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Computer Communications, 2003. CCW 2003. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE 18th Annual Workshop on

Date 20-21 Oct. 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • SCTP: state of the art in research, products, and technical challenges

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 85 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) is being standardized by IETF as a reliable transport protocol to address a number of limitations of TCP. Due to its attractive features, such as multi-streaming and multi-homing, SCTP has received much attention from the research community and industry. The paper serves as a tutorial by introducing the main features of SCTP, and discussing the state of the art in SCTP research activities. We also provide a survey on the available products which implement SCTP. Finally, the challenges faced by SCTP research community are identified with a view to stimulating further research. View full abstract»

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  • Code generating routers: a network-centric approach to mobile code

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 179 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inexpensive wireless networks have transformed once autonomous mobile devices into nodes of large distributed systems. However, existing approaches to executing mobile code do not fully exploit the available networking infrastructure. We present an infrastructure-based network computing approach. Instead of embedding a JIT compiler component into every mobile device, we shift the mobile code optimization and compilation effort to the networking infrastructure. This conserves considerable resources on the mobile device, in terms of processor time, memory, and battery consumption. By serving as a transparent proxy, the network infrastructure intercepts mobile code returned from servers and and substitutes it for optimized native code which is sent to the PDA for immediate execution. To evaluate the feasibility of our network-based compilation architecture, we have implemented a research prototype. View full abstract»

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  • ADS - a handle-based storage architecture under grid computing

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 187 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes a new networked storage architecture and interface by using the handle system (HS). We call it autonomous data system (ADS). This leads to a clean and simple interface for networked storage and data management. ADS can be operated independently from computers and applications. As today's network and computing become increasingly complicated, data management is critical for the efficient use of information. The proposed architecture addresses these issues by having a different demarcation and layering from conventional SAN (storage area network) (block level) and NAS (network attached storage) (file level). In other words, ADS defines an application level demarcation and is better for scalability, interoperability, efficiency, QoS support and manageability. We also propose an adaptation layer to support legacy applications for compatibility. Lastly we compare ADS with OSD (object-based storage device). ADS is to complete the process of a logical separation of storage from a computer and its OS and file systems. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed power controlled medium access control for ad-hoc wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop and investigate a new medium access control (MAC) algorithm and protocol for ad-hoc wireless networks that employs power control spatial-reuse scheduling techniques. We. introduce a novel interference graph (the power-based interference graph), whose independence and chromatic numbers provide fundamental bounds for the integrated scheduling-power control problem. Based on the properties of the power-based interference graph, we develop two distributed algorithms (the distributed power controlled scheduling algorithms, DPCSs), which merely utilize the local information in the process of time slot allocation and power control. We show that both algorithms lead to a significant increase in the network throughput level through-spatial reuse of the communications resources while (Pareto) optimizing the power consumption. View full abstract»

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  • Prototype implementation and performance evaluation of a QoS-conditionalized handoff scheme for Mobile IPv6 networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 24 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future internetworks will include large numbers of portable devices moving among small, wireless cells. In order to support real-time applications, users demand seamless mobility and quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. One approach towards a more flexible, customizable and scalable mobility architecture that also reduces signaling load and handoff latency results from the introduction of micro-mobility. Furthermore, by coupling QoS signaling and mobility management, QoS requirements can be negotiated without incurring significant additional signaling latency. The paper presents the prototype implementation and performance evaluation of such a QoS-enabled micro-mobility scheme, which is called "QoS-conditionalized handoff". We extended the Mobile IPv6 for Linux implementation to support the basic mode of Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 as the underlying micro-mobility mechanism. One problem that appeared during the implementation was the rather complex event handling in the mobile node; to enable a simple and generic way of event handling, a priority-based execution structure has been developed that can be easily adapted to various policies. Our experimental results show that by this QoS-conditionalized handoff scheme, QoS-enabled handoffs can be achieved with a small amount of introduced latency compared to Hierarchical Mobile IPv6, which is much less than that of Mobile IPv6. It is further observed that fewer packets were lost and registration latency could be much more decreased when mobility management in the mobile node takes advantage of a movement detection mechanism to expedite the QoS-conditionalized handoff procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive techniques for minimizing middleware memory footprint for distributed, real-time, embedded systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 54 - 58
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order for middleware to be widely useful for distributed, real-time, and embedded systems, it should provide a full set of services and be easily customizable to meet the memory footprint limitations of embedded systems. We examine a variety of techniques used to reduce the memory footprint in middleware. We find that combining aspect-oriented programming with code shrinkers and obfuscators reduces the memory footprint of CORBA middleware to <5% of its original size, as customized for a small client application for a memory-constrained embedded device. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid indirect transmissions (HIT) for data gathering in wireless micro sensor networks with biomedical applications

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 124 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensor networks have many potential applications in biology, physics, medicine, and the military. One major challenge is to maximize network life under the constraint of an extremely limited power supply. This is especially true for biomedical applications, which require large numbers of nodes that may be implanted in a subject; frequent battery changes are impractical. The paper proposes a new data gathering protocol, and analyzes a potential application in biomedical sensing technology. The protocol, named hybrid indirect transmission (HIT), is based on an architecture consisting of one or more clusters that cooperatively compute multiple, multi-hop, indirect transmission routes. In order to minimize both energy consumption and network delay, parallel transmissions with a collision avoidance guarantee are used throughout the network; adjacent clusters do not prevent this mechanism from working. To accomplish this, each sensor independently computes a medium access controlling TDMA schedule. HIT was simulated along with three existing protocols; a comparison of their performance in terms of energy efficiency, delay, and network lifetime is provided. Results show that HIT greatly reduces both energy consumption and network delay; it also maintains longer network life compared to the other three protocols. The proposed protocol is promising and would contribute to the use of wireless micro sensor networks in future biomedical technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Exploiting mobility in large scale ad hoc wireless networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 34 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobility is generally viewed as a major impediment in the control and management of large scale wireless networks. However, researchers have recently looked at mobility in a different way, trying to take advantage of it instead of protecting from it. In the literature, mobility is generally modeled as independent random moves by each node. However, in reality, mobile nodes tend to show some degree of correlated (group oriented) motion behavior. This feature, once detected and understood, can be exploited to help improve network performance, in particular, scalability. We present several schemes for exploring mobility patterns, in particular group mobility. We show, via simulations, that the physical group mobility behavior of mobile nodes can be autonomously recognized and discovered by network layer routing schemes. It can then be utilized to reduce routing overhead and achieve good scalability in large scale ad hoc networks. View full abstract»

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  • Securing mobile networks in an operational setting

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 139 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (883 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes a network demonstration and three month field trial of mobile networking using Mobile-IPv4. The network was implemented as part of the US Coast Guard operational network which is a ".mil" network and requires stringent levels of security. The initial demonstrations took place in November 2002 and a three month field trial took place from July through September of 2003. The mobile network utilized encryptors capable of NSA-approved Type 1 algorithms, a mobile router from Cisco Systems and 802.11 and satellite wireless links. The paper also describes a conceptual architecture for wide-scale deployment of secure mobile networking in operational environments where both private and public infrastructures are used. Additional issues presented include link costs, placement of encryptors and running routing protocols over layer-3 encryption devices. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of resource allocation using pricing

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 59 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider pricing of network resources in a reservation-based QoS architecture. The pricing policy implements a distributed resource allocation to provide guaranteed bounds on packet loss and end-to end delay for real-time applications. Distributed pricing roles are assigned to each user, each network node, and an arbitrager in between the user and the network. We explore the characteristics of the optimal resource allocation by comparing it with a simpler method based on traffic characteristics alone. We show that pricing based optimal resource allocation can provide higher network utilization by allocating more network resources to classes that are more sensitive to additional network resources. We give sufficient conditions to establish that an increase in the price for a resource results in a decreased demand for that resource, an increased demand for the other resource at that node, and an increased demand for resources at all other hops. Finally, we provide two dynamic pricing policies using simple proportional step and gradient feedback laws. We analyze the performance of these two approaches, and show that the gradient algorithm converges more quickly and displays only a few small fluctuations. View full abstract»

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  • A QoS guaranteed Mobile IP communication scheme with scalability in terms of resource management in backbone network

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resulting from the spread of the Mobile Internet, mobile communication with QoS guarantees will be required in order to realize mobile video interactions. So far, there are some studies which focused on QoS guaranteed Mobile IP communication, but they require backbone routers to maintain per flow QoS information for all individual mobile nodes. These approaches suffer from a lack of scalability. Against them, we are developing an approach by which the per-flow QoS information is maintained only by Mobile IP agents such as home agents and foreign agents. We have adopted a hierarchical method with MPLS in which MPLS paths with large bandwidth are introduced between Mobile IP related nodes, and a per-flow path with small bandwidth, called a pathlet, is established for individual communication between a mobile node and a correspondent node. The maintenance of pathlets is only performed by home agent, foreign agent and so on, and the network backbone MPLS routers only take care of MPLS paths with large bandwidth. By simulation, we compare our scheme with the conventional scheme by observing the total number of entries managed by routers and the bandwidth prepared at individual links. View full abstract»

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  • Smooth handoff scheme for stream media with bandwidth disparity in wireless cells

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multimedia applications, such as streaming media, will become very popular in future heterogeneous wireless networks. There are two main reasons for difficulties in the smooth transmission of a streaming media application during user movement: (1) packets may get lost due to the re-routing caused by. handoffs; (2) due to the disparity in the amount of available bandwidth among wireless cells, handoffs may cause congestion. We propose an end-to-end multipath transmission scheme that provides a comprehensive solution for the smooth handoff of streaming media. In the proposed scheme, multiple paths are acquired during the handoff period. Multipath transmission is integrated with a source adaptive multilayer encoder in order to make the streaming media more adaptive to the heterogeneous environment of networks with different bandwidths. Protection of the more important video layer through duplicated transmission on multiple paths is carefully designed for smooth handoff. The performance of the proposed multipath handoff scheme is evaluated and compared with existing schemes through extensive simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Networks of queues: myth and reality

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 154 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Networks of queues are basic models for the analysis and design of computer networks, and represent, in their own right, an important research field, originated by the seminal work of J.R. Jackson (see Operations Research, vol.5, no.4, p.518-21, 1957; vol.50, no.1, p.112-13, 2002). Various networks of queues, proposed after Jackson, are different generalizations or variations of a class of fundamental models, referred to as Jackson networks of queues. For this reason, the classical result of Jackson, known as Jackson's theorem, is considered the cornerstone of the mathematical theory of networks of queues. However, Jackson's theorem does not hold. After revisiting Jackson's theorem, we disprove the theorem with simple counterexamples. We show that the limitation of the existing theory of stochastic modeling may explain why Jackson's proof and all other proofs of Jackson's theorem are flawed. We conclude by pointing out the implication of our result to networking studies. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed discovery using preference for query hits

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 210 - 216
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We consider peer-to-peer and distributed networks where a large number of objects (such as users, information and applications) are distributed and they move dynamically. In such a distributed network environment, the ability to discover objects that match given query criteria, such as a set of keywords, is highly desirable. We propose a discovery mechanism that is scalable, adaptable and robust to a dynamic network environment. The proposed discovery mechanism is fully distributed (without using any centralized entity in the network) and includes novel features that utilize information about the preference of the discovery originator in order to provide higher quality hits to discovery originators selectively, resulting in less traffic than an existing broadcast based discovery mechanism. Our study methodology of the proposed discovery mechanism involves extensive simulations that compared our discovery mechanism with the performance of an existing broadcast based discovery mechanism. View full abstract»

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  • An optimal zero-queue rate control protocol for generalized MPLS networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 92 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of rate allocation and congestion control for generalized label switched networks such as those defined in the generalized MPLS model (for example, pure optical networks) is considered. First, rates have to be allocated to each flow in the discrete domain of labels. Second, due to an inconsistent forwarding problem, that we call the label reallocation routing problem, rates (labels) have to be dynamically assigned in such a way that network feasibility is ensured at all times. In other words, the flow control protocol has to work in an equivalent scenario where switches do not have queues. The paper proves that such zero-queue protocols exist, and we propose the first zero-queue protocol for the dynamic rate allocation problem of generalized label switched networks. The approach can be generalized to support a broader family of flow control protocols. This implies that, with the methodology proposed, traditional flow control protocols can be extended to support the zero-queue property. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible service creation node architecture and its implementation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 166 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the spread of always-on forms of broadband-access, such as ADSL and FTTH, new content-delivery services have appeared. However, conventional network nodes are not capable of providing rapid content provision, because they have poor scalability and a lack of reliability. We propose a flexible service-creation node architecture, based on the following concepts. Scalability is achieved by inserting multiple functionally identical service modules into extensible function blocks; new functions are easily added by inserting modules with the appropriate new functionality, and a failure occurring in one module does not affect the other modules because they all work independently. A prototype system shows that this modular node architecture is effective in terms of performance scalability, functional flexibility, and reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Probability and average occupancy calculations in RED algorithm

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 148 - 153
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present several improvements to the RED (random early detection) algorithm. These improvements include simplified, faster calculations of discard probability, and a new "double-weight" method of average calculations. In this method, the RED algorithm reacts to changes of queue occupancy more "intelligently", providing better values of its average. Our findings are supported by simulation results. We also take a look at differences between two variations of the RED algorithm, pointing out the one that offers a better control over calculations of average occupancy, thereby offering lower packet loss and improved performance. View full abstract»

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  • The case for delay-based congestion control

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We argue that, in the absence of explicit feedback, delay-based algorithms become the preferred approach for end-to-end congestion control as networks scale up in capacity. Their advantage is small at low speed but decisive at high speed. The distinction between packet-level and flow-level problems of the current TCP exposes the difficulty of loss-based algorithms at large congestion windows. View full abstract»

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  • A protocol for rapid symbol duration adaptation and feedback in CDMA networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 40 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a closed-loop architecture and protocols for rapid dynamic spreading gain adaptation and fast feedback between a transmitter and a receiver communicating with each other in CDMA networks. This protocol does not require the transfer of an explicit control message indicating the change of CDMA spreading gain from transmitter to receiver. Also, according to this protocol, the transmitter can change the spreading gain symbol-by-symbol as opposed to frame-by-frame, and feedback information (e.g., the fast-varying channel condition) can be exchanged almost as frequently as the symbol rate; thus, faster adaptation to the time-varying channel conditions of wireless networks, and/or the rate variation of traffic, is possible than with the existing frame-by-frame approach. View full abstract»

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  • SCTP over satellite networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 112 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) has recently been standardized as a new transport layer protocol in the IP suite. In addition to the core features of TCP, SCTP incorporates a number of advanced and unique features which are not available in TCP. The paper investigates the suitability of SCTP for data communications over satellite links. We describe SCTP features that allow SCTP to utilize the bandwidth of satellite networks better, while at the same time avoiding congestion collapse in a shared network. Finally, we provide recommendations on the use of SCTP over satellite networks. View full abstract»

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  • Coverage-aware self-scheduling in sensor networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 117 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One important measurement of a sensor network's performance is how well the sensor network can monitor a covered area, namely network coverage. We propose a scheme to improve the network coverage of a sensor network. We assume that each sensor can probabilistically detect a nearby event, and build a probabilistic model of network coverage by considering the data correlation among neighboring sensors. We also define the sensing denomination (SD) of a sensor using the network coverage model. A sensor's SD is regarded as the measurement of its contribution to the network coverage. The more the contribution of a sensor to the network coverage, the higher the sensor's SD is. Based on the location information of neighboring sensors, each sensor can calculate its SD value in a distributed manner. We then propose coverage-aware self-scheduling, in which sensors periodically calculate their SD values and probabilistically schedule their active and hibernating states according to their SD values, so that sensors with higher SD values have more chance to stay active. With the same amount of energy consumed, better network coverage can be achieved by applying the scheme. We then demonstrate through a numerical study that the scheme improves sensor network coverage considerably. View full abstract»

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  • An end-to-end QoS framework with on-demand bandwidth reconfiguration

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 66 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposes a new QoS framework, called on-demand QoS path (ODP), which provides end-to-end QoS guarantees to individual flows with minimal overhead, while keeping the scalability characteristic of DiffServ. ODP exercises per-flow admission control and end-to-end bandwidth reservation at the edge of the network and only differentiates service types in the core of the network. In addition, to be adaptive to traffic load, ODP monitors the bandwidth utilization status of the network and performs dynamic bandwidth reconfiguration in the core based on the network status. Through extensive simulations, the performance of the proposed architecture is investigated and compared with that of IntServ and DiffServ architectures. The simulation results clearly show that ODP could provide end-to-end QoS guarantees to individual flows with. much less overhead than IntServ. View full abstract»

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  • Context management with programmable mobile networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 217 - 223
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We show that the use of context information can significantly improve the services of mobile networking systems. We present an architecture for context management which addresses the specific requirements of mobile networks. Context information is collected at different locations in the network, and then preprocessed before transmitting to the mobile device. Our context management framework clearly separates application independent and application specific context exchange. For the on-demand deployment of application specific modules, our architecture encompasses a service deployment infrastructure and programmable platforms in network nodes and mobile devices. As an example, we discuss optimizing handover decisions based on the knowledge about the context of mobile devices and networks. This is validated in a prototype implementation, which shows the deployment of different context-aware handover services. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of realistic optical time division multiplexed wavelength routed networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 134 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Application of optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) in wavelength routed optical networks greatly enhances the flexibility of bandwidth assignment because OTDM provides time division sub-channels in a wavelength to match the processing speed of electronic devices. Different types of such OTDM wavelength-routed (OTDM-WR) networks, assuming different levels of sophistication of the OTDM technology, have been proposed. The performance of these OTDM-WR networks improves with the time-slot routing capability of the intermediate nodes of the network. However, as the transmission rate increases up to hundreds of gigabits per wavelength channel, electronic processing of the time slots limits the achievable performance of the OTDM-WR networks. All-optical signal processing can overcome the electronics bottleneck, but the available all-optical signal processing capability is rather limited and cannot yet utilize the full potential of time-slot routing. Even with such limitations, current technologies, such as fast wavelength converters and micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) optical switches, can significantly enhance the performance of existing wavelength-routed networks by adding the OTDM capability, albeit limited. We develop time-slot routing schemes that require fast wavelength converters only and study the performance of these schemes by simulations on Manhattan street networks and a network with the topology of the AT&T North America OC-48 fiber network. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of IPv4 address allocation practice on BGP routing table growth

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 172 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid BGP (border gateway protocol) routing table growth has been a main concern for the operation of the Internet in recent years. We study how current IPv4 address allocation practice affects the BGP table growth. The practice includes both newly-made allocations and two address policies, i.e., allocation size and minimum allocation size. We first found that the address blocks allocated during the past five years contributed to more than 71% of the BGP table growth within the same period. Moreover, contributions made by allocated address blocks quickly become static after the allocation. Based on this observation, we propose an empirical model to emulate table growth. We next study the impact of two address policies and show that while the "allocation size" policy is observed to have visible impact on the growth, there is no clear evidence that the "minimum allocation size" policy, designed for slowing down table size increase, has suppressed growth. We finally discuss how the address policies could have better controlled the BGP table growth. View full abstract»

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