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Networking and Communication Conference, 2004. INCC 2004. International

Date 11-13 June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 52
  • A novel scalable interactive multiple-rate staggered broadcasting video-on-demand system

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 146 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ideally, video-on-demand (VOD) systems provide the user with the facility to watch any video at the time of their choice and permit interactive (VCR) functionality. Special contingency channels can be allocated in order to provide VCR functions; however; this threatens the scalability of the VOD system. Client buffering is an alternative, but, due to its discrete nature, present algorithms suffer from discontinuous VCR actions. A novel scheme for providing VCR functions is proposed by buffering a multiple-rate video channel. Significant improvements in both the overall percentage of discontinuous VCR actions and destination shifts are achieved, without having a dedicated interaction channel. It also has a simpler video fetching mechanism which leads to a low cost client system. View full abstract»

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  • A high-capacity scheduling algorithm for systems employing embedded modulation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 73 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes a simple scheduling algorithm based on adaptive embedded modulation (EM) for the downlink in urban wireless networks. Embedded modulation allows multiple users to share a single downlink channel simultaneously. The proposed EM scheduling algorithm embeds the user which has the largest carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I) with each of the lower C/I users in turn. Simulation results show that the EM scheduler, employing adaptive coded modulation, can improve the average throughput of a given downlink by up to 33% over a round robin scheduler, while still maintaining acceptable fairness amongst the system users. View full abstract»

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  • Convergence analysis of state-space recursive least-squares

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 175 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    State-space recursive least-squares (SSRLS) is a new addition to the family of RLS adaptive filters. Beginning with a review of SSRLS, we show that this time-varying filter converges to an LTI (linear time invariant) filter. With observation noise as the input, BIBO (bounded input, bounded output) stability of the estimator is discussed next. We carry out the convergence analysis of SSRLS and its steady-state counterpart. Our discussion includes convergence in mean, mean-square error, mean-square deviation and learning curves. This development is imperative for a complete understanding of SSRLS to aid a designer to make the best use of the filter in advanced applications and analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Authenticated routing of table driven protocol in an ad-hoc environment

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 6 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are a new paradigm of wireless communication for mobile hosts. Recently, there has been an increased interest in infrastructureless secure mobile ad-hoc networks (SMANETs). One of the fundamental challenges facing the designers of the SMANETs, especially for military networks, is to provide central command and control over the network. The paper presents an optimal solution for such a network by securing an ad-hoc network running a table driven protocol. The system minimizes computation, power dissipation, and bandwidth by customizing the security algorithm for a specific application. We use a semi-centralized technique, instead of a decentralized one, which requires more computational costs along with high consumption of power and bandwidth. The optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR) is used as the protocol, but the solution can be easily tailored for other proactive protocols for ad-hoc networks. Our main focus is on authenticating each mobile node using computationally inexpensive hashing techniques and public key exchange mechanisms in an asymmetric key set-up. In order to protect the protocol from replay attacks, distributed timestamps have been utilized. The goal is a survivable system that works well even in the presence of malicious nodes. View full abstract»

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  • A zone-based location service for mobile ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Location-based routing has received significant attention for ad hoc networking. The motivation to use location-based routing is that it eliminates the need to maintain routes and therefore is very well suited for highly mobile networks. However, as an essential prerequisite for location-based routing, a location service is needed from which a node can learn the current position of other nodes present in the network. We present a zone-based location service (ZLS), which provides a mechanism to track the location information of other nodes in mobile ad hoc networks. Preliminary results indicate that the zone-based location service (ZLS) can be combined with a packet forwarding strategy to provide an efficient location-based routing protocol in a mobile ad hoc environment. The simulation results reported are our first steps towards meeting this goal. View full abstract»

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  • Overview of router architectures

    Publication Year: 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (172 KB)  

    Summary form only given as follows. This tutorial covers the hardware architecture of an Internet router. Internet routers are used in the Internet core and are becoming increasingly mission critical to all services being offered over the Internet. The tutorial discusses the functionality and features of a router and the features that make up an Internet router. It then takes the audience through the fundamental building blocks of a routing system. The presentation allows the audience to identify and analyze the fundamental building blocks of a router and the architectural issues involved in building a high performance router. It covers, amongst others, switching, packet lookup and congestion management schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Grid enabled data analysis on handheld devices

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 158 - 164
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The requirement for information on portable, handheld devices demands the realization of increasingly complex applications for increasingly small and ubiquitous devices. This trend promotes the migration of technologies that were originally developed for desktop computers to handheld devices. With the onset of grid computing, users of handheld devices should be able to accomplish much more complex tasks, by accessing the processing and storage resources of the grid. This paper describes the development, features, and performance aspects of a grid enabled analysis environment designed for handheld devices. We also describe some differences in the technologies required to run these applications on desktop machines and handheld devices. In addition, we propose a prototype agent-based distributed architecture for carrying out high-speed analysis of physics data on handheld devices. View full abstract»

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  • New calls blocking analysis in cellular systems based on Markov chain model

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 69 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (365 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The enormous growth of wireless networks has made efficient use of the radio spectrum which is divided into a set of disjoint channels. These channels can be used simultaneously by using an optimal channel allocation scheme. The main limitation with such wireless systems is the number of available channels. Frequency reuse and channel assignment techniques are used to increase the system capacity. In order to avoid interference with other channels, each channel is given a frequency, a time slot, a spreading code or a combination of any of these. Two non-borrowing FCA (fixed channel assignment) schemes, non-prioritized scheme (NPS) and reserved channel scheme (RCS), are compared. In NPS, all the channels in a cell are available for both initial and handoff calls; in RCS, some channels are reserved for handoff calls and the remaining channels can be utilized for both initial and handoff calls. The formulae for computing blocking probabilities for initial and handoff calls are derived using steady state balance equations defined by a Markov chain model. From simulation results, graphs are plotted of blocking probabilities versus total number of channels. These show that the blocking probability is a decreasing function of the number of channels. View full abstract»

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  • Design and analysis of predictive reflected residual vector quantization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 140 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Image communication is primarily constrained by its large bandwidth requirement. Therefore, researchers have worked on various compression algorithms to achieve low bit rates. Images and video sequences are highly-correlated sources and their correlation should be exploited in a given compression algorithm. Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) emerged as a means of exploiting the correlation among image pixels. Later, DPCM was improved by predictive vector quantization (PVQ). PVQ employs block by block prediction and results in satisfactory performance at low bit rates. However, its design is complicated and recently an asymptotic closed-loop (ACL) was proposed to stabilize the design. We attempt to replace the VQ with a multistage VQ structure in the hope of further reducing the stress on the closed-loop design. We use the multistage VQ structure called reflected residual vector quantization (RRVQ). RRVQ works by imposing an additional symmetry constraint on the multistage codebook design. RRVQ has been quite popular where large block-length vector quantization is needed due to its very low codebook search capability. Our proposed design goal in replacing VQ with RRVQ in a PVQ design is our wish to use large block lengths like 16×16 or 32×32 size vectors to grab any linear/nonlinear correlation among the vector components. The way to incorporate RRVQ within PVQ structure is proposed and simulation results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient use of multipliers in microprocessor implementation of Hamming distance for binary sequence correlation

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 132 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper focuses on a microprocessor implementation of the Hamming distance for binary correlation. It uses the fact that the binary correlation result can be derived from binary convolution (i.e., modeled with AND gates instead of XOR); as a result, convolution of multiple bits with multiple bits can be computed by a single multiplication instruction. This follows from a general proof for base-n convolution that is presented. Furthermore, using a hierarchical shift-addition approach, we can also reduce the number of additions in the subsequent step. The paper also shows that this approach can also be used in the frequency domain where an N×N point binary circular convolution can be modeled using an N×M double precision FFT, where M is a sub-multiple of N depending on the kernel size. Comparison of the time/frequency approaches is presented for different kernel/image sizes, with the help of benchmarking results. View full abstract»

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  • Producing a scalable sensory precision worth ness of optical sources including PMD measures for high speed optical networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 111 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical sources still require an exhaustive and regressive research approach to measure the key parameters leading towards the ultimate robust refining of spectral properties. The scalability in such measurements when the parametric margins have a close comparative difference produces a vital clarity in simulative results. The effect of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) remains a leading consideration in the practical development of a fair square communication system. A white light interferometric set up has been successfully used to characterize optical sources in connection with the effects encountered due to PMD which causes deteriorating setbacks to high speed fiber optic networks. A precise optical test set-up has been developed in the lab to provide an exact picture of the state of polarization through a certain fiber length. The set-up is used to measure PMD for single mode and hi-bi specialty fibers. Rather valuable application results have been achieved for the different optical devices, which reflect the exact measuring levels and comparisons of the effective application in the fields of communication and the precision sensory tangibility of the optical fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Current trends in carrier networks - what can Pakistan do?

    Publication Year: 2004
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB)  

    Summary form only given, as follows. The presentation discussed the issues carriers have been facing in the access and metropolitan networks (the areas where most capital spending is still happening), and how these networks are evolving using next generation technologies and what factors are most important to them. It also discussed the technologies that are being deployed by carriers in emerging markets and how some of them may be applicable to Pakistan. View full abstract»

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  • Training of line echo canceller with PRBS signals

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 78 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper addresses the problem of convergence time reduction for the line echo cancellation problem in the context of VoIP applications. Training signals can be used for this purpose. Intuitively speaking, any decorrelated signal, such as white noise, can be used as a training signal. C. Antweiler and H.-G. Symanzik (see Proc. ICASSP-1995, p.3031-4, 1995) have shown that a certain signal, called perfect sequence, can be such a training signal. The method for generating such signals is not easy to use, neither can it be extended to arbitrary lengths. The authors propose another candidate signal, called maximum length pseudo random binary sequence (mlPRBS), to be a perfect sequence. The conditions on such a signal are further analyzed and highlighted. It is shown that the proposed training signal fulfils such requirements. The claims are backed by simulation results. The simulation elements used are available in the public domain. View full abstract»

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  • A mobile tracking algorithm for adaptive array smart antennas by adapting the weights of the transmit antenna

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 58 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple stochastic gradient algorithm for adaptation of complex baseband weights of the transmit antenna at the base station by feedback from the mobile is presented. In order to converge to the optimal weights of the transmit antenna, the algorithm relies on two feedbacks from the mobile. The first feedback consist of a bit that indicates which of the two normalized perturbed weights sent along with the pilot signal from the base station delivered more power to the mobile. The second feedback consists of the difference of the powers delivered by the two normalized perturbed weights. The second feedback is sent only when the power difference decreases as compared to the previous minimum stored power difference. Utilizing these two feedbacks, our algorithm at the base station updates the complex base weights of the transmit antenna. It makes a coarse stochastic gradient algorithm and converges to those weights that maximize the power delivered to the receiver. This has been confirmed by simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Fast and accurate clock recovery in packet switched networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 95 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Real-time periodic transmission across packet switched networks requires clock recovery at the destination. The stochastic nature of packet traffic makes clock recovery difficult. A new packet network clock recovery algorithm is proposed for fast and accurate synchronization. The algorithm has the ability to filter out buffer level fluctuations efficiently and remove the negative contribution of delay jitter in clock recovery. As compared with existing algorithms, the new algorithm enables the destination clock to be synchronized with the source more quickly and more accurately. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed and scalable message transport service for high performance multi-agent systems

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 152 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-agent systems are one of the significant areas in the field of distributed systems. Scalability is one of the issues which effect successful deployment of a particular multi-agent system. Performance and scalability of a system cannot be decoupled because, within a limited number of resources, performance of a multi-agent system varies as the load is increased. Message transport service (MTS) provides the means for agents to communicate across the platform. For high performance, MTS must be dynamically scalable. Existing architectures, which are claimed to be scalable, have some shortcomings. They are centralized, and use component replication or distribution, which has some drawbacks. Priority based queues are one way to achieve dynamic scalability at component level. Peer communication channels provide a mechanism to distribute the load while communication is taking place among different machines. Moreover, peer-to-peer architecture is a hybrid approach to achieving scalability, as it is a blend of the merits of component distribution and replication. View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of Transmission Control Protocol in mobile ad hoc networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 13 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a widely accepted, reliable, end-to-end, transport layer communication protocol. It has a self generating error control mechanism to achieve reliability using error correction. It also a has flow control scheme to avoid network congestion using a window mechanism. TCP is tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where packet losses are primarily due to congestion. However, with the increase in wireless communication, there is an immense need of adapting TCP to the wireless environment. Packet loss in wireless networks could be due to bit error rate (BER), link failure or handoffs. If standard TCP is applied on such wireless networks without any modification, it may lead to performance degradation. To address these problems, many solutions have been proposed for TCP enhancements over wireless networks. We have analyzed the performance of New Reno, selective acknowledgements (SACK), explicit congestion notification (ECN) and Westwood by simulation. The performance was measured on the basis of average throughput, packet loss ratio and average end-to-end delay in three different situations: mobility (variable speed); link loss; both mobility and link loss. Results show that New Reno is more stable and consistent in the absence of congestion, otherwise ECN performs best. View full abstract»

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  • Large block entropy-constrained reflected residual vector quantization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 128 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multispectral imagery and video coding applications benefit from the use of large vector sizes. Other applications also require large vector sizes such as variable dimension vector quantizers (VQ) and transform VQ. Entropy-constrained reflected residual vector quantization (EC-RRVQ) is an algorithm that is used to design codebooks for image coding with large vector sizes in addition to high output rate while maintaining a very low complexity in terms of computations and memory requirements. EC-RRVQ has several advantages which are important. It can outperform entropy-constrained residual vector quantization (EC-RVQ) in terms of rate-distortion performance, encoder complexity computations, and memory. Experimental results indicate that good image reproduction quality can be accomplished at relatively low bit rates. For example, a peak signal-to-noise ratio of 29 dB is obtained for the 51×512 image Lena at a bit rate of 0.2 bpp with vector dimension of 16×16. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of turbid medium through diffusely backscattering polarized light with matrix calculus-II

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 115 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A diffusely backscattered polarized beam of laser radiation from a turbid medium has been characterized by optics calculus. The Stokes and Mueller parameters of polarized light are represented as a column matrix and the optical turbid medium as a 4×4 matrix. The tissue like turbid phantom system is considered homogeneous and the scattering medium contains one kind of randomly distributed asymmetric particles. We use polarized light from a He-Ne laser (λ=632.5 nm) focused on the scattering medium. Different polarization components of backscattered light are obtained by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and the analyzer configuration. The calculation of the 16 elements of the output Mueller matrix shows that theoretically only seven elements of backscattered light are independent and the remaining nine can be calculated through a symmetry relation. It is also confirmed through experiments. The matrix calculus concept for diffusely backscattered light fully characterizes the turbid medium. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Trustworthy routing with the AODV protocol

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ad-hoc networks come into existence when two or more wireless mobile nodes agree to pass packets for each other. The wireless range of these nodes is usually limited to hundred of meters; however, with mutual cooperation these nodes are able to provide extended communication coverage. Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) is a routing protocol frequently used to establish such networks. The correct execution of the protocol requires sustained benevolent behaviour by all participating nodes. This is difficult to achieve and malicious nodes frequently tamper with the AODV routing process. We propose a novel and pragmatic method for establishing trustworthy routes in an AODV based ad-hoc network without necessitating the use of cryptography. We accentuate that our model is most appropriate for ad-hoc networks that can be established on the fly without requiring a dedicated trust infrastructure or pre-configuration of nodes. View full abstract»

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  • A new video indexing and retrieval method for temporal textures using block-based cooccurrence statistics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 136 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new unified video indexing and retrieval method is presented to classify temporal texture videos using spatial as well as temporal cooccurrence statistics of block-based motion vectors, so keeping the computational complexity for retrieval within a real-time bound. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over existing temporal cooccurrence matrix-based solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Compact constellation algorithm for blind equalization of QAM signals

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 170 - 174
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new algorithm is presented for the blind equalization of complex signals. This algorithm combines the benefits of the well-known reduced-constellation algorithm (RCA) and decision-directed algorithm (DDA). The contribution lies in the technique of incorporating the sliced symbols (outcome of the decision device) in the weight adaptation process. Unlike the RCA, where the reduced constellation contains only four symbol points, the proposed algorithms uses all symbols of the signal constellation by compacting them in some statistical manner. The steady-state characteristics of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by way of simulations and are compared to those of RCA. It is observed that the new algorithm has a better steady-state performance than RCA. View full abstract»

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  • Liberalizing telecom sector in Pakistan: issues and prospects

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 82 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The telecommunications sector at the global level is passing through rapid technological developments and an increasingly liberal policy environment. The same holds true for Pakistan where the sector has been exposed to reforms witnessing a significant expansion of both fixed and mobile networks and striking improvements in quality. Pakistan may be categorized among those Asian economies which have partially privatized the state owned telecom sector while deferring the introduction of full scale competition to a future time. There exists a service competition rather than network competition. To inculcate and strengthen the concept of a market driven economy, the government of Pakistan established an independent regulator with the name of Pakistan Telecommunications Authority (PTA) in 1996. The paper reveals the fact that there has been a marked improvement in various fields, like the degree of competition, infrastructure, cost reduction and quality. View full abstract»

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  • Overview of MPLS technology and traffic engineering applications

    Publication Year: 2004
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB)  

    Summary form only given. Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) employs label information to identify packets, and, unlike conventional IP routing, forwards packets based on label information instead of the packet's IP destination address. Label switched routers (LSRs) use signaling protocols to establish label switched paths (LSPs). In general, LSPs can follow conventionally routed shortest paths or explicit paths that could be different from the shortest paths. When an LSP is established along an explicit path, it is referred to as a traffic engineered (TE) LSP. In addition to allowing high performance forwarding architectures, MPLS technology enables other important applications. MPLS, TE mechanisms in particular, are increasingly being deployed by service providers to guarantee quality of service (QoS), to utilize network resources efficiently and to protect data traffic against network failures. The tutorial includes the following: a brief introduction of fundamental components of the MPLS technology; a brief overview of RSVP (resource reservation protocol) and its traffic engineering enhancements; an illustration of how enhanced RSVP can be used to establish TE LSP; a brief overview of the MPLS fast reroute (FRR) mechanism which can be used to reroute traffic quickly against link/node failures. Some previous exposure to IP routing protocols may be useful, but is not required. View full abstract»

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  • Inline measurements: a native measurement technique for IPv6 networks

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 105 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Next generation convergence networks require ubiquitous measurement mechanisms able to assess dynamically the performance quality characteristics experienced by the different, aggregated traffic flows traversing end-to-end Internet paths. Existing service measurements fall into two main categories: active and passive. The paper introduces a complementary technique called 'inline measurements' that makes use of the extendible features of the emerging IPv6. Through the exploitation of native IPv6 extension headers, measurement triggers and minimal measurement data may be carried in the same packets as the payload data itself, providing a high level of probability that the behaviour of the real user traffic flow is being observed. By adding measurement functionality natively, at the network (IPv6) layer, inline measurements can potentially target all transport and application services, providing an accurate performance evaluation framework for next generation networks. The paper also presents the results from a dynamically configurable prototype implementation in which end-to-end, one-way delay and delay variation of real-time video streams have been measured. View full abstract»

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