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Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2004 IEEE

Date 14-17 June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 180
  • Smart data re-sampling for bus fleet management

    Page(s): 178 - 181
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we focus on bus fleets and propose an application of artificial intelligence (transductive inference for function estimation) which utilizes data from the vehicle tracking system in order to enforce the schedule monitoring of the bus and thus providing more accurate information for decision making activities. This is achieved by estimating the time of arrivals and departures of the buses at certain points of the journey (main bus stops, interchange points, crossroads) which are crucial for the management of the fleet. View full abstract»

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  • Stereo-based vision system for automotive imminent collision detection

    Page(s): 274 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Imminent collision detection is an important functionality in the area of automotive safety. In the event that an unavoidable collision can be detected in advance of the actual impact, various measures can be taken to mitigate injury and damage. In this paper, we demonstrate that stereo vision is a promising solution to this problem. Our prototype system has been rigorously tested for different colliding scenarios (e.g., different intersection angles and different travelling speeds), including live tests in an industrial crash-test facility. We explain the novel algorithms behind the system, including an algorithm for detecting objects in depth images, and algorithms for estimating the travelling velocity of detected vehicles. Quantitative results and representative examples are also included. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between the unscented Kalman filter and the extended Kalman filter for the position estimation module of an integrated navigation information system

    Page(s): 831 - 835
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An integrated navigation information system must know continuously the current position with a good precision. The required performance of the positioning module is achieved by using a cluster of heterogeneous sensors whose measurements are fused. The most popular data fusion method for positioning problems is the extended Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter is a variation of the Kalman filter used to solve non-linear problems. Recently, an improvement to the extended Kalman filter has been proposed, the unscented Kalman filter. This paper describes an empirical analysis evaluating the performances of the unscented Kalman filter and comparing them with the extended Kalman filter's performances. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling the robotised multiterminal port system - RMT-PS

    Page(s): 222 - 225
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The functionality of the port system has been studied and a robotised multi-terminal port system (RMT-PS) defined as intelligent transport system with the main values, resolution and UC structure. Intelligent vehicle implementation in the port system have the task of improving the processes and activities performed in the port with the aim of establishing competitiveness of the port and maintaining the status by defining and eliminating bottlenecks as barriers to the deployment of advanced technologies and by establishing continuous cargo flows through the whole port system. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic situation and threat assessment for collision warning systems: the EUCLIDE approach

    Page(s): 636 - 641
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Situation and threat assessment is considered as the highest level of abstraction in the vehicle tracking processes. In this paper, a broad discussion is introduced on algorithms for active safety functions, whilst a new dynamic algorithm is proposed. This approach handles all objects' states as dynamic stochastic variables and based on a Kalman approach calculates in real time all trajectories respectively. Thus, a reconstruction of the traffic scene can be achieved in order to assess a level of threat for all moving and stationary obstacles in the longitudinal area of the subject vehicle. This approach is adopted in the European co-funded project "EUCLIDE", which develops a vision enhancement and collision warning system merging the functionality of an infrared camera and mmw radar sensor. Results are presented using simulated and real data sets from dedicated sessions. View full abstract»

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  • Map aided SLAM in neighbourhood environments

    Page(s): 836 - 841
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robust and accurate localization is a very important issue for the application of smart vehicles in neighbourhood environments such as theme parks, industrial estates, university campuses, etc. Conventional and classical approaches based on global positioning system (GPS) when used in closed spaces like neighbourhood environments pose problems due to signal blockages and multiple path effects. Feature based localization techniques suffer from feature detection failures, especially when features are sparse or not recognisable. Dead reckoning and inertial methods have to deal with the problem of drift in the sensors to be able to localize reliably over long periods of operation. To localize a vehicle reliably, robustly and accurately, a framework that enables the fusion of the different localization techniques is thus required, for this purpose, a road network topology constrained unified localization scheme is proposed based on the general Bayesian probabilistic estimation theoretic framework. The experimental results obtained from a vehicle driven in a large neighbourhood environment are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. View full abstract»

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  • Fast fiber coupled clearance profile scanner using real time 3D data processing with automatic rail detection

    Page(s): 658 - 663
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article reports design and measurement results of a novel 3D laser measurement system delivered to SBST, Singapore, in February 2003. According to our knowledge, it is the first fast laser scanning system worldwide using optical fibers to separate the laser scanner from the temperature sensitive measurement electronics. Together with an angle encoder triggered measurement electronics the result is a simple and robust scan hardware, because no temperature control is needed since all sensitive parts can be mounted inside of the vehicle. The second feature of the system is an automatic alignment of the 3D laser scanner data with the rails. Therefore no additional information about the position of the vehicle towards the rails or about the track is necessary. The rail detection algorithm is executed in real time on a dual Pentium computer. The overall measurement accuracy under normal environment conditions is 3 to 10 mm standard deviation for distances up to 10 m. View full abstract»

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  • Team TerraMax and the DARPA grand challenge: a general overview

    Page(s): 232 - 237
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), is an agency of the United States Government, has issued a challenge to developers of off-road autonomous ground vehicles to design and build a vehicle that can complete a lengthy and difficult off road course across desert southwest areas of the United States. A one million dollar US prize is available to the team that completes the 200-250 mile course first and in less than 10 hours. This paper describes the Team TerraMax entry to the March, 2004 race event. Vehicle hardware and drive by wire actuators, internal and external sensing systems, sensor fusion, and high and low level control systems are described. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic region of interest tracking for visual characterization of the driver's behaviour

    Page(s): 335 - 338
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception plays a key role in the "driver-vehicle-road" system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. The framework of research work presented here is the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL) based on the real time visual analysis tool called EyeAccessPilot (EAP) system. This system, dedicated to driver's behaviour analysis, collects synchronously all the available embedded information: the visual perception via 2D eye's direction, the trajectory followed, accelerations... In this framework, a new development is presented here in order to allow the analysis of focusing area of a driver in driving situations, via the automatic detection of Regions of Interest. This post-processing tool considers video sequence acquired with the EyeAcessPilot system. As the displacement of the head is effective during driving phase and is not measured, the aim of this work is to track automatically defined Regions Of Interest (ROI) all along the stored video sequence. This automatic tracker is based on detection of singular points in images. View full abstract»

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  • Linear parameter-varying control and H-infinity synthesis dedicated to lateral driving assistance

    Page(s): 407 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of a linear parameter-varying controller with guaranteed H performance for lateral driving assistance. The considered uncertainties consist in road adhesion, the mass of the vehicle and driver dynamics. It used to add a steering torque to that of the driver in order to improve lane keeping and yaw dynamic under external disturbances (such as lateral wind) for a varying longitudinal velocity ν. The controller, thus, changes with the operating parameter ν so that it is gain-scheduled. View full abstract»

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  • ADAS safety impacts on rural and urban highways

    Page(s): 887 - 890
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compared to the motorway network, rural and urban roads are very unsafe. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems can be used to increase traffic safety, thereby improving the conditions for effective deployment of the underlying network for integrated traffic management. In this study, we have identified ADA systems that are expected to have a high impact on traffic safety by coupling characteristics of accidents to the functionality of different ADA systems. Based on the results of this study, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Intersection Crash Avoidance systems appeared most likely to substantially improve the safety on non-motorway roads. ISA was selected for further analysis due to the likelihood of timely deployment of the system. Microscopic simulation model was used to quantify the impacts on traffic safety for an urban highway with controlled intersections near the Dutch city of Delft. Depending on the penetration level, the results of the simulation study showed that the decrease in the total number of accidents ranges from 4% to 19%. View full abstract»

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  • High accuracy stereo vision system for far distance obstacle detection

    Page(s): 292 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (898 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a high accuracy stereo vision system for obstacle detection and vehicle environment perception in a large variety of traffic scenarios, from highway to urban. The system detects obstacles of all types, even at high distance, outputting them as a list of cuboids having a position in 3D coordinates, size and speed. View full abstract»

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  • Smart sensor modeling with the UML for real-time embedded applications

    Page(s): 919 - 924
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Main feature of real-time embedded (RT/E) applications is that they are closed to their environment that they have to control/command/monitor the running of physical phenomena. To achieve this goal, RT/E applications are equipped with sensors to acquire specific data representative of the environment state. One distinguishes two kinds of sensors data: exteroceptive data and proprioceptive data. Therefore, it is necessary to use intensively sensors to measure physical phenomena associated to sensors data. Integrating sensors in the application is often a tiresome task requiring high skill in both hardware and software techniques. This paper proposes a solution to make sensors interfacing easier all along RT/E applications development. The objective is to define a prototyping methodology assuming to check the validity of the behavior of the sensor starting from a high level description then to generate the sensor interface code. For that, it is necessary to define driver models based on sensors models specifications. Our proposal has to be conformant to either the IEEE 1451 standard or its equivalent OMG specification for interface specification. In the base of this constraint, we aim to define a methodology to design automatically all sensor interfaces based on networked data exchange like. We focus our approach by choosing CAN (Controller Area Network) and Ethernet networks. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic cluster tracking technique for traffic monitoring using on-vehicle radar

    Page(s): 728 - 731
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Predictive sensing applications are starting to find wide applications in automotive safety applications. In collision situations the need to alert the driver and to take effective countermeasures to meet the needs of the vehicle occupant safety is becoming increasingly more dependent on sensors. Electronic systems to provide warning and to implement active adaptation of occupant restraints to provide for enhanced safety protection are becoming more dependent on active safety sensors. This paper deals with a system that uses radar sensors that provides the ability to cluster the number of vehicles based on radar return signals and to actively track their movement with a Kalman filter. View full abstract»

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  • On chip vision system architecture using a CMOS retina

    Page(s): 206 - 211
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (821 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses design solution for integrating a complete vision system on a single chip. We describe the architecture and the implementation of a smart integrated retina based vision system dedicated for vehicles applications. The retina is a circuit that combines image acquisition and analog/digital processing operators allowing the achievement of real-time image processing. Interests of vision system integration are analysed through comparisons with conventional approaches using CCD cameras and a digital processor or CMOS sensors combined with wired algorithms on FPGA technology. Our solution takes the advantages of both these solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Street model with multiple movable panels for pedestrian environment analysis

    Page(s): 790 - 795
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (741 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new pedestrian environment recognition method for pedestrian walk at a comparatively narrow street area. Pedestrian road side solid structures are modelled as pictures put on flat walls. In our approach, we use multiple, movable panels for modelling pedestrian walk space area. We adjust an opaque panel to road side solid structures and a map texture on the surface. For small structures such as guardrails, utility poles in the road area, we put these textures on a transparent panel. For estimating the wall position in the image, we use a vertical and horizontal line segment of the walls. We adjust the bottom line of the panel to a line connecting bottom points of vertical line segments of walls. Horizontal line segment of walls are used for constraining a search area. For transparent panel adjusting, we use systematic change in texture elements caused by projection. Our method deals with three types of road shapes, straight roads and intersection (+-shaped roads , T-shaped roads). Experimental results for still images show the effectiveness of the proposed method. It can be applied for a visually impaired system. View full abstract»

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  • Active lighting systems for improved road safety

    Page(s): 682 - 685
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (731 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active lighting systems can contribute towards achieving optimum illumination of the traffic space. These systems can, in a more general way, create the conditions for optimum visual perception by the driver. They aim at achieving homogeneous and intense beam patterns in order to improve driver comfort and safety. They can be considered as first prototypes of a more general class of human centric mechatronic systems which are now introduced in automotive applications. Thanks to the use of new optical concepts for the generation of adaptive beam patterns, effective adjustments of the beam pattern to the traffic situation can be achieved. In this paper, the necessary beam pattern that has to be generated by an individual vehicle is calculated, taking information about the vehicle and its surroundings into account. View full abstract»

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  • Road sides recognition in non-structured environments by vision

    Page(s): 329 - 334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (786 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present communication deals with a vision system designed to detect and track roadsides on non-marked roads or paths. The initial detection method, mainly adapted to marked roads and briefly presented in this article, is based upon a model driven algorithm. This article presents the major improvements we achieved to adapt the approach to the particular context of non marked roads. These improvements are based on the development of a pre-processing step to improve the quality of the images, the transition detector, the recognition criterion. Moreover, the new approach is able to take into account the proprioceptive data provided by an inertial measurement unit. Results obtained show the robustness and the accuracy of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Model based vehicle detection for intelligent vehicles

    Page(s): 572 - 577
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1085 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are being researched nowadays for Intelligent Vehicles has to deal -with the detection and tracking of other vehicles. It will have many applications: Platooning, Stop&go, Blind angle perception, Manoeuvres supervisor. In this paper, a system based on computer vision is presented. A geometric model of the vehicle is defined where its energy function includes information of the shape and symmetry of the vehicle and the shadow it produces. A genetic algorithm finds the optimum parameter values. Examples of real images are shown to validate the algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Road obstacles detection using a self-adaptive stereo vision sensor: a contribution to the ARCOS French project

    Page(s): 738 - 743
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ARCOS is a French research project for secure driving. It aims at improving road safety and integrates engineering, human and social sciences. This paper presents an algorithm of road obstacles detection and a self-adaptive stereo vision system that have been provided and tested in the framework of the ARCOS project. In order to face with different lighting conditions, a new automatic gain and shutter control of the cameras is proposed. The conclusion of the performance of the whole system are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Defect detection on rail surfaces by a vision based system

    Page(s): 507 - 511
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new vision based inspection technique for rail surface defects is presented. It replaces visual checks with an automatic inspection system. Colour line-scan cameras and a special image acquisition method- the so called spectral image differencing procedure (SIDP- allow the automatic detection of defects on rail surfaces, like flakes, cracks, grooves or break-offs by means of image processing. The system is already used by a rail manufacturer as inline system, but may also be used on testing vehicles. Practice shows that it produces reliable results even for heavily scaled surfaces, which usually pose serious problems to optical inspection systems due to their irregular texture. View full abstract»

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  • A lane departure warning system based on a linear-parabolic lane model

    Page(s): 891 - 895
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a new lane departure warning system based on a linear-parabolic lane boundary model. A linear function is used to fit the near vision field, and a quadratic function fits the far field. The linear part of the model provides robust information about the orientation of the vehicle with respect to both lane boundaries, while the parabolic part is flexible enough to fit curved parts of the road. The orientation of both lane boundaries is then computed and used to anticipate lane crossings. View full abstract»

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  • Driver's eye state detecting method design based on eye geometry feature

    Page(s): 357 - 362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When we use the computer vision to inspect the driver's driving behavior, the identifying of eye states is one of the key technologies. In fact, when a driver drives in a normal, doze or sleeping state, his/her eye opening degree will quite different. According to this phenomenon, this paper uses the eye regional geometry characters as the feature values, and they are formed into an eigenvector as the input to a three-level BP net. Then we can get the output of three different spirit states through the neural net. The experiment results show that this new method can inspect the driver's eye states rapidly and effectively. View full abstract»

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  • Active steering unit with integrated ACC for X-by-wire vehicles using a joystick as H.M.I

    Page(s): 173 - 177
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (781 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Drive-by-wire systems have been establishing the technological basis that is opening opportunities for the development of new driver assistance and safety systems, making it possible even for a computer to drive or park a car. Driving a car by using just electronic signals opens also possibilities for the development of new human machine interfaces (H.M.I.) that can eventually substitute the current steering wheel and pedals structure. For some physically handicapped people, however, this signifies the possibility of driving the family's car by just attaching the appropriate H.M.I. on it, which could be, for example, a joystick. In this article the use of a joystick as H.M.I, and its relation to the vehicle dynamics is analyzed, and to overcome possible "fishtailing movements" an active steering unit with integrated ACC feature, incorporated to the joystick, is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Cutting-in vehicle recognition for ACC systems- towards feasible situation analysis methodologies

    Page(s): 925 - 930
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB)  

    Models and methodologies for situation analysis, situation prediction and situation assessment have recently been proposed that undoubtedly base on fundamental theories. On the other hand, little effort has been taken to assess the feasibility of these approaches in the context of sensor systems currently available. This paper outlines a step-by-step prototype realization of a cutting-in vehicle recognition functionality for ACC-System (adaptive cruise control), that utilizes a probabilistic model for situation analysis and prediction. Cutbacks in the face of low sensor data quality are discussed and thereby a consistent methodology is presented to cope with uncertainty in both the developed models and the sensor data. The illustrated approach consistently combines sensor data filtering with Kalman filters and situation analysis with probabilistic networks in order to facilitate decision making under uncertainty. Statistics from test drives in traffic presents the capabilities and also the shortcomings of the approach taken, depicting the achievable enhancements and of course illustrating fail-operations of the system and their consequences. Moreover, the collected statistics is evaluated to come to a qualitative conclusion about what performance can be achieved also in the view of other applications. View full abstract»

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