative learning activities conducted in an ALN. The goal of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for conducting self and peer evaluations of the teamwork aspect of a project-based, collaborative learning assignment. View full abstract»

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  • Looking for Indicators of Media Richness Theory in Distance Education

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 5c
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Distance learning is becoming a popular option for education. Course management platforms (CMP) are used to deliver distance learning courses. These include an abundance of channels by which to communicate and run a distance class. As such, CMP provide an excellent environment to test the implications of Media Richness Theory. Based upon a review of "interaction" theories, conjectures are formulated outlining anticipated differences based upon the richness used in the CMP. These conjectures are tested with a set of data from an established distance education program. The results show significant differences, in the direction predicted by Media Richness Theory, for satisfaction, communication and interaction, and perceived technology effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • An Empirical Assessment of Student Computer Use Behaviors in the Classroom

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 6a
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    Universities have widely deployed assorted information technologies, which positions students' laptop as a key pedagogical tool outside and inside the classroom. Viewed critically, the value imparted by laptops in the classroom is determined through the complex interplay of intended and unintended computer use behaviors and is, therefore, suspect. In response, universities may implement classroom control systems that impose either comparatively restricted or unrestricted access levels. We distinguish between two kinds of use behaviors-applicable behaviors and extraneous behaviors. We address two research questions. Are amounts of applicable and extraneous behaviors associated with different access levels? Are learning outcomes associated with amounts of applicable and extraneous behaviors? Using a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental design and data on 71 subjects, we conclude that a restricted access level is associated with significantly higher levels of applicable behavior vis-à-vis the unrestricted access level, and that time spent on extraneous behavior is negatively associated with learning performance. View full abstract»

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  • On the Usability Evaluation of E-Learning Applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 6b
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Despite the advances of the electronic technologies in e-learning, a consolidated evaluation methodology for e-learning applications does not yet exist. The goal of e-learning is to offer the users the possibility to become skillful and acquire knowledge on a new domain. The evaluation of educational software must consider its pedagogic effectiveness as well as its usability. The design of its interface should take into account the way students learn and also provide good usability so that student's interactions with the software are as natural and intuitive as possible. In this paper, we present the results obtained from a first phase of observation and analysis of the interactions of people with e-learning applications. The aim is to provide a methodology for evaluating such applications. View full abstract»

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  • Using Content and Process Scaffolds to Support Collaborative Discourse in Asynchronous Learning Networks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 6c
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Discourse, a form of collaborative learning, is one of the most widely used methods of teaching and learning in the online environment. Particularly in large courses, discourse needs to be "structured" to be effective. This in-progress study investigates how to "scaffold" asynchronous discourse based on the Asynchronous Learning Networks Cognitive Discourse Model (ALNCDM). The ALNCDM is an adaptation of Clark and Brennan's grounding in communications principles within a technology- mediated learning (TML) environment. The model applies content and process scaffolding based on pedagogic principles. The study is a 2 X 2 design measuring learning effectiveness. Results of a pilot study are described. A major contribution of the study is building and testing a technology-mediated, discourse- centered, teaching and learning model called the ALNCDM. View full abstract»

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  • Pricing of Learning Objects in a Workflow-Based E-Learning Scenario

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 7a
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Standards in e-learning have been developed to support authoring, assembly, and execution of learning objects. Nevertheless, pricing of learning objects still plays a minor role in current e-learning research. So far, standards for learning objects lack concepts for the integration of prices. In this paper, we present an approach to support pricing of e-learning objects on different abstraction levels. The approach is based on combining price models and learning objects by extending the learning objects' XML metadata on the one hand and on the representation of processes as exchanges and manipulations of XML documents on the other hand. Consideration of price models in a workflow-based learning-object management system thus allows for explicitly modeling processes for pricing such as price negotiations between learners and learning object providers or mediators. Moreover, pricing processes can be integrated into learning, teaching, and administration processes and thereby enhance the cooperation of all participating actors. View full abstract»

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  • Learning with Weblogs: An Empirical Investigation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 7b
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The study investigates the impact of weblog use on individual learning in a university environment. Weblogs are a relatively new knowledge sharing technology, which enables people to record their thoughts in diary form and publish those diaries as web pages, without programming or HTML coding. The research sought to empirically determine whether the keeping of on-going (web based) learning logs throughout a semester would result in better overall student performance. This was hypothesized, because web based learning logs appear to promote constructivist learning, provide reinforcement, and increase accountability (non-anonymous idea sharing). Results from an information systems undergraduate course with 31 students indicate that weblog performance is a significant predictor for learning outcome, while traditional coursework is not. Weblogs appear to have highest predictive power for high and low performing students, but much less predictive value for medium performers. Results also suggest that there is a learning effect for weblog authoring. View full abstract»

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  • Cognition and Knowledge Creation in Collaboration Technology Supported Group Works: Mini-Track Introduction

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 8
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  • A Soft Systems Analysis of Social Cognition In Boundary-Spanning Innovation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 9a
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The term social cognition is used in the psychology and organizational literatures to denote many different manifestations of the mental representations and processes that underlie social perception, social judgment, and social influence. This paper presents a systemic analysis of social cognition, employing three levels of analysis: (i) socially-situated cognition, involving interpretive, "framing" processes; (ii) socially-shared cognition, required to achieve joint framing of an information system; and (iii) distributed cognition, which views collaborative cognition as a set of overlapping frames, mediated by conceptual boundary objects. This research framework is operationalized through the use of Soft Systems Methodology. Findings from a case study of a boundary-spanning design group are presented, to demonstrate interactions between different levels of knowledge-sharing, social interpretation and consensus-building. View full abstract»

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  • Prototyping the Emergence of Collaborative Knowledge

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 9b
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    E-learning growth is driven by global, societal, and technological changes that both enable and require increased worker and learner mobility, access to distributed domain expertise, and lifelong learning. Distance learning can deliver course value that cannot be provided in a classroom to trainers, workers, educators and learners. This study presents a prototype for analysis of how knowledge emerges during distributed team decision making. Analysis of ad hoc sharing of individual knowledge during synchronous online text-based group discourse demonstrates how reciprocal knowledge construction can enable emergence of shared understanding. The difficulty of evaluating collaborative knowledge construction in a virtual environment is demonstrated by presenting an annotated discourse episode for a distributed decision making task used to acquaint learners with the nature of virtual teamwork. View full abstract»

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  • Value-Based Consensus Measure on Verbal Opinions

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 9c
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    In the group decision-making process, consensus is an important indication of group agreement or reliability. Traditional methods to measure consensus refer mostly to gauging variance among the participants' opinions by transforming them into numbers in the interval scale. In this study we propose a value-based measure, in which verbal opinions are transformed into values by means of value functions. To understand how the proposed method performs, we conduct two experiments to compare its performance with the variance-based methods and the entropy measure. The results show that our method is appropriate to account for participants' consensus judgments based on verbal opinions. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Requiring Immersive Presence (CSCLIP)

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 10
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  • Cultural Diversity, Leadership, Group Size and Collaborative Learning Systems: An Experimental Study

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 11a
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Collaborative learning systems (CLS) have received increasing research attention owing to advances in computer-mediated technology and paradigmatic shifts in the educational arena. To understand the circumstances under which the use of CLS would enhance learning efficiency, a laboratory experiment with a 2X2X2 factorial design was conducted to investigate the interaction and main effects of cultural diversity, leadership, and group size on learners’' performance, satisfaction with process, and attitude toward CLS usage. Cultural diversity was found to have a more significant positive effect on performance in groups with leadership than those without leadership. Leadership lowered learners' satisfaction with the process in homogeneous groups (as compared to heterogeneous groups) and smaller groups (as compared to larger groups). Moreover, learners' attitude toward CLS usage was influenced positively with greater cultural diversity, but negatively with presence of leadership and a larger group size. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing UML Conceptual Modeling through the Use of Virtual Reality

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 11b
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    UML is one of the major conceptual modeling tools in Object-Oriented software engineering. However, recently more and more concerns arise from the modeling quality of UML. Among them, limitation of the two-dimensional presentation of its notations is reported to be significant. By bringing in the concepts of Steoropsis (3-D appearance), animation, interaction and immersion, Virtual Reality may improve the UML modeling quality. Specifically, in this paper we analyze the modeling quality of UML by using recent published literature in conceptual modeling. We then recommend the use of Virtual Reality to enhance the modeling quality of UML. Some examples of how Virtual Reality can be used to improve UML modeling quality are given. Finally, we propose a research framework for enhancing the quality of UML conceptual modeling through the use of Virtual Reality. View full abstract»

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  • An Agent-Based Approach to Study Virtual Learning Communities

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 11c
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    This paper focuses on agent-based approach to study the relationship between the individual behavior of participants and the overall development of a virtual community, to help people to better understand the interactive process, forecast and manage the community development. In this paper, we first analyze the strengths of agent-based approach and the features of virtual communities. We argue that agent-based modeling and simulation approach is well suited to study virtual communities. We then build an agent-based model for virtual learning communities (VLCs). Each participant in VLCs is modeled as an agent with cognitive and social characteristics. The interactive activities are decomposed into four modules: registration module, activation module, action module, and adaptation module. A discussion of general observations of the community behaviors and managerial implications is presented based on series of comparative simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Design of (Inter-) Organizational Systems: Collaboration & Modeling

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 12
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  • Knowledge Ontology: A Method for Empirical Identification of 'As-Is' Contextual Knowledge

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 13a
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In this paper, we consider existing approaches to ontology definition and validation. Popular techniques include the use of domain experts or reliance on formal logic. We consider these contemporary techniques, their motivation and limitations, and then suggest an empirical approach that statistically identifies knowledge ontology within contextual databases using factor analytic techniques. We find that this method improves upon the process of identifying existing, codified knowledge ontology, and that it can be integrated into other methods to improve upon the efficiency of knowledge ontology identification, validation, and evolution. It can facilitate collaboration and inter-organizational progress by providing a common foundation, empirically supported. View full abstract»

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