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Technology and Society, 2004. ISTAS '04. International Symposium on

Date 17-19 June 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Engineering globalization: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 29 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This essay aims to evaluate the possible meanings of engineering globalization relative to the philosophical character of engineering as a localizing activity, and looks at some implications for engineering and engineering education. View full abstract»

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  • Demons in the IT workplace [organizational psychology]

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 37 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the nature of "demons in the IT workplace" and the implications of those demons, including the social and ethical implications of the products that IT professional produce. How professional codes of ethics and professional practice can act to mitigate these demons is also discussed. This article also suggests that IT professionals and academics can use demons in the workplace as a point of departure for investigating the larger human reality. View full abstract»

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  • IT education for disadvantaged students: lessons from Europe

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 118 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Across the European Union, education and training in IT is seen as a way to move people experiencing disadvantage - such as the unemployed, people with disabilities, immigrants, marginalized women and disadvantaged youth - into sustainable employment. All the EU member countries and the European Commission have invested heavily in IT education and training programs for these groups. A study in five European countries concluded that for students experiencing disadvantage, IT training and education should be only one element of a much broader pedagogy. Successful programs in the countries studied - Ireland, the UK, Finland, Italy and Spain - used a pathway approach containing five elements. The first is contacting and motivating students, involving effective outreach to ensure that potential students are aware of and receptive to education and training opportunities. Second is developing skills, not only IT skills but also other vocational skills and soft skills such as communication and job-readiness skills. The third element of the pathway approach is ensuring support for social and cultural needs, including acknowledging and respecting cultural and other forms of diversity. The fourth is providing employment and career guidance services in a client-friendly and flexible manner. Finally, developing employment progression measures includes personal planning, mentoring, and ensuring that students are familiar with the local and global work culture. This paper discusses the study findings and concludes with guidelines for educators involved in designing and delivering IT education programs for students experiencing disadvantage. View full abstract»

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  • Verizon vs the RIAA: implications for privacy and democracy

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 49 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In January 2003, a US district court in the District of Columbia ruled that Verizon must comply with a subpoena by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) requesting the name of a subscriber who allegedly made available more than 600 copyrighted music files over the Internet. This ruling rocked the Internet community, especially those critics who saw the decision as one advancing the interests of copyright owners at the expense of broader democratic values in cyberspace such as freedom of speech and privacy for individual users. In an appeals ruling on December 19, 2003, however, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia overturned the lower court's decision. A particular challenge for computer ethicists is to determine how arguments on both sides of this case can be sorted out and evaluated from a moral perspective. The purpose of the present essay is to elucidate the issues surrounding this case by analyzing arguments advanced by both Verizon and the RIAA, and to examine some of the implications that the outcome of this ruling may have for future activities in cyberspace. Section 1 of the paper sets the background for understanding the arguments and ruling involved in both lawsuits, while Section 2 examines the infrastructure of the peer-to-peer (P2P) distribution model and how it supports the values inherent in democracy and democratic ideals. Section 3 examines some interrelationship between privacy and democracy, and shows why the former is essential for the latter. We conclude this essay in Section 4 by supporting Verizon's refusal to hand over the names, on the grounds that doing so would have violated the privacy of the individual subscribers which, in turn, would undermine any goals of achieving democracy in cyberspace. View full abstract»

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  • Globalizing engineering ethics education through Web-based instruction

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 92 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ABET engineering criteria (EC) 2000 specify that engineering colleges and universities must ensure all students understand their professional and ethical responsibilities upon graduation. This paper discusses the strategies used in developing and teaching an online engineering ethics class developed in part to meet this requirement. Web-based instruction can provide the opportunity to bridge both distance and cultural gaps, which makes it uniquely suited to connect engineering ethics communities both in the United States as well as globally. In addition, the effectiveness of this Web-based approach in teaching ethics is discussed as well as how this approach can be extended to include international student representation. View full abstract»

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  • Software development as spiritual metaphor

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 62 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the possibility of finding spiritual metaphors in software development. It looks at some of the basic concepts in software development and explores how these concepts can be recast as symbolic allusions to the work of perfecting human nature. The particular concepts from software development that are recast as spiritual metaphors include desirable software qualities (which turn out to be desirable qualities for human beings as well), software processes (which turn out to be symbolic of particular approaches to spiritual discipline), significant principles for developing quality software (which turn out to express fundamental truths on the human level) and issues in software security (which easily translate into metaphors relating to the struggle between the spiritual aspirant and those who would derail the aspirant from his/her journey). View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of the utility of technology transfer guidelines as determined by the evaluation of the RESCUER program in rural Uganda

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 156 - 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in disseminating knowledge, particularly knowledge of new technologies, in order to facilitate development can be paramount. However, if technologies are not transferred properly, development potential can be severely limited. To address this issue, a number of lists of technology transfer guidelines have arisen to prescribe proper technology transfer practices. The purpose of this study is to address the question of whether technology transfer guidelines have predictive abilities by examining the Rural Extended Services and Care for Ultimate Emergency Relief (RESCUER) program, a case of development aided by an ICT transfer for congruence with existing technology transfer guidelines. In this study, program descriptions and updates were compared with pre-existing technology transfer guidelines to determine their utility in real-world technology transfer situations. This analysis determined that most, but not all guidelines seemed critical indicators of success, however, more case studies would have to be examined before a definitive conclusion can be reached. Although the guidelines cannot be the single predictive factor of success in a development program based on technology transfer, adherence to the guidelines could act as a general framework from which to begin assessing technology transfer programs in their initial stages. View full abstract»

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  • Opening up technological education: the perspective from social informatics

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 144 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Science and engineering education in the U.S. has traditionally focused on the technical aspects of technology at the expense of the social, economical, organizational, and ethical aspects. This attitude has had profound implications for the transfer of technology to and from other parts of the world, many of which have already been uncovered and others probably discerned in the future. The current trend toward globalization calls for new perspectives that can accommodate the broader issues of technology. In this paper, we seek to uncover some of the limitations of the traditional view as it relates to the education of information technology (IT), and to propose the perspective of social informatics as a viable alternative for the training of IT professionals. Our discussion is organized around three major themes: (1) Socio-cultural: Technology is a social phenomenon and technological systems are socially shaped. In contrast to the traditional accounts of technology, which tend to characterize IT as a tool, the view of social informatics portrays IT as a socio-technical network, where technological effects are indirect, contexts are complex (matrices of business, services, people, technology history, location, and so on), and issues of incentive, trust, and understanding are central. (2) Economical: Technology is resource-dependent. The utilization of technology requires the availability of various resources such as infrastructures for communication and transportation, services, skills, and so on. The availability of these resources varies from place to place and from time to time, and a technologist should be trained to deal with this variability on a global scale. (3) Organizational/Managerial: Technology is implemented, used, and carried out in and by organizations, where relationships are complex and negotiated, knowledge and expertise is distributed and implicit, and politics is often central. Furthermore, there is a great variability across cultures in terms of management styles, organizational structures and hierarchies, work philosophy, time management, and so on. A technologist should have sufficient training to understand these nuances in any given setting. Technological education of a kind that meets the demands and challenges of globalization shou- ld pay specific attention to the above aspects. In this paper, we discuss the components of a curriculum that could better meet the globalization challenge. View full abstract»

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  • Scholarly/professional scientific and engineering societies and globalization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 149
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  • English vocabulary spectrum analysis for the technological and vocational college/university programs in non-native English speaking nations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 96 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this study is to systematically design the English course in school-based curricula (SBC) in technological and vocational college/university (TVCU) programs, to make the graduates communicate with the professionals in the native English speaking nations (NESN) smoothly. The first step of the systematic design of the English courses is to make the spectrum analysis of the English vocabulary for vocational use in the TVCU programs. Compute the adequate vocabulary for vocational use and put them to the contents of the English textbooks will make the students learn English more practically. The English abilities in TVCU programs are based on the 17 occupational families (OFs) according to the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. This study divided them into 7 occupational groups (OGs). All vocabulary in the TVCU programs through the spectrum analysis can be organized into the common English and 7 OGs. The textbooks of English courses can be based on this vocabulary through the spectrum analysis. The English courses are designed by the object-oriented principle. This method is helpful to the curriculum design of TVCU programs which will be put into practice in 2005 and gives the English curriculum overview for technology and vocational education systems. Due to the analysis and the curriculum design, the globalizing pace in Taiwan will be speeded up. View full abstract»

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  • Foundation and funding opportunities for globalization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 126 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Globalization is a market-driven phenomenon that attained special impetus and momentum with the demise of the Soviet Union and the simultaneous end of the Cold War era. It is the construction of a global economy largely through the activities of private firms that are moving their economic activities around the world. In this paper, we see the need for engaging in globalization as expressed by the American business community and the United States government that is funding educational institutions to promote globalization as a means of furthering U.S. economic interests in the world. We, in particular, describe the international implications of the rationale underlying the funding that the U.S. government has channeled through the Department of Education Business and International Education (BIE) program and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). We also discuss the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) as a case study that has received funding from the two mentioned arms of the federal government for the promotion of business-oriented educational programs and projects in Latin America and Africa as a foundation for more meaningful economic interaction between the U.S. and these parts of the world culminating in greater globalization. Our emphasis in this paper is the relationship between U.S. and the continent of Africa in the context of globalization. View full abstract»

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  • A decade of professional experience with globalization

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The loss of technology industry jobs from the US through outsourcing is a controversial subject. From the early 1990s, high tech companies have been outsourcing information technology (IT) and engineering jobs to countries that offer a less expensive labor pool and lower operational costs. Like any new industry it has a name and an acronym. It is known as "business process outsourcing" or the "BPO" industry. The primary countries actively pursuing BPO are India and China. India has a well-developed lead. View full abstract»

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  • Teaching English technological textbooks in non-native English speaking nations

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 107 - 110
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    English is very important to elevate technology in nonnative English speaking nations (non-NESN). In this study we design a questionnaire for 77 employees whose major is electronic engineering, Tung-Nan Institute of Technology. The findings demonstrate English reading (avg. = 3.4) is pretty important compared with writing (avg. = 2.7), listening (avg. = 2.47), and speaking (avg. = 2.2) in their jobs. However, most of them hope they can enhance English listening (avg. = 4.39), speaking (avg. = 4.38), reading (avg. = 4.06), and writing (avg. = 4.1) skills at the same time. To the 42 full-time students we teach an English technological textbook in English CD-ROM written in simple words and short sentences. After 2 months' teaching, we design another questionnaire to study students' learning achievements. The results show it is helpful to students to understand the contents in class by the instructors' explaining common words and terminology. Moreover, students understand the contents of English technological textbooks. The correlation of the mentioned above results is high (0.7862). Furthermore, we propose an example to classify the vocabulary according to various professional fields to reduce students' burden, so students can emphasize the "hit rate" of the vocabulary. View full abstract»

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  • Benefit/cost analysis for international study options

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 133 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    All engineering graduates from Union College are required to complete the "Other Languages; Other Cultures; Other Disciplines" portion of the College General Education program. Student can meet this requirement through completing three courses in a modern language, completing a three course cultural diversity track (African, East Asian, or Latin American studies), or participating in a variety of programs that require travel abroad. Approximately, 89% of the engineering students at Union opt for actual international travel. The authors believe that Union is unique in having such a large percentage of its engineering students experiencing first hand the culture of another country. This paper describes each of the international travel options in some detail, then presents a benefit/cost type analysis of the various international program options. Both direct (tuition, housing, etc.) and indirect (administrative overhead, faculty time, etc.) costs are estimated, and types of programs ranked by cost/student participating. Benefits, although much harder to quantify can nonetheless be identified and ranked according to their probable impact on the professional development of the student engineer. For example, longer programs give student engineers a longer exposure to the culture of the host country, and thus generally a better understanding of how to interact with people from different cultures in the global marketplace. Once developed, the two lists can be used to recommend where universities should best invest scarce resources. View full abstract»

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  • Building innovative capability in firms of developing countries to face the domestic global competition

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 17 - 22
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    Based on China's telecommunications manufacturing sector, this paper explores the innovative building process of latecomer firms of big developing countries from the perspective of technical cycle. The maturation and stabilization of a dominant design makes it more feasible for latecomer firms to penetrate the evolving technical cycle and integrate changing needs of local customers with its technological capability. Furthermore, these findings can be utilized to enrich the traditional technical cycle theory. View full abstract»

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  • Science and appropriate technology for underdeveloped countries: one emphasis in the master of engineering program at Baylor University

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 102 - 103
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    An initiative to blend an emphasis in "science and appropriate technology for underdeveloped countries" into a master of engineering program at Baylor University is presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Web-based tool for distance learning of foreign languages

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 85 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Web-based distance learning tool that assists the learning of a new foreign language is presented. The tool speeds up the learning of a new language, for example, English or Spanish as a foreign language. It searches for preselected words and relationships among those words in a foreign language article of arbitrary length and displays them in a hyperlink format in a generated Web page. There are three types of potential users of this tool. The first type is an instructor of the language, who can use Web pages generated by the tool as supplemental materials for the instructions. Students can access the Web pages through Web browsers from anywhere in the world. The second type of user is a self-learner, who can pick up new words and article of interests, and find how these new words are used in the article. The third type of user is a language researcher, who can study patterns of words in articles; for example, how does a particular author habitually use certain patterns of words. This paper concentrates on users of the first two types. This software tool is applicable to Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish. In this paper, we present examples in English and Spanish. View full abstract»

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  • Software simplicity, and hence safety - thwarted for decades

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 80 - 84
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    Leading providers of software could best improve their productivity and the safety of their products by large scale simplification. However, incentives to complicate other people's lives have been strong and leaders have avoided noticing opportunities for serious simplification for decades. In failing to pursue simplification (or knowledge of basic structures), the software community has shown an aversion toward fundamental issues and the public safety that seems unprecedented in other technologies. Half the workforce works to arrange pieces of information having almost no idea what is a reasonable structure for pieces of information. In effect, the software community has been keeping human minds debilitated on an increasingly large scale to maintain them in a state of dependency. Anyone responsible for software safety should be regarded as a menace until their competence in software simplicity is demonstrated, especially the leading organizations and individuals. View full abstract»

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  • Environmental standards: the new concept and key to international harmonization of safety standards for the safe use of electromagnetic energy

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 165 - 173
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    The development of standards for the safe use of electromagnetic (EM) energy has been marred by the blurring of exposure standards and a surrogate for environmental standards. By establishing environmental standards formally, there are more rational application of safe exposure limits and more socially responsive regulation of the environment, in turn leading to international harmonization and improved global trade. View full abstract»

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  • The effects of English language dominance of the Internet and the digital divide

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 174 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    English has become the official language of the Internet by default. Internet technology uses English words. Most of the Websites are available only in English. The English speaking United States dominates in active Internet users, e-commerce, Internet advertising, and B2B industry collaboration. This study examines and measures the effect of English language dominance on the digital divide. In a study of 189 countries, the relationship of English language, Internet usage patterns and infrastructure are examined. The 189 countries are divided into tow groups: developed and developing. The developed group (39 countries) is then divided into two groups (English speaking and not English speaking). The two groups are compared as to the number of Internet service providers per one million population and the percent of the total population that are Internet users. The developing countries are split into two groups. The first group is either English speaking or English is an official language, while the second group is either not English speaking or English is not an official language. The same variables are examined. Secondary data is employed with same instances of lagging data. View full abstract»

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  • Systematically designed license exams in non-native countries to accelerate globalizing pace

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is important for a technician to get the vocational licenses. The system of the vocational license exam is highly appreciated by many countries. Therefore, it is helpful to globalization to have a systematically designed license exams related to internationalization. We propose the vocational licenses can be classified as globalizing type (GT) and domestic type (DT). For example, interpreters, bartenders, and flight attendants are classified as GT, and carpenters, bricklayers and shoe makers are classified as DT on non-native countries. The criterion of this classification is based on the frequency of using English depending on the various types of professions. Therefore the jobs related to tourism should be classified as GT. Some professions are highly dependent on English communication such as computer programmers and engineers whose work have to use the English version of manuals, software, and other documents should be also classified as GT. The English abilities should be tested in the GT vocational license exams. The technological and vocational college/university (TVCU) programs and the vocational license exams (VLE) should be more tightly connected. The English abilities tested in the vocational license exams can be adequately arranged in the TVCU programs. This study is presented the vocational English training (VET) programs in the TVCU programs. There are two parts in the VET. One is the required courses (RCs). The other is the English training courses depending on the occupational group which belongs to (OCs). There are three courses in RCs: spoken English, tourism English, and basic English writings. The RCs are aimed at training the students' daily English. The OCs focused on training the students' vocational English are: English conversations in vocational environments, guides for reading vocational and professional documents, and vocational English writings. We hope students in the VET program can elevate their English levels. The tourism English will encourage students to go abroad or communicate with foreigners in Taiwan. The OCs will encourage students to read English technological and vocational documents such as manuals, data sheets, professional journals and magazines, to write some technological and vocational reports, and virtuall- y practice speaking English in the vocational environments are very important in the service industry, especially related to mass transportation, restaurants, and hotels. The students in VET programs can learn English in the objective-oriented way and effectively improve their English abilities to satisfy the needs of the jobs they will work on and get their licenses. Furthermore, we propose some relevant and important vocabulary and terminology should be tested in the license exams to increase some channels to improve communications. View full abstract»

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  • Globalizing manufacturing engineering education

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 111 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The educational experience of future manufacturing engineers should reflect the fact that manufacturing is an increasingly global activity. In this paper, we begin with a statistical study of long-term trends in global manufacturing. While there is some truth to the popular claim that manufacturing jobs are leaving the U.S. for Asia, our study shows a more complex picture that implies a continuing presence for significant manufacturing in the U.S. as well as substantial growth abroad. A review of most current U.S. manufacturing engineering programs shows that relatively few acknowledge the international nature of manufacturing in their published course requirements. We conclude with recommendations for ways to include more material on the global aspects of manufacturing in undergraduate engineering curricula. View full abstract»

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  • Now, Tomorrow and Yesterday: a structured technique for providing a laboratory setting for courses in technology and society

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 76 - 79
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unlike "hard" technology courses that can provide students with practical experience in applications of theory and problem solving in a laboratory setting, courses in technology and society are normally limited by the inability to provide students with an application-oriented environment on topics under study. A pencil and paper methodology entitled Now, Tomorrow and Yesterday is described that can provide a pseudo-lab environment for the understanding of problems at the interface of technology and society. View full abstract»

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  • Social science and international content in risk analysis courses

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 151 - 155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An increasing number of institutions, including universities as well as private, governmental and not-for-profit organizations, offer training or courses in risk analysis. Social sciences, especially economics, psychology, philosophy, communications, and sociology are inextricable components of risk analysis praxis. Likewise, the use of risk analysis in developing countries and the international context is widening. In this paper, we evaluate a collection of risk analysis course syllabi that are available on the World Wide Web. We find that, while the social science context varies, nearly two-thirds of all courses include some social science, and about one-third have primary emphasis on social sciences. We discuss the types of social science that are addressed, and the relative emphasis on each. Our findings are less optimistic for the inclusion of international issues, although they are not entirely ignored. We provide a matrix of risk analysis course types, and the range of institutions in which they are offered. This review leaves us optimistic that risk analysts are being trained with some understanding of the social context of their efforts. Note that our focus is on environmental, health and safety risk, and does not include courses in financial risk management. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of a computer science program toward globalized technological education

    Publication Year: 2004 , Page(s): 139 - 143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A small state college computer science department may evolve to become a strong participant in globalized technological education by paying attention to actual student demographics and choosing to act to support and enhance the presence of a significant percentage of international students. The paper describes the background of one department's realization of its international role, its response and experience in implementing globalized computer science education, and its plans for integrating international students as an essential art of the overall student body. View full abstract»

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