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Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2013

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 76
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters publication information

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1273 - 1624
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  • Merchant Vessel Classification Based on Scattering Component Analysis for COSMO-SkyMed SAR Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1275 - 1279
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ship classification in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images is a hotspot and a continuing problem in SAR applications. The scattering components of ships are the strong scatter of objects in SAR images, and these can represent the superstructure of different ship types. Based on analyses of different scattering components of bulk carriers, oil tankers, and container ships, we propose a new classification method for these three ship types in COSMO-SkyMed SAR images. First, morphological preprocessing is applied to suppress sidelobes. Second, based on Hough transform (HT), the orientation of the principal axis is extracted, and the modified minimum enclosing rectangle (MER) of the ship is obtained and rotated along the principal axis. Finally, the ship type is decided according to the width ratio of MER between the HT line, the ratio of ship and nonship points on the principal axis, and the scattering density. The results show that this method has good performance in ship classification, with an overall accuracy of over 80%. View full abstract»

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  • Multibaseline PolInSAR Using RADARSAT-2 Quad-Pol Data: Improvements in Interferometric Phase Analysis

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1280 - 1284
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We apply, for the first time, an equal-scattering-mechanism multibaseline optimization technique on quad-pol satellite images of RADARSAT-2 in order to increase the interferometric coherence. The optimized polarimetric channel results in the selection of new pixel candidates for multibaseline differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar applications, which, otherwise, are not recognized in any single-pol channel. In addition, we analyze the individual performance of this algorithm for rural and urban land covers along with the corresponding optimized scattering mechanisms. The optimized coherence improvement with respect to a single HH channel is shown to be correlated with the interferometric spatial and temporal baselines. Finally, we investigate the performance of this technique on the interferometric phase. The optimized interferograms increase the quality of the phase patterns with respect to those phases recovered in a single copolar channel, e.g., the residual orbital ramps of the RADARSAT-2 images. View full abstract»

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  • Semantic Annotation of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images via Gaussian Process Multi-Instance Multilabel Learning

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1285 - 1289
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a hierarchical semantic multi-instance multilabel learning (MIML) framework for high-resolution (HR) remote sensing image annotation via Gaussian process (GP). The proposed framework can not only represent the ambiguities between image contents and semantic labels but also model the hierarchical semantic relationships contained in HR remote sensing images. Moreover, it is flexible to incorporate prior knowledge in HR images into the GP framework which gives a quantitative interpretation of the MIML prediction problem in turn. Experiments carried out on a real HR remote sensing image data set validate that the proposed approach compares favorably to the state-of-the-art MIML methods. View full abstract»

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  • An Azimuth-Dependent Phase Gradient Autofocus (APGA) Algorithm for Airborne/Stationary BiSAR Imagery

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1290 - 1294
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In airborne/stationary bistatic-synthetic-aperture-radar imaging, translational invariance was no longer valid. After range cell migration correction, the range-compressed signal under the same range gate exhibited azimuth-dependent FM rates that made the motion-induced phase error difficult to separate from the echoes. To solve this problem, an azimuth-dependent phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithm was proposed. Different from the conventional PGA, the residual quadratic phase arising from the azimuth-dependent FM rates was additionally estimated and compensated. As the influence of the azimuth-dependent FM rates was greatly reduced, a phase gradient estimator was subsequently applied for accurate phase error retrieval. Acquired raw data were analyzed to verify the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • The Fractal Properties of Sea Clutter and Their Applications in Maritime Target Detection

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1295 - 1299
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (481 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter studies the fractal properties of sea clutter, mainly including the box-counting dimensions and multifractal spectra. Those properties of sea clutter with targets and sea clutter without targets are compared and found different, which enables us to develop methods to detect low-observable targets within sea clutter. An integral test is utilized to compare the multifractal spectra of sea clutter under different conditions. In practice, researchers can hardly get enough real data of variable signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) to get systemic conclusions. Therefore, we construct new sea clutter series from real data with variable SCR. The results show that the detecting methods based on fractal analysis have strong performance of maritime target detection at very low SCR. View full abstract»

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  • Unsupervised Detection of Built-Up Areas From Multiple High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1300 - 1304
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (651 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Given a set of high-resolution remote sensing images covering different scenes, we propose an unsupervised approach to simultaneously detect possible built-up areas from them. The motivation behind is that the frequently recurring appearance patterns or repeated textures corresponding to common objects of interest (e.g., built-up areas) in the input image data set can help us discriminate built-up areas from others. With this inspiration, our method consists of two steps. First, we extract a large set of corners from each input image by an improved Harris corner detector. Afterward, we incorporate the extracted corners into a likelihood function to locate candidate regions in each input image. Given a set of candidate build-up regions, in the second stage, we formulate the problem of build-up area detection as an unsupervised grouping problem. The candidate regions are modeled through texture histogram, and the grouping problem is solved by spectrum clustering and graph cuts. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of detection accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A Small Target Detection Method for the Hyperspectral Image Based on Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD)

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1305 - 1308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (853 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter proposes a small target detection method for the hyperspectral image based on higher order statistics. This method first calculates the coskewness tensor of the hyperspectral image, followed by the orthogonal decomposition using higher order singular value decomposition. The obtained singular vectors are then used to perform the orthogonal transform to the centralized image. Compared to the popular blind source separation techniques, the presented method keeps clear of nonconvergence. Experiments with a real hyperspectral image show that the interested small target will be presented in the first few bands (even in the first band) very clearly after the transformation. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Nonlocal Remote Sensing Image Denoising Using Cosine Integral Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1309 - 1313
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fast nonlocal means (NLM) filtering scheme, which uses cosine integral image, is proposed to reduce the computation cost of the standard NLM method. In the proposed method, the image patch similarity is estimated within the mean values of image patches, which are calculated by the summed image (SI) method. The weight function of the NLM is decomposed into a linear combination of cosine functions, and all the summation operations needed are performed by the SI method. The complexity of the proposed method is only O(N) independently of the kernel size. Experimental results show that the proposed method runs more than 200 times faster than the standard NLM and still retains similar performance. The proposed method is also evaluated with synthetic and real synthetic aperture radar data. The filtered images and quantitative measures show that the speckle is well removed while edges and shapes are preserved. View full abstract»

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  • Multichannel InSAR DEM Reconstruction Through Improved Closed-Form Robust Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1314 - 1318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) multichannel system, which produces more than one interferogram in a multifrequency or multibaseline configuration, allows us to reconstruct highly sloped and discontinuous terrain height profiles. In this letter, a novel method based on a closed-form robust Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) is presented to solve the height reconstruction problem. Proper reference remainder selection and remainder differential process, which do not exist in the traditional CRT, are adopted to improve the robustness of the height reconstruction. We also modify the method by exploiting statistical characteristics of interferometric phase and the combined information of InSAR interferograms. Moreover, a special weighted mean filtering method is adopted to get a better result. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler Anomaly Detected During the 2010 Merapi (Java, Indonesia) Eruption

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1319 - 1323
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (615 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, we report the presence of a localized Doppler anomaly occurring during the focusing of a Radarsat-2 data set acquired on the Merapi volcano (Indonesia) during the devastating 2010 eruption. The Doppler anomaly is manifested as ~ 3-km-wide bull's-eye-shaped azimuth pixel shifts between two subaperture images. The Doppler anomaly is centered on the summit-south flank of the Merapi volcano. The pixel shifts reach up to 11.6 m. Since the Merapi volcano was undergoing a large eruption during the data acquisition, it is possible that there is a volcano-related phenomenon that has delayed the radar signal so much to create measurable pixel offsets within a single synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set, similar, but more extensive, to the signal generated by targets motions; similar, but less extensive, to the signal generated by ionospheric perturbations. It is known that the SAR signal is delayed as it passes through heterogeneous layers of the atmosphere, but this delay typically affects the SAR signal to a fraction of the phase cycle or few centimeters depending on the radar wavelength employed by the system. We investigate the source of this anomalous metric signal; we review the theoretical basis of SAR image focusing, and we try to provide a consistent physical framework to our observations. Our results are compatible with the SAR signal being perturbed during the actual process of image focusing by the presence of a contrasting medium located approximately between 6- and 12.5-km altitude, which we propose being associated with the presence of volcanic ash plume. View full abstract»

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  • Empirical Model for Backscattering at Millimeter-Wave Frequency by Bare Soil Subsurface With Varied Moisture Content

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1324 - 1328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents results of the angular variation of millimeter-wave-radiation backscattering coefficient for various levels of soil moisture content. The research sets the basis for a method, which enables assessment of the soil-moisture content in the upper part of the shallow root zone. Further development of the method should provide a microprofile measurement of soil moisture up to the root zone depth. The method is based on the emerging technology of millimeter waves, providing improved spatial resolution of the subsurface concurrent with surface mapping. The development and the use of the method described herein will make it easier to analyze and understand processes governing the soil-water interface, such as soil crusting, infiltration, runoff, and soil erosion. View full abstract»

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  • EBG Antenna for GPR Colocated With a Metal Detector for Landmine Detection

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1329 - 1333
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) antennas are ideal for handheld sensing applications, such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for landmine detection, because of their small size, efficiency, and directivity. Increased detection performance has been shown when a GPR is combined with a metal detector, but a typical EBG antenna would preclude the sensors from being colocated because of the large amount of metal in the EBG structure. An EBG composed of very thin metal is proposed in this letter for application as a GPR colocated with a metal detector, without causing a significant self-response in the metal detector. Manufacturing methods are discussed, and GPR measurements are shown from the thin-metal EBG antennas. The metal detector response from a thin metal sheet is discussed, and measurements of the EBG ground planes are shown using a laboratory wideband electromagnetic induction system. The response from the thin metal is shown to be as low as three orders of magnitude less than from a copper sheet at typical metal detector frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Swarm Optimization of Structuring Elements for VHR Image Classification

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1334 - 1338
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mathematical morphology has shown to be an effective tool to extract spatial information for remote-sensing image classification. Its application is performed by means of a structuring element (SE), whose shape and size play a fundamental role for appropriately extracting structures in complex regions such as urban areas. In this letter, we propose a novel method, which automatically tailors both the shape and the size of the SE according to the considered classification task. For this purpose, the SE design is formulated as an optimization problem within a particle swarm optimization framework. The experiments conducted on two real images suggest that better accuracies can be achieved with respect to the common procedure for finding the best regular SE, which, so far, is heuristically done. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Multichannel Sliding Spotlight SAR for Ultrahigh-Resolution and Wide-Swath Imaging

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1339 - 1343
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter introduces the innovative multichannel sliding spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system for the acquisition of ultrahigh resolution radar images with wide swath coverage. The instructive system design guideline and the signal processing scheme for the proposed operational mode are exhibited. When deriving the azimuth reconstruction algorithm for the multichannel sliding spotlight mode, a novel squinted geometric model is employed, in which the variable antenna steering direction is taken into account. In addition, an in-depth quantitative analysis of system performance for the presented mode is carried on. Finally, a typical exemplary spaceborne SAR is designed based on the presented strategy, from which numerical simulation results are obtained to justify our derivations. View full abstract»

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  • Considerations for Ku-Band Scatterometer Calibration Using the Dry-Snow Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1344 - 1349
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Postlaunch calibration of satellite-borne scatterometers using backscatter data from natural land targets helps to maintain scatterometer accuracy. Due to its temporal stability, the dry-snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet has been proposed in previous studies as a calibration target. Using QuikSCAT data, this letter examines the backscatter properties of the dry-snow zone that are relevant to Ku-band scatterometer calibration including temporal and spatial variabilities, and azimuth-angle and polarization and incidence-angle dependences. The backscatter is found to seasonally vary throughout the dry-snow zone by 0.4 dB on average. Small interannual variations (less than 1.5 dB over a nine year period) in the backscatter are also present in some regions. Azimuth modulation is generally less than 0.4 dB in magnitude and is not significant in some regions of the dry-snow zone. Melting and refreezing appear to cause the quasi-polarization ratio to temporarily decrease. Spatially consistent and relatively temporally stable regions that are well within the interior of the dry-snow zone are best suited as calibration sites. View full abstract»

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  • Unsupervised Coastal Line Extraction From SAR Images

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1350 - 1354
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Historically, the extraction of coastal line has been performed exploiting optical images, but in the last two decades, some approaches working with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data have been proposed. Recently, these approaches have been gaining interest due to the availability of high-resolution SAR images. In this letter, a technique for coastal line retrieval from multichannel SAR images is presented. The detection problem is faced in the statistical estimation framework, in particular, exploiting Bayesian estimation theory. The proposed technique is able to detect sea boundaries at full resolution and low error rate in a totally unsupervised way. The performance of the method has been tested using high-resolution COSMO-SkyMed data sets acquired on the Bay of Naples, showing the high accuracy of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of 3-D Individual Trees in Urban Areas by Combining Airborne LiDAR Data and Imagery

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1355 - 1359
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An automated approach to extracting 3-D individual trees in urban areas is developed based on jointly analyzing airborne LiDAR data and imagery. First, the spectral, geometric, and spatial context attributes are defined and integrated at the LiDAR point level. Then, a binary AdaBoost classifier is used to separate points belonging to trees from other urban objects. Once the classification is completed, a spectral clustering method by applying the normalized cuts to a graph structure of point clouds of the vegetation class is performed to segment single trees. The geometric and spectral attributes play an important role in establishing the weight matrix, which measures the similarity between every two graph nodes and determines the cut function. The performance of the approach is validated by real urban data sets, which were acquired over two European cities. The results show that 3-D individual trees can be detected with mean accuracy of up to 0.65 and 0.12 m for tree position and height. Based on the results of this work, geometric and biophysical properties of individual trees can be further retrieved. View full abstract»

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  • Inversion of Sweep Frequency Backscatter Ionogram From Monostatic HF Sky-Wave Radar

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1360 - 1364
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) is a monostatic high-frequency sky-wave radar used for ionospheric remote sensing. The sweep frequency backscatter ionogram (SFBI) recorded by the WIOBSS contains both backscatter echo scattered by distant terrestrial surface and vertical incidence (VI) echo reflected by local ionosphere over the sounding station. The approach for SFBI inversion introduced in this letter requires input of leading edge and peak height derived from local VI echo. The final output of this SFBI inversion approach is the 2-D electron density distribution in a vertical plane aligned in the direction of sounding. In addition, the time and geographic variation of foF2 can be obtained from a series of SFBI inversion results. Two experiments have been utilized to validate the SFBI inversion approach, and the SFBI inversion results are found to be very close to the ionosonde data. The fast-converged feature of the approach makes it possible for applications in real time. The success of the SFBI inversion approach enables us to use the WIOBSS as a vehicle-mounted system to obtain ionosphere electron density profile over a large geographic area. View full abstract»

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  • Utilizing Versatile Transmission Waveforms to Mitigate Pulse-Compression Range Sidelobes With the HIWRAP Radar

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1365 - 1368
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) High-altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) is a solid-state dual frequency Doppler radar funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program. It uses direct-digital-synthesizer devices to generate versatile waveforms including conventional pulses and linear frequency modulation (LFM) chirps. This letter describes a waveform used by the GSFC and the Remote Sensing Solutions to address the critical limitations of range sidelobes and blind ranges in airborne pulse-compression radar. By utilizing a frequency diversity waveform consisting of two pulses and an LFM chirp at each transmit cycle, this system provides the improved sensitivity and range resolution benefits of pulse compression on targets within the middle and high altitudes while maintaining conventional pulsed data near the radar and the surface. The data obtained by the HIWRAP during the NASA Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment using this waveform scheme are presented. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Space-Time Cube Representation of Stream Bank Evolution Mapped by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1369 - 1373
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is utilized to monitor bank erosion along a stream that has incised through historic millpond (legacy) sediment. A processing workflow is developed to generate digital terrain models (DTMs) of the bank's surface from the TLS point cloud data. Differencing of the DTMs reveals that the majority of sediment loss stems from the legacy sediment layer. The DTM time series is stacked into a voxel model to form a space-time cube (STC). The STC provides a compact representation of the bank's spatiotemporal evolution captured by the TLS scans. The continuous STC extends this approach by generating a voxel model with equal temporal resolution directly from the point cloud data. Novel visualizations are extracted from the STCs to explore patterns in surface evolution. Results show that erosion is highly variable in space and time, with large-scale erosion being episodic due to bank failure within legacy sediment. View full abstract»

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  • Noise-Adjusted Subspace Discriminant Analysis for Hyperspectral Imagery Classification

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1374 - 1378
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a popular approach for dimensionality reduction for pattern classification; however, its performance is often degraded when samples are too few, particularly when the dimensionality of the input feature space is excessively high. The classic solution to the small-sample-size problem is to implement LDA in a principal component (PC) subspace, i.e., a strategy known as subspace LDA. This latter approach is extended by coupling LDA and noise-adjusted HSI analysis in order to provide noise-robust feature extraction and classification of high-dimensional data. An extension of the proposed approach in a kernel-induced space is also studied. The resulting noise-adjusted subspace discriminant analysis is evaluated using hyperspectral imagery, with experimental results demonstrating that the proposed approach provides not only superior classification performance, as compared with traditional methods, but also effective dimensionality reduction for classification even in the presence of noise. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Spectral–Spatial Information for Hyperspectral Image Reconstruction From Compressive Random Projections

    Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 1379 - 1383
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressive-projection principal component analysis (CPPCA) has been developed to provide reconstruction from random projections of hyperspectral pixels and then subsequently extended by coupling it with classification such that the resulting class-dependent CPPCA yielded improved reconstruction performance. This letter provides an even greater integration of spatial and spectral information to further improve reconstruction performance. Specifically, instead of a pixel-based modulo partitioning employed by the original CPPCA sender, this work proposes an alternative block-based modulo partitioning, which preserves local spatial coherence; spatial segmentation is combined with the pixel-wise classification results using a majority voting rule at the receiver. Experimental results demonstrate not only improved reconstruction performance but also better detection of anomalies, as compared with previous approaches. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters (GRSL) is a monthly publication for short papers (maximum length 5 pages) addressing new ideas and formative concepts in remote sensing as well as important new and timely results and concepts.

 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Alejandro C. Frery
Universidade Federal de Alagoas