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Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2003. Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on

Date 11-18 May 2003

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  • 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 0_1 - xxxvi
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  • Monitoring results of the German 100 000 roofs programme

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2115 - 2119 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To support the market introduction of photovoltaics in Germany, the 100 000 roof solar electricity programme, a soft loan programme, was introduced in January 1999. It aims to support the installation of 300 MW photovoltaic installations until the end of 2003. A monitoring made by order of the German federal ministry of economics analysed the implementation of the programme with regard to the following aspects: regional repartition in German regions, handling in the executing banks and marketing, effects on the German solar industry (market shares of German and foreign producers), distribution of the value added per installation, operating efficiency of the PV-installations for the users, environmental assessment and interdependency with other support programmes and the German renewable energies act. The emerging success is explained. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of photovoltaics in architecture

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2120 - 2124 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper positions the integration of photovoltaics in architecture within a holistic approach towards sustainability. The following projects by Arup Associates clearly demonstrate this approach through very different applications of solar energy: (1) A showcase for photovoltaics. (2) A strategic and practical application for a remote area. (3) An infrastructure project supported by a central government initiative. View full abstract»

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  • Village electrification programme in India

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2125 - 2128 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    India has about 96,000 villages still to be electrified. About 20,000 of these may be in remote and difficult areas, which cannot be electrified by conventional grid extension. The Indian Ministry of non-conventional energy sources has taken up a programme to electrify all such villages through renewable energy sources. Solar photovoltaic technology will have an important role in this programme, which may cover about a million households. The paper describes the Indian programme and its status. Two case studies from the Sunderbans and Ladakh region are also given. View full abstract»

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  • AC coupled PV hybrid systems and microgrids-state of the art and future trends

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2129 - 2134 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The consequent AC-coupling of generators, storage units and loads for setting up hybrid systems or hybrid microgrids is under investigation at ISET since more than ten years. After the development of suitable components like the PV-inverter Sunny Boy/sup /spl reg// and the battery inverter Sunny Island/sup /spl reg// and after the implementation of new control concepts for parallel operation, these systems can be easily set up with series produced components. This paper describes the principals of the modular systems technology and shows some examples of operating hybrid micro grids containing AC-PV, AC-battery power units, wind turbines and diesel gensets. Further developments and aims are described including the distributed generation and energy storage in micro grids as well as the stepwise interconnection of micro grids. A first approach for the control and management of disconnecting houses or grid parts which make use of their distributed energy generators or storage units for emergency power will be outlined. View full abstract»

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  • The PV fibre project: a PV concentrator for indoor operation of 1000X MJ solar cells by fibre transmission

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2135 - 2138 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the objectives, overall design and first experiments carried out in the framework of the project PV-FIBRE subsidized by the European Commission. The purpose is to cast the light collected by a parabolic dish onto a very compact receiver located indoors in which 324 multi-junction solar cells operates over 1000X. The light concentrated by the quasi-parabolic dish is transmitted to each individual cell by means of a transparent rod and finally by individual fibres connected to each cell. This allows an adequate optical and electrical interconnection in order to reduce the losses. The whole design specification and early prototypes of parabolic dish, transmission rod, cells and fibre bundles have been made and evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Solar Decathlon: energy we can live with

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2139 - 2142 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Solar Decathlon is a competition to design, build and operate the most effective and attractive house powered solely by the Sun. The U.S. Department of Energy proudly sponsors the international competition for college level students. The competition is designed to showcase "energy we can live with", meaning solar and energy efficiency technologies that are not only viable today, but are also unobtrusive features of homes that fit gracefully into our modern lifestyles. Fourteen university teams from the U.S., including Puerto Rico, competed in the 2002 Solar Decathlon at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Construction of the solar village began on September 19/sup th/, 2002. Seven days later on September 26/sup th/, the Solar Decathlon began and ten days of intense competition followed. On Saturday, October 5/sup th/, the University of Colorado at Boulder won the first ever competition. View full abstract»

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  • Photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems for stratospheric platforms

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2143 - 2147 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photovoltaic-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply for high altitude platforms in long enduring missions. Main attention was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaics and other key components and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a PV-hydrogen energy supply system was carried out for a stratospheric airship. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaics and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand for full year operation can be covered by a PV-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology. However further investigations are necessary regarding improvement of PV and minimization of thermal effects on lifting gas through photovoltaic generator. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis and reliability of grid-connected PV systems in IEA countries

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2148 - 2151 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (309 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents operational performance results of grid-connected PV systems, as collected and elaborated for the photovoltaic power systems programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Performance ratios (PR) obtained from 334 PV installations in 14 different countries are compared and discussed. In Germany, there is a significant rise of PR between early installations in the nineties and new installations. For Switzerland, BIPV and other types show high PR>0.80, but average PR values lower than expected were obtained. For Japan, lessons learnt from the current monitoring programmes are used to improve PV system performance showing constant performance at high level. As an outcome of this work, reliable and worldwide monitoring performance data and results are available for future developments of financing schemes (e.g. feed-in-tariffs) in order to stimulate the PV market. View full abstract»

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  • A Thai National Demonstration Project on PV grid-interactive systems: power quality observation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2152 - 2154 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report here the first results obtained from a 4.2 kWp PV grid-connected system installed at a secondary school under a Thai national demonstration project on PV grid-interactive systems. The power quality of system output as a function of radiation and its load are monitored. The power quality parameters measured are the complex, active and reactive power, the power factor, the voltage and the current of each harmonic and the total harmonic distortion. It is found that the inverter supplies power of low quality at low solar radiation level. Low solar radiation results in correspondingly low PV output and inverter output power in comparison with its rated power. Under this operating condition, the inverter exhibits large non-linearity. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of stand alone PV systems from a rational use of energy point of view

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2155 - 2158 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance analysis of stand alone PV systems (SAS) is not as straight forward as it is for grid connected systems. A poor performance does not mean that the system encounters technical problems but can also be the consequence of a bad matching between the production and the load. Some coefficients have already been introduced within IEA PVPS task 2 to consider poor sizing and technical problems by complementing the performance ratio. This paper presents, through examples, different cases where the commonly used factors show their limits and highlight how some new coefficients, can better inform on the operational performance of stand alone systems. View full abstract»

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  • Composition and operation measures of autonomous demand area power system to cope with large penetration of PV system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2159 - 2164 Vol.3
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    CRIEPI proposed the autonomous demand area power system (ADAPS) as a new concept of future demand area distribution system to cope with large penetration of distributed power generation including PV system. In order to increase possible penetration rate of PV system with resolving grid interconnection issues on power quality, safety and reliability of the grid, new composition and operation measures adopted in the grid side and PV system side in the ADAPS are investigated. In the paper, new grid network configuration using loop-shaped form is proposed. New devices to control grid voltage, power flow and PV system operation using advanced power electronics and communication system are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An evaluation result of a PV system field test program for industry use by means of the SV method

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2165 - 2168 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors have been developing an evaluation method, the Sophisticated Verification method (the SV method), for analyzing monitored data, which are observed at PV systems in field test sites. This paper is aimed at grasping the standard of a performance and a characteristic for PV systems due to the result evaluated monitored data, "PV system field test program for industry use", by the SV method, and which is compared with examples of field investigation reported by Resources Total System co., Ltd. View full abstract»

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  • High performance ratios of a double-junction a-Si BIPV grid-connected installation after five years of continuous operation in Brazil

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2169 - 2172 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In September 1997 LABSOLAR, at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, installed the first grid-connected, thin-film, building-integrated PV system in Brazil. In this fully monitored installation, irradiation levels, temperatures and electrical performance data are measured and logged continuously. The AC and DC performance ratios (PR=ratio of actual to expected output) of this 2 kWp double-junction a-Si PV system after over five years of continuous operation have stabilized at an average of 82% and 92% respectively, with annual energy yields of /spl sim/1300 kWh/kWp for a /spl sim/1500 kWh/m/sup 2/ annual plane-of-array radiation level at the site. Our results show that in the stabilized state the PR is independent of the cell operating temperature, indicating a negligible temperature coefficient of power and good performance when operated at a warm site. Under the conditions described, undersizing the inverter with respect to the PV array power might lead to considerable power losses. View full abstract»

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  • Standardised evaluation of renewable energy systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2173 - 2176 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Renewable energy systems (RES) have to be designed specifically for both site and application. A comparison between different RES with the aim of evaluating the performance and the relative merits of the systems as a whole and/or their components is therefore difficult. As part of the BENCHMARKING project which is an international project carried out by 10 European research organisations, NREL (US) and the Australian Cooperative Research Centre, a proposal is here presented on how to measure performance, compress data and evaluate them in a standardised form, i.e. a standard evaluation report (SER). It covers all types of renewable energy systems at any location and for any application. Its primary aim is to allow a comparison of RES and their key components. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration procedures - state of the art

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2177 - 2181 Vol.3
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    Solar cell calibration plays an important role for determining the efficiency of photovoltaic devices under defined conditions. Laboratories involved in PV characterisation developed a number of calibration methods and procedures, which progress towards decreasing uncertainty, and worldwide acceptance. This paper gives an overview about the methods used, their specific features and applicability. The overview is limited to reference devices, and does not discuss standard performance measurements on PV devices. View full abstract»

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  • ASPIRE - a tool to investigate spectral effects on PV device performance

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2182 - 2185 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new model for calculating spectral irradiance from standard meteorological inputs is presented, named ASPIRE (All-sky SPectral IRradiancE). The Bouger law-based transmittance approach for modelling clear-sky spectra has been augmented with an extended empirical process to account for variation with cloud cover. Unlike previous clear-sky models, this new tool separates the effects of air mass from cloud cover within the clearness index by comparing measured solar spectra with the results of clear-sky modelling. The intended use of the ASPIRE model is to allow investigation of spectral effects on PV device output under realistic operating conditions, for which measured spectral irradiance data is rarely available. These investigations are important to refine the energy yield calculations for PV systems operating under seasonally varying spectra, especially wide band gap materials. View full abstract»

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  • Proposal of standard test procedures for PV concentrator collectors: experimental results

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2186 - 2189 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the recent activities carried out in the framework of C-rating project subsidized by the European commission. One of the project tasks is the definition of standard test procedures for rating collectors and C-systems. This paper is focused in the proposal of parameters and test procedures to characterize the optical components of the concentrator systems as independent elements. The methods to obtain the following collector parameters are described: irradiance distribution on the receiver, spectral reflectance/transmittance coefficient, transmission curve, acceptance angle and optical efficiency. To demonstrate the feasibility and validate the proposed methods, experiments with several types of collectors have been carried out. The equipments used and the results of these experiments are presented here. View full abstract»

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  • A 1-year, side-by-side comparison of: static; 1-axis tracking; and V-trough mirror-assisted grid-connected PV modules in a desert environment

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2190 - 2193 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    3 carefully-matched grid-connected PV systems were operated side-by-side and continuously. One was equator-facing at fixed tilt angle=latitude. The second tracked the sun E/spl rarr/W about a horizontal axis. The third employed a similar tracking strategy to the second but used V-trough mirror enhancement. Each system consisted of two series-connected Solarex SX146 photovoltaic modules which fed an NKF OK4E-100 inverter and thence the electricity grid. The paper discusses the circumstances (time of day, season of year, etc.) under which each type of system is significantly superior to the others. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation and perspectives of storage technologies for PV electricity

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2194 - 2197 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to increase the use of renewable energies, the topic of RE storage is a critical issue. Within the European thematic network INVESTIRE, nine different technologies are evaluated for the storage of renewable energy, either in stand-alone or in grid-connected applications. In this paper, the strains put by a PV application on a storage function are defined with reference to existing systems. Furthermore, the way different storage technologies can answer these needs is evaluated. The technologies assessed are lead/acid, lithium systems, double-layer capacitors, nickel systems, electrolyser/hydrogen storage/fuel-cell associations, flywheels, redox flow batteries, compressed air and metal-air systems. The analysis will allow the assessment of hybridising possibilities and of future RTD goals. View full abstract»

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  • The UK domestic photovoltaic systems field trial-analysis of design and performance

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2198 - 2201 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The UK domestic PV systems field trial aims to take a systematic approach to the assessment of the domestic application of PV in the UK and to develop best practice recommendations. The information from the 31 projects in the trial includes system performance over a 2-year period, together with buildability, reliability and maintenance, acceptability and user satisfaction. The paper presents an overview of the status of the field trial and provides examples of some of the projects. Design, installation, cost and performance issues are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring of remote PV-systems via satellite

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2202 - 2205 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A vast majority of autonomous PV systems are used to supply electricity in regions with no grid, no telephone coverage, and often with difficult accessibility. Commonly systems in such regions are supervised by yearly visits in conjunction with a data logger. Over the lifetime of a PV system costs for supervision often exceed the cost of the system itself. Response time for failures is very poor. To overcome these disadvantages a data satellite transmission system was set up. It is compatible to the ARGOS protocol, facilitates small transmitters and has full equatorial coverage. The satellite data is transferred from the ground station to the Internet, providing worldwide access via WWW. The advantages are manifold: sponsors (NGOs, foundations, world bank, public etc.) have an immediate access to the projects, manufacturers can use the data to improve their products, and the online monitoring system may provoke more public interest in the PV area. View full abstract»

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  • An overview of 4 years of kWh/kW/sub p/ monitoring at 67 sites worldwide

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2206 - 2209 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    BP solar is involved in long term studies on IV swept, maximum power point tracked or grid connected arrays at currently 67 sites worldwide. Modules tested are from both BP solar and competitors products. Technologies studied include laser grooved buried contact (Saturn) "LGBC", screen printed mono and multicrystalline silicon; single, double and triple junction amorphous Si and CdTe. Different monitoring sites include independent test houses, 3/sup rd/ party collaboration, BP solar factories, downloads from the Internet and petrol station roofs. This study shows that kWh/kW/sub p/ differences between different PV systems depend strongly on module power tolerance, mismatch between series connected modules, BOS losses and downtime. View full abstract»

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  • Output characteristics of photovoltaic array on dynamic condition

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2210 - 2213 Vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photovoltaic power systems have been installed well for residence and public facilities. Along with its advance, photovoltaic output were reported and analyzed in many cases. The measured values were a little different from the simulated values, despite its allowance for various factors. To investigate this cause, authors measured photovoltaic array output on dynamic condition and analyzed. The accumulated output of PV on dynamic condition performed 1.4% less than on static condition on a fine day. The generating output of PV on dynamic condition appears to perform worse than the maximum point. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation method of generated energy of photovoltaic power system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2214 - 2219 Vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A problem recently raised is that the generated energy of photovoltaic (PV) power systems installed in the field have obtained about 70/spl sim/80% of the expected energy. This report proposes a method for calculating the system performance ratio excluding loss by cell temperature rise which occupies large proportion in output lowering factors (losses). By applying this method to an actual system, losses such as DC circuit loss, shade-and-stain loss and inverter loss, etc., and the system performance ratio excluding the cell temperature loss could be investigated over a short period without taking into account slight effect of seasons, time zones and radiation fluctuations, etc. As a result of this study, the prospect of individual loss classification and efficiency improvement of PV power systems can be expected. View full abstract»

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