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Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE

Date 6-10 June 2004

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  • 2004 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37567)

    Publication Year: 2004
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  • Copyright page

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): ii
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  • IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): iii
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  • PES 2004 CD Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): iv - lx
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  • Power system restoration challenges

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Summary form only given. Some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration are briefly presented. The three restoration phases are: planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply, actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power, and load restoration when the power system has stabilized. In the planning phase, offline analysis and simulation can primarily address problems. During the degradation phase, control problems need solutions in real-time and within the short-time ratings of lines and equipment. In the load restoration phase, the problems can be addressed by online analysis, presenting the results to the operator for execution. View full abstract»

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  • Designing the next generation real-time control, communications and communication system for the electricity infrastructure

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Summary form only given. The power grid is not only a network interconnecting generators and loads through a transmission and distribution system, but is overlaid with a communication and control system that enables economic and secure operation. This multi-layered infrastructure has evolved over many decades utilizing new technologies as they have appeared. This evolution has been slow and incremental, as the operation of the power system consisting of vertically integrated utilities has, until recently, changed very little. For example, the monitoring of the grid is still done by SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems whose hierarchical design for polling data was appropriate for vertically integrated utilities and whose speed in seconds still reflects the conceptual design of the 1960s. The thesis of this panel presentation is that the changing environment, in both policy and technology, requires a new look at the operation of the power grid and a complete redesign of the control, communication and computation infrastructure. View full abstract»

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  • Strategic power infrastructure defense (SPID)

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Summary form only given. An advanced system called, "strategic power infrastructure defense (SPID) system," was developed by the Advanced Power Technologies (APT) Consortium consisting of the University of Washington, Arizona State University, Iowa State University and Virginia Tech. By incorporating multi-agent system technologies, the SPID system is able to assess power system vulnerability, monitor hidden failures of protective devices, and provide adaptive control actions to prevent catastrophic failures and cascading sequences of events. The SPID program was sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Defense. In this session, the panelist will summarize the SPID methodology and the multi-agent system technologies that are critical for the implementation of the SPID system. The software agents in the SPID system are organized in a multi-layer structure to facilitate collaboration among the agents. The agents communicate through a protocol called FIPA. SPID has the ability to adapt to changes in the power infrastructure environment through the embedded machine learning capability. Simulation examples of the multi-agent system is provided. View full abstract»

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  • WACS-wide-area stability and voltage control system: R&D and on-line demonstration

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Summary form only given. As background, we describe frequently used feedforward wide-area power system stability controls. Then we describe on-line demonstration of a new response-based (feedback) wide-area stability and voltage control system (WACS). The control system uses powerful discontinuous actions for power system stabilization. The control system comprises phasor measurements at many substations, fiber optic communications, real-time deterministic computers, and transfer trip output signals to circuit breakers at many other substations and power plants. Finally, we describe future development of WACS. WACS is developed as a flexible platform to prevent blackouts and facilitate electrical commerce. View full abstract»

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  • Wide area protection and emergency control

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Summary form only given. We shall describe basic principles and philosophy for wide area protection schemes, also known as remedial action schemes (RAS) or system protection schemes (SPS). The main targets for this presentation are to: identify the need for wide area protection, and the conditions for implementation; describe the power system phenomena to counteract, and the related application areas for wide area protection; illustrate different design principles for different applications, and how they are related to present technology; illustrate the benefit of wide area protection with respect to recent disturbances; identify similarities and differences between classic equipment protection and system protection - concerning philosophy as well as concerning product and system design. Try to answer the question: how to design a wide area protection system. View full abstract»

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  • Between security analysis and power system restoration

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    What happens between the time a system operator runs security analysis and the system needs to be restored. Obviously this is the time of chaos when security measures have not been sufficient, or some overwhelming event occurs and the power system blacks out. This is the period of time, which most operations systems today are not prepared for. The power system is coming down around the operator and there is little he or she can do about it, in fact the operator is usually at a complete loss to know what is happening because events take place so fast. Power systems operations computers have been designed to act as little more than fast digital recorders of alarms off the SCADA system so that events can be analyzed after the fact - but little has been done to provide operators with fast graphical summaries that quickly digest the situation and allow decisions to be made during the collapse. Many years ago the idea of an intelligent alarm processor (IAP) was developed and marketed but little has been done since and the maintenance of the IAP's knowledge base was always considered one of its drawbacks. New ideas on the use of smart alarm processors coupled with fast graphical presentations must be developed so operators can retain control when the system is experiencing problems. View full abstract»

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  • Power system infrastructure security and defense

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 7 - 8 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The massive 14 August 2003 power outage evoked eerie reminders of what shook our world on September 11 2001. While early reports indicated that there was no apparent evidence of terrorism in this outage or in blackouts in the UK and Italy. The UK experienced a blackout in south London and surrounding area on August 28, southern Sweden and parts of Denmark on September 23 and Italy on September 28. At the time of this writing, the major outages of August and September 2003 in the US, Ontario Canada, UK and Italy have occurred. A bi-national US-Canada Joint Task Force on the power outage of August 14 investigated what happened and what the root causes were. The outage affected 50 million people, interrupted 60,000-65,000 MW of load initially (approximately 11% of the entire Eastern Interconnection), over 400 Generating units were tripped, and the final steps of the cascading lasted approximately 12 seconds. US-Canada Power Outage Task Force's report was published on Nov. 19, 2003, and root causes cited include: "inadequate situational awareness;" failure to adequately trim trees in its transmission right-of way; and failure of reliability coordinators to promptly identify and deal with problems. Infrastructures depend on the continental power grid to energize and control their operations. Secure and reliable of these networks is fundamental to national and international economy, security and quality of life. View full abstract»

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  • Considerations of relevant factors in setting distribution system reliability standards

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 9 - 15 Vol.1
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    The development of distribution reliability standard metric values, e.g., system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI), system average interruption duration index (SAIDI), customer average interruption duration index (CAIDI), etc., against which all utilities can compare themselves is impossible. There are too many differences between data collection processes and utility systems characteristics to make development of universally applicable standard metric values and comparisons against such standard metric values valid. Rather, the development of uniform standard metric values, which utilities compare themselves to their own historical performance is more practical. If cross comparisons between utilities are desirable, a number of issues and factors associated with individual utilities must be taken into considerations in establishing distribution reliability standards. The paper identifies a number of such important and pertinent factors and issues in setting distribution reliability standards, and illustrates the issues and factors using historical reliability performance data from a number of Canadian utilities. View full abstract»

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  • Large scale storm outage management

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 16 - 22 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper describes a process for improving information used by electric utilities for managing restoration of distribution facilities damaged by large-scale storms such as large-scale ice storms and hurricanes. The process is realized in the form of a decision support tool that utilizes the model of the distribution circuit layout, the placement of protective and switching devices and the location of customers to determine how crew resources should be allocated and managed for cost-effective storm outage management. Equipment damage predictions based on the severity and location of the weather are also used to predict where and to what extent circuit damage is likely to occur. Given crew availability and the maintenance crew requirement for each damage type, a storm outage algorithm predicts damage per feeder, area and region and calculates estimated time to restoration for each customer. After the storm hits additional information such as customer calls, switch status and field damage assessments are utilized by the storm outage algorithm to provide updated predictions of damage and estimated time to restore. View full abstract»

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  • Application methodology of 22.9 kV HTS cable in metropolitan city of South Korea

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 23 - 27 Vol.1
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    With the increase of power demand and the progress of power industry deregulation, the transmission and distribution systems will have more complicated problems by the influence of curtailing investment and the NIMBY phenomena in overall power systems. [(Pierluigi, L and Andrea, M, 2002) and (Siberglitt, R, et al., 2002)] It is expected that the route length per MW demand of South Korea will decrease gradually from 0.6[C-km/MW] to 0.53[C-km/MW] in 2010. (KEPCO, 2002) This comes up to a real serious problem from system planning and operation viewpoints. HTS technologies related to power system have properties to solve these complex transmission and distribution constraints, especially for metropolitan area, in the future. As the HTS technology has developed, the HTS cable technology can be the most effective alternative to solve the future expected power network constraints. This paper describes the application methodology of developing 22.9 kV HTS cable by CAST for practical distribution system. 22.9 kV HTS cable under development with step-by-step application methodology can substitute the existing and planning conventional 154 kV cable. (YOON, 2002, 2003) If this scheme is applied, part of downtown 154 kV substation of metropolitan city such as Seoul can be changed into 22.9 kV switching station. Additionally, it can give huge economic, environmental benefits to all of the concerned authorities. View full abstract»

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  • Feeder switch currents during load transfer

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 28 - 31 Vol.1
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    Load transfer from an overloaded feeder to a neighboring lightly loaded feeder is obtained by closing the tie switch between the two feeders, followed by opening one of the sectionalizing switches along the overloaded feeder. During such a time interval, the resulting loop operation may (under some extreme cases) result in excessive current flow through the sectionalizing switch. Such a case can lead to a potential operational problem and a hazard to utility personnel. This paper investigates a situation that can lead to currents beyond the load break rating of the switches by analyzing a simplified circuit model of a distribution feeder during load transfer. It has been determined that load transfer through line switches can be excessive when one of the two feeders is fed from a stand-alone transformer and the other from a parallel bank of the same size. The simplified analysis is verified by some field measurements. View full abstract»

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  • The use of cooling-factor curves for coordinating fuses and reclosers

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 32 - 39 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper describes how to precisely coordinate distribution feeder automatic-circuit reclosers using cooling-factor data that accounts for the heating and cooling of source-side or load-side fuses throughout the recloser's operating sequence. This method yields results that are more accurate than other coordination methods commonly employed. Different coordination methods are discussed in this paper and the results are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Self healing reconfiguration for restoration of naval shipboard power systems

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Summary form only given. Naval shipboard power systems form a critical component of the US defense infrastructure. When there is a fault in a shipboard power system either due to battle damage or material casualty, it is important to quickly isolate the fault and restore supply to as many loads as possible. This paper presents an automated self healing strategy for reconfiguration for service restoration in naval shipboard power systems. The proposed method is illustrated on a system developed based on a typical surface combatant ship. View full abstract»

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  • Hurricane Isabelle: a case study of preparation, initial response, lessons learned, and resulting recommendations

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Hurricane Isabel has been described as a 100-year storm, with a level of severity that provided a unique test bed for evaluating a large-scale emergency response under real conditions. Two principal studies (the first spearheaded by George Mason University, and the second by the Governor of Virginia) addressed the energy, telecommunications, transportation, water and public service sectors: how they prepared for the hurricane; how they reacted to the hurricane; how they recovered (and continue to recover) from it; what interdependencies were identified from the hurricane; what lessons learned have emerged from analysis of sectoral actions. The data collected during the studies demonstrates the work each sector did in restoring service, taking only 7 days to complete the major work, as compared to 14 days after Hurricane Floyd in 1999. The data also offers a snapshot of the National Capital Region in a specific situation, and demonstrates areas for further development. With emphasis on response of the electrical and gas utilities, and based on research and interviews with sector members, the areas outlined below are those that deserve the most attention. They have been arranged according to their temporal importance to the event: pre-planning, initial response, preliminary recovery, interdependencies, and recommendations for remediation. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of the San Diego gas and electric transmission system following firestorm 2003

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Summary form only given. On Oct. 26, 2003, many people in Southern California awoke to the rising flames of a number of wildfires. The firestorms produced one of the toughest operational challenges ever faced by SDG&E. During the wildfires, front-line employees worked long hours to get back on natural gas and electrical service. Employees of SoCalGas and SDG&E were among those who lost homes or were forced to flee when the flames got too close. Hundreds of distribution lines and over 17 major transmission lines were knocked out of service and damaged by the fires. Approximately 3000 transmission and distribution wood pole structures had to be replaced. Initially about 100,000 customers were without power, due to heroic efforts nearly all customers were back in service within a couple of weeks. Damage throughout the county to SDG&E's electricity infrastructure was great-from De Luz to Descanso and South Poway to Julian. More than 3,000 power poles were destroyed. Then, 400 miles of electrical lines needed to get replaced. And engineers also struggled to rebuild 17 transmission lines. Even utility crews from throughout the West became part of the effort. Under a mutual-aid agreement, crews from Pacific Gas & Electric, the Salt River Project, Tucson Electric, the Imperial Irrigation District and Arizona Public Service joined in the battle against the fires. In just a few weeks, a one-year supply of electrical poles and transformers were used to make repairs. View full abstract»

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  • Hurricane Juan

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Nova Scotia experienced hurricane, named Juan. Hurricane Juan caused the most damage ever to Nova Scotia Power's transmission and distribution system that created the largest outage in Nova Scotia Power's history. As Hurricane Juan's winds began to die down, Nova Scotia Power began the restoration effort. Crews fanned out along the path of the Hurricane to assess the damage and provide the information from which plans could be developed to remove trees, eliminate safety hazards and restore power. Beginning early Monday morning, our first priorities were working with emergency measures organization and the municipalities to address public safety hazards and to restore power to critical customers like hospitals who were relying on backup generators for power supply. Within five days of the Hurricane, 95 percent of those who lost power had service restored. View full abstract»

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  • Storm restoration: people, technology, process

    Publication Year: 2004
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    Summary form only given. Progress Energy Corporation believes the most significant key to storm restoration success is the committed and heroic efforts of Progress Energy's employees and the many friends from neighboring utilities and utility contractors that came to our aid. Comprehensive, well-documented storm response plans are vital to being prepared. At Progress Energy, our storm plan is a living document, and it is on-line so all employees may access it to better understand their individual roles. There are four execution phase aspects we present, including: (1) storm damage modeling - resource need forecasting; (2) centralized staging and logistics; (3) damage assessment; (4) leveraging technology. View full abstract»

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  • Multiagent system solutions for distributed computing, communications, and data integration needs in the power industry

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 45 - 49 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    We identify three fundamental issues underlying many problems in power systems today: distributed computing, communications, and data integration. We review the characteristics of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems (MAS) technologies and argue that MAS offer a modular, extensible, flexible, and integrated approach to address all three of these issues and the problems resulting from them. The MAS design methodology is summarized, and an illustrative MAS application scenario in electric power systems is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-agent systems for diagnostic and condition monitoring applications

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 50 - 54 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
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    On-line diagnostics and on-line condition monitoring are important functions within the operation, control and management of power systems. Extensive research activities have led to the development of intelligent system techniques that support these functions. However, experience has shown that often more than one intelligent system technique is required to perform the diagnostic or monitoring function. In addition, integration is required between legacy data sources, legacy monitoring systems and the new data capture systems and intelligent systems being applied. Multi-agent system techniques can be used to provide such integration, while enhancing the overall intelligent interpretation functionality. View full abstract»

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  • A multiagent system for microgrids

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 55 - 58 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
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    This paper presents the capabilities offered by multiagent system technology in the operation of a microgrid. A microgrid is a new type of power system, which is formed by the interconnection of small, modular generation to low voltage distribution systems. Microgrids can be connected to the main power network or be operated autonomously, similar to power systems of physical islands. The use of MAS technology can solve a number of specific operational problems: the small DG (distributed generation) units have different owners, so centralized control is difficult. Several decisions should be taken locally. Lack of dedicated communication facilities. Microgrids will operate in a liberalized market so the decisions of the controller of each unit concerning the market should have a certain degree of "intelligence". The local DG units besides selling power to the network have also other tasks: producing heat for local installations, keeping the voltage locally at a certain level or providing a backup system for local critical loads in case of a failure of the main system. These tasks reveal the importance of the distributed control and autonomous operation. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-agent systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 59 - 60 Vol.1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Structurally, an agent is a bundle of sensors, decision-makers and actuators. Behaviorally, an agent is a mapping from an in-space (the set of things the agent can sense) to an out-space (the set of things the agent can affect). Cells, ants, computer programs, robots and people are examples of agents. Larger agents (multi-agent systems) are organizations of lesser agents. Immune systems, nervous systems, multi-cellular organisms, ecologies, insect societies, distributed computing, communication networks, neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, artificial life, economies, corporations, the Internet, and the control systems of electric grids, are examples of multi-agent systems. This paper presents a key research issue is to find procedures for determining good mixes of cooperation, competition, learning and destruction. Another issue is how to make the other choices involved in designing a multi-agent system. View full abstract»

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