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Virtual Reality, 2004. Proceedings. IEEE

Date 27-31 March 2004

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 69
  • Interactive retrieval of 3D virtual shapes using physical objects

    Page(s): 231 - 232
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel method for interactive retrieval of virtual 3D shapes using physical objects. Our method is based on simple physical 3D interaction with a set of tangible blocks. As the user connects blocks, the system automatically recognizes the shape of the constructed physical structure and picks similar 3D virtual shapes from a preset model database, in real time. Our system fully supports interactive retrieval of 3D virtual models in an extremely simple fashion, which is completely nonverbal and cross-cultural. These advantages make it an ideal interface for inexperienced users, previously barred from many applications that include 3D shape retrieval tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Immersive well-path editing: investigating the added value of immersion

    Page(s): 157 - 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The benefits of immersive visualization are primarily anecdotal; there have been few controlled user studies that have attempted to quantify the added value of immersion for problems requiring the manipulation of virtual objects. This research quantifies the added value of immersion for a real-world industrial problem: oil well-path planning. An experiment was designed to compare human performance between an immersive virtual environment (IVE) and a desktop workstation. This work presents the results of sixteen participants who planned the paths of four oil wells. Each participant planned two well-paths on a desktop workstation with a stereoscopic display and two well-paths in a CAVE™-like IVE. Fifteen of the participants completed well-path editing tasks faster in the IVE than in the desktop environment. The increased speed was complimented by a statistically significant increase in correct solutions in the IVE. The results suggest that an IVE allows for faster and more accurate problem solving in a complex three-dimensional domain. View full abstract»

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  • Resolving object references in multimodal dialogues for immersive virtual environments

    Page(s): 35 - 277
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (509 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the underlying concepts and the technical implementation of a system for resolving multi-modal references in virtual reality (VR). In this system the temporal and semantic relations intrinsic to referential utterances are expressed as a constraint satisfaction problem, where the propositional value of each referential unit during a multimodal dialogue updates incrementally the active set of constraints. As the system is based on findings of human cognition research it also regards, e.g., constraints implicitly assumed by human communicators. The implementation takes VR related real-time and immersive conditions into account and adapts its architecture to well known scene-graph based design patterns by introducing a so-called reference resolution engine. Regarding the conceptual work as well as regarding the implementation, special care has been taken to allow further refinements and modifications to the underlying resolving processes on a high level basis. View full abstract»

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  • Navigation with place representations and visible landmarks

    Page(s): 173 - 288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Existing navigation techniques do not scale well to large virtual worlds. We present a new technique, navigation with place representations and visible landmarks that scales from town-sized to planet-sized worlds. Visible landmarks make distant landmarks visible and allow users to travel relative to those landmarks with a single gesture. Actual and symbolic place representations allow users to detect and travel to more distant locations with a small number of gestures. The world's semantic place hierarchy determines which visible landmarks and place representations users can see at any point in time. We present experimental results demonstrating that our technique allows users to navigate more efficiently than a modified panning and zooming W1M, completing within-place navigation tasks 22% faster and between-place tasks 38% faster on average. View full abstract»

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  • HIVE: a highly scalable framework for DVE

    Page(s): 261 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increasing requirements for distributed virtual environment (DVE): supporting larger number of participants and providing more smooth roaming and interactions, scalability is becoming a key issue. In this paper, we explore the scalability of participants and the scalability of servers, and mainly focus on three aspects: system architecture, communication model and interest mechanism. We present our middleware platform, HIVE, providing a variety of services such as data distribution, communication, event notification, etc. To achieve the reusability and interoperability of DVE applications, the interface specification of high level architecture (HLA) is employed as the reference. HIVE also contains the back-ends, which the middleware services depend upon. On HIVE, users can develop scalable DVE applications easily and quickly, concentrating on not the detail of distribution but the application logic. Finally an experimental demo on HIVE is given. View full abstract»

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  • Food simulator: a haptic interface for biting

    Page(s): 51 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The food simulator is a haptic interface that presents biting force. The taste of food arises from a combination of chemical, auditory, olfactory and haptic sensation. Haptic sensation while eating has been an ongoing problem in taste display. The food simulator generates a force on the user's teeth as an indication of food texture. The device is composed of four linkages. The mechanical configuration of the device is designed such that it will fit into the mouth, with a force sensor attached to the end effector. The food simulator generates a force representing the force profile captured from the mouth of a person biting real food. The device has been integrated with auditory and chemical display for multi-modal sensations in a taste the food simulator has been tested on a large number of participants. The results indicate that the device has succeeded in presenting food texture as well as chemical taste. View full abstract»

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  • The application of virtual reality to (chemical engineering) education

    Page(s): 217 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virtual reality, VR, offers many benefits to technical education, including the delivery of information through multiple active channels, the addressing of different learning styles, and experiential-based learning. This poster presents work performed by the authors to apply VR to engineering education, in three broad project areas: virtual chemical plants, virtual laboratory accidents, and a virtual UIC campus. The first area provides guided exploration of domains otherwise inaccessible, such as the interior of operating reactors and microscopic reaction mechanisms. The second promotes safety by demonstrating the consequences of not following proper lab safety procedures. And the third provides valuable guidance for (foreign) visitors. All programs developed are available on the Web, for free download to any interested parties. View full abstract»

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  • Tracker calibration using tetrahedral mesh and tricubic spline models of warp

    Page(s): 19 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (987 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a three-level tracker calibration system that greatly reduces errors in tracked position and orientation. The first level computes an error-minimizing rigid body transform that eliminates the need for precise alignment of a tracker base frame. The second corrects for field warp by interpolating correction values stored with vertices in a tetrahedrization of warped space. The third performs an alternative field warp calibration by interpolating corrections in the parameter space of a tricubic spline model of field warp. The system is evaluated for field warp calibration near a passive-haptic panel in both low-warp and high-warp environments. The spline method produces the most accurate results, reducing median position error by over 90% and median orientation error by over 80% when compared to the use of only a rigid body transform. View full abstract»

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  • Real world video avatar: transmission and presentation of human figure

    Page(s): 237 - 238
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video avatar (Ogi et al., 2001) is one methodology of interaction with people at a remote location. By using such video-based real-time human figures, participants can interact using nonverbal information such as gestures and eye contact. In traditional video avatar interaction, however, participants can interact only in "virtual" space. We have proposed the concept of a "real-world video avatar", that is, the concept of video avatar presentation in "real" space. One requirement of such a system is that the presented figure must be viewable from various directions, similarly to a real human. In this paper such a view is called "multiview". By presenting a real-time human figure with "multiview", many participants can interact with the figure from all directions, similarly to interaction in the real world. A system that supports "multiview" was proposed by Endo et al. (2000), however, this system cannot show real-time images. We have developed a display system which supports "multiview" (Maeda et al., 2002). In this paper, we discuss the evaluation of real-time presentation using the display system. View full abstract»

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  • Omnistereo for panoramic virtual environment display systems

    Page(s): 67 - 279
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the use of omnidirectional stereo for panoramic virtual environments. It presents two methods for real-time rendering of omnistereo images. Conventional perspective stereo is correct everywhere in the visual field, but only in one view direction. Omnistereo is correct in every view direction, but only in the center of the visual field, degrading in the periphery. Omnistereo images make it possible to use wide field of view virtual environment display systems-like the CAVE™-without head tracking, and still show correct stereoscopic depth over the full 360° viewing circle. This allows the use of these systems as true multi-user displays, where viewers can look around and browse a panoramic scene independently. Because there is no need to rerender the image according to view direction, we can also use this technique to present static omnistereo images, generated by offline rendering or real image capture, in panoramic displays. We have implemented omnistereo in a four-sided CAVE™ and in a 240° i-Con™ curved screen projection system. Informal user evaluation confirms that omnistereo images present a seamless image with correct stereoscopic depth in every view direction without head tracking. View full abstract»

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  • Affective property evaluation of virtual product designs

    Page(s): 207 - 292
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In addition to the intended functionality of the product, its affective properties (or "Kansei") have emerged as important evaluation criteria for the successful marketing of the product. Recently, "immersive" virtual reality systems have been suggested as an ideal platform for affective analysis of an evolving design because of among other things, the natural style of interaction they offer when examining the product. In this paper, we compare the effectiveness of three types of virtual environments for evaluating the affective properties of mobile phones to that of the real. Each virtual environment offers different degrees of realism in terms of visual, aural, and tactile aspects. Our experiment has shown that the virtual affective evaluation results correlated very highly with that of the real, and but no statistically significant difference could be found between the three systems. This finding was contrary to our initial thought and the conventional notion that the characteristics of immersive virtual reality systems would contribute to making it a better platform for virtual evaluation of product designs. Thus, it goes to say that employing immersive systems is not necessarily cost effective solution for affective analysis of product designs (desktop VR system suffices). View full abstract»

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  • Predictive text entry in immersive environments

    Page(s): 241 - 242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the classic problems with immersive environments is data entry; with a head-mounted display (HMD) the user can no longer see the keyboard. Although for many applications data entry is not a requirement, for some it is essential: communicating in collaborative environments, entering a filename to which work can be saved, or accessing system controls. Combining data gloves and a graphically represented keyboard with a predictive spelling paradigm, we describe an effective text entry technique for immersive environments; we explore the key issues when using such a technique, and report the results of preliminary usability testing. View full abstract»

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  • An on-line evaluation system for optical see-through augmented reality

    Page(s): 245 - 246
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work introduces a technique that allows final users to evaluate and recalibrate their AR system as frequently as needed. We developed an interactive game as a prototype for such evaluation system and explain how this technique can be implemented to be used in real life. View full abstract»

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  • VRML scene graphs on an interactive ray tracing engine

    Page(s): 109 - 282
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (875 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the recent advances in ray tracing technology, high-quality image generation at interactive rates has finally become a reality. As a consequence ray tracing likely plays a larger role in visualization systems, enabling the conception and creation of completely new interactive graphics applications. In this paper, we describe the design and development of a ray tracing-based VRML browser and editor as a case study of such an application. It exploits all advantages of ray tracing, including physically-correct plug and play shading and support for large models. In particular we demonstrate how to overcome the limitations that result from existing scene graph libraries and data exchange formats still being targeted towards rasterization technology. Also we show how to extend the VRML lighting model and to optimize scene graph handling for ray tracing. View full abstract»

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  • Improving collision detection in distributed virtual environments by adaptive collision prediction tracking

    Page(s): 83 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (379 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Collision detection for dynamic objects in distributed virtual environments is still an open research topic. The problems of network latency and available network bandwidth prevent exact common solutions. The consistency-throughput tradeoff states that a distributed virtual environment cannot be consistent and highly dynamic at the same time. Remote object visualization is used to extrapolate and predict the movement of remote objects reducing the bandwidth required for good approximations of the remote objects. Few update messages aggravate the effect of network latency for collision detection. In this paper, new approach extending remote object visualization techniques is demonstrated to improve the results of collision detection in distributed virtual environments. We showed how this can significantly reduce the approximation errors caused by remote object visualization techniques. This is done by predicting collisions between remote objects and adaptively changing the parameters of these techniques. View full abstract»

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  • MVL toolkit: software library for constructing an immersive shared virtual world

    Page(s): 249 - 250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, we investigated various functions that are required in an immersive shared virtual world, and then developed the MVL toolkit to implement these functions. The MVL toolkit contains several utilities that enable such functions as sharing space, sharing users, sharing operations, sharing information and sharing time. By using the MVL toolkit, collaborative virtual reality applications can be easily constructed by extending existing stand-alone application programs. View full abstract»

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  • TWISTER: an immersive autostereoscopic display

    Page(s): 59 - 278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes in detail the design, development, and evaluation of the TWISTER III (Telexistence Wide-angle Immersive STEReoscope) and demonstrates how this system can display immersive three-dimensional full-color and live motion pictures without the need for special eye-wear. The device works as a cylindrical display by rotating 30 display units around an observer and presenting time-varying patterns, while immersive autostereoscopic vision is achieved by employing a "rotating parallax barrier" method. After explaining the principle, we discuss the designs and implementations for maximum performance in various aspects of the display. We also evaluate the display. View full abstract»

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  • Relationship between network latency and information quality in a synchronized distributed virtual environment

    Page(s): 227 - 228
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the theoretical modeling of interactive performance on a distributed virtual environment (DVE) is carried out. To study the degradation of the information quality caused by the existence of network latency on a simple virtual task model, Markov model is employed. Compared with the numerical simulation, the proposed model can be a good approximation of the simulation results. The results of subjective experiments show that, in average, the accuracy of human foreseeing behavior marked between the score of the first and second order Markov models. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual environment design guidelines for gene expression analysis: the utility of a lab bench metaphor and a road metaphor

    Page(s): 247 - 248
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose guidelines for the construction of virtual environments for gene expression analysis using an immersive projection display. The guidelines include two metaphors: a lab bench metaphor and a road metaphor. We implemented the prototypes based on the proposal. On the basis of evaluations of the prototypes, we confirm that our guidelines provide effective aids for users to understand the analytical process. View full abstract»

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  • Projector-based dual-resolution stereoscopic display

    Page(s): 223 - 224
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a stereoscopic display system which incorporates a high-resolution inset image, or fovea. We describe the specific problem of false depth cues along the boundaries of the inset image, and propose a solution in which the boundaries of the inset image are dynamically adapted as a function of the geometry of the scene. This method produces comfortable stereoscopic viewing at a low additional computational cost. The four projectors need only be approximately aligned: a single drawing pass is required, regardless of projector alignment, since the warping is applied as part of the 3D rendering process. View full abstract»

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  • Testbed evaluation of navigation and text display techniques in an information-rich virtual environment

    Page(s): 181 - 289
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fundamental question for an information-rich virtual environment is how to access and display abstract information. We investigated two existing navigation techniques: hand-centered object manipulation extending ray-casting (HOMER) and go-go navigation, and two text layout techniques: within-the-world display (WWD) and heads-up display (HUD). Four search tasks were performed to measure participants' performance in a densely packed environment. HUD enabled significantly better performance than WWD and the go-go technique enabled better performance than the HOMER technique for most of the tasks. We found that using HOMER navigation combined with the WWD technique was significantly worse than other combinations for difficult naive search tasks. Users also preferred the combination of go-go and HUD for all tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Unified gesture-based interaction techniques for object manipulation and navigation in a large-scale virtual environment

    Page(s): 259 - 260
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Manipulation of virtual objects and navigation are common operations in a large-scale virtual environment. In this paper, we propose a few gesture-based interaction techniques that can be used for both object manipulation and navigation. Unlike existing methods, our techniques enable a user to perform these two types of operations flexibly with a little practice in identical interaction manners by introducing a movability property attached to every virtual object. View full abstract»

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  • A case study of museum exhibition - historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization

    Page(s): 257 - 258
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We developed and operated an exhibition system which satisfies two requirements of a museum exhibition simultaneously: compatibility between personalization of the information and handling of high attendance, and flexibility to accommodate the visitor's desired degree of interactiveness for acquiring knowledge. To realize this feature, we used the "excursion metaphor" concept to integrate different exhibition methods into a single system. In this paper, we present our scalable VR architecture which integrates different types of VR systems, and the implementation of our exhibition system based on scalable VR architecture. View full abstract»

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  • KITTY: keyboard independent touch typing in VR

    Page(s): 243 - 244
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hand- and finger-mounted data input device is presented, using traditional touch-typing skills as method of alphanumeric data input to provide an ultraportable solution for "quiet" data input into portable computer systems. The presented keyboard independent touch-typing device {KITTY) offers high data input rates and minimal training requirements for new users. View full abstract»

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  • The mobile animator: interactive character animation in collaborative virtual environments

    Page(s): 125 - 284
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have designed a mobile -PDA-based- interface for real-time control of virtual characters in multiuser semi-immersive virtual environments - using a large rear-projection screen. The proof-of-concept implementation we present shows the potential of handheld devices as powerful interfaces to virtual reality applications. This technique eliminates the display of floating menus and other widgets over the simulation screen. A brief discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using a handheld for 3D interaction is presented as well. View full abstract»

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