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Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003. IEEE CCECE 2003. Canadian Conference on

Date 4-7 May 2003

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  • A simple multiuser detector employing adaptive filters

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1675 - 1678 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (542 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Blind multiuser detection employs linear adaptive filters to produce a decision variable with improved signal to interference ratio. In this paper, we employ linear adaptive filters on each user's signal before the decision variables are input to either a decorrelator or a multistage detector to improve the bit error rate performance compared to simply using the decorrelator or multistage detector without adaptive filtering. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating four white-box test coverage methodologies

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1739 - 1742 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an illustrative study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of four white-box test coverage techniques for software programs. In the study, an experimental design was considered which was used to evaluate the chosen testing techniques. The evaluation criteria were determined both in terms of the ability to detect faults and the number of test cases required. Faults were seeded artificially into the program and several faulty-versions of programs (mutants) were generated taking help of mutation operators. Test case execution and coverage measurements were done with the help of two testing tools, Cantata and OCT. Separate regression models relating coverage and effectiveness (fault detection ability and number of test cases required) are developed. These models can be helpful for determining test effectiveness when the coverage levels are known in a problem domain. View full abstract»

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  • Design sensitivity analysis for optimization with the frequency domain-TLM

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1971 - 1974 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an efficient gradient-based optimization technique with the frequency domain TLM (FDTLM) method is proposed. This is in contrast to the standard approach in which finite differences are used to determine the gradients of the cost function. The proposed technique calculates the gradients using an adjoint-based approach to design sensitivity analysis, in which the gradients are computed with two full wave simulations regardless of the number of design parameters. Thus, computer memory and CPU time are significantly reduced. In addition, re-meshing is not necessary during the optimization process and the TLM structured grid is preserved. View full abstract»

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  • Robust longitudinal flight control system under weight and center of gravity uncertainty

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1743 - 1748 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a post-design robustness assessment for flight control systems that have been designed using two different techniques, namely H and μ-synthesis, for the longitudinal pitch rate control system of the Bombadier Challenger 604. In order to perform the analysis of flight control systems, a linear fractional representation (LFT) of the aircraft model is generated. We consider the longitudinal linear equations of motion (both short-period and phugoid modes of the aircraft). The LFT model presents uncertainty in the aerodynamic parameters due to aircraft mass and center of gravity variations. The closed-loop system combined with each controller is used to determine stability robustness and performance robustness with respect to changes in aerodynamic parameters. We also determine the corresponding stability margins and the worst-case parameter combinations destabilizing the system. The objective is to verify that the control system remains stable and achieves desired performance with predicted Level 1 handling qualities for all possible parameter variations over a specified range. Simulation results are given to validate our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Nonstationary noise cancellation in infrared wireless receivers

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1945 - 1949 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Infrared is attracting much attention for indoor wireless access due to its enormous bandwidth, inherent privacy and low cost. Intensity modulated, directly detected infrared schemes do not experience multipath fading. However, ambient noise due to artificial lighting has been the major concern in infrared wireless systems in indoors. Conventionally, static or low frequency noise due to conventional light sources is removed using optical high pass filters. Nonetheless, interference from fluorescent lights equipped with electronic ballasts has periodic interference components up to 1 MHz and, cannot be filtered easily. In this paper, soft DSP filters are proposed to cancel the harmonics, ambient noise, and uncorrelated signal structures. Nonstationary noise is cancelled with an adaptive denoising filter, and a comb filter cancels interference from the electronic ballasts. Adaptive soft filters have the advantage that they can be easily updated and track the variations in noise characteristics. Simulation results show promising improvement in noise cancellation even under very low and varied SNR and noise source conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A new lower bound for fast block motion estimation algorithms

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1975 - 1980 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current video coding standards of H.263, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4 employ the block motion estimation technique to decorrelate video sequences. Since the full-search algorithm for block motion estimation has a great deal of computational complexity, it is not suitable for real-time implementations. Some fast block motion estimation algorithms, such as the selective elimination algorithm, the multilevel successive elimination algorithm, and the vector-based algorithm, have been proposed in the literature. These algorithms reduce the computational complexity of the full search algorithm by utilizing a lower bound for the block-matching criterion of the mean absolute difference (MAD). However, the partial sums for the computation of the lower bound in these algorithms cannot take advantage of the byte-type data parallelism in the existing single instruction multiple data (SIMD) technique. In this paper, a new lower bound for the MAD is established, and this is achieved with the following three objectives in mind: (i) the partial sums can be used to calculate a lower bound to discard the computation of the MAD, (ii) the partial sums are of only 8 bits and saved in a contiguous memory space, and (in) eight partial sums can be processed concurrently in a single 64-bit SIMD register. The new lower bound can be employed in conjunction with an existing block motion estimation algorithm to accelerate the execution of the algorithm without any loss of accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the above scheme can accelerate the execution of the vector-based fast algorithm, selective elimination algorithm, and full search algorithm by about 10, 20, and 40 percents, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy control of ASMES to improve transient power system stability

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1841 - 1844 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we propose a new structure of SMES using a PWM current source inverter (CSI) by adopting a robust method based on the fuzzy logic for generate a modulation index and shift angle which allowed the reactive and active power exchange control in the four quadrants. Two independent fuzzy controllers are assigned, one for the frequency control and another for the terminal voltage control. Speed deviation (Δω) and acceleration (Δω´) of the synchronous generator are taken as the inputs signals to the fuzzy frequency controller (FFC). The terminal voltage deviation (ΔVt) and it derivative (ΔVt˙) are considered as the input of the to fuzzy voltage controller (FVC). Simulation results show that the proposed method of control can ensure transient stability of a single-machine-infinite-bus system under a large sudden fault. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of array mutual coupling on near-field DOA estimation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1881 - 1884 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a study on the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of near-field sources with the presence of mutual coupling of the receiving array elements. Furthermore, we present a novel method to compensate the mutual coupling effect via the use of genetic algorithm, and it has been shown that the compensated result can produce a reasonable accuracy on the true location of radiating sources. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of throughput and delay in multimedia CDMA networks with relaying

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1563 - 1567 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Relaying in cellular networks is being researched extensively towards increasing the coverage and throughput of a cellular system. However it is, often difficult to meet the QoS constraints set by the nodes using relaying. In this paper, we analyse an important QoS parameter, the delay due to relaying information via an intermediate node to the base station. The reverse link of a single cell time-slotted CDMA is considered. The delay for nodes using direct communication is compared, with that of nodes using relay communication for various offered traffic and throughput. The average delay for nodes using relaying is at least 1.5 slot-times higher than the average delay for the nodes using direct communication. Also when compared with that of the direct communication, the throughput increases with the use of relaying, confirming earlier research. Thus this paper draws attention to the significant effects, relaying has on delay and throughput in a cellular network. The results presented here provide a basic framework for clear understanding of this impact. View full abstract»

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  • A low-overhead checkpointing protocol for mobile networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1779 - 1782 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mobile wireless networks present challenges in designing fault-tolerant systems because of the mobile host (MH) mobility, limited bandwidth on wireless links, limited MH local storage, limited battery power, and the handoff. Checkpointing and rollback techniques can be used to provide fault-tolerance in a distributed application consisting of a set of cooperating processes in which some of them run on MHs. Most of the checkpointing protocols proposed for general distributed systems are not efficient with respect to the limited mobile host resources. This paper presents a low-overhead protocol which uses system resources efficiently, and requires minimal amount of information to be exchanged over the network. The protocol uses a "filtering" process at the base stations to reduce the number of "forced checkpoints" from other MHs. A comparative study with some existing protocols is made. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time color segmentation of road signs

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1823 - 1826 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This subject is part of a more challenging research project aimed at developing a computer vision system, embedded in a car, and capable of identifying and locating road signs. Several constraints limit the possible solutions are first identified. For instance in such an application, we definitely need a real-time system; in addition, we wish to limit our choice to a single camera methodology to keep the hardware as simple as possible and finally our approach must work efficiently on low cost hardware. For this purpose we first rely on a color segmentation strategy to recognize the road signs. We have studied the behavior of the RGB components of several road signs from sunrise to sunset. From these results we have shown that the simple comparison of the RGB components taken two by two is sufficient to segment road signs in real-time. From this segmentation it should be much easier to identify the shape (and meaning) of a particular sign. View full abstract»

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  • LPM-based RST invariant digital image watermarking

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1951 - 1954 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (467 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on log-polar mapping (LPM), this paper presents a novel digital image watermarking scheme that is invariant to rotation, scaling, and translation (RST). We embed watermark in the log-polar mapping (LPM) of the Fourier magnitude spectrum of original image to simplify the effects of RST transformations into simple shifts. For watermark embedding, the approximate ILPM is employed to replace ILPM, in order to eliminate the imprecision caused by ILPM. Therefore actually watermarks are embedded in the Fourier magnitude spectrum of the original image, to achieve the effect of being embedded in LPM domain. Watermark extraction does not need original image, we use exhaustive search in the embedding area to handle the shift of watermark positions in LPM domain caused by rotation and scaling in spatial domain. The scheme avoids computing inverse log-polar mapping (ILPM) to preserve the image quality. Evaluations demonstrate that the scheme is invariant to rotation and translation, sufficiently invariant to scaling transformation, and very robust to JPEG compression and other attacks. View full abstract»

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  • A fast three-step search algorithm by the utilization of multilevel vector partial sums

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1981 - 1984 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the high computational requirement of the full-search algorithm for block motion estimation, fast block motion estimation algorithms are needed for real-time implementations of the video coding standards. Recently, a three-step search algorithm for block motion estimation has been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a fast three-step search algorithm is proposed to further reduce the computational complexity of the three-step search algorithm with no loss of accuracy. By using a multilevel vector partial sums and lower bounds in the proposed algorithm, a large number of possible candidate motion vectors are discarded while still retaining the optimal motion vector of the three-step search algorithm. It is shown that not all the levels of partial sums and lower bounds are needed. A method to select these vector partial sums and lower bounds are also presented. Simulations of the proposed algorithm are carried out for various benchmark video sequences and the results demonstrate that the new algorithm can reduce the computational complexity of the three-step search algorithm by 20 to 60 percent with no loss of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling of metal-dielectric microwave devices using the integral equation method

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1897 - 1900 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integral equation method is used for numerical modelling of metal-dielectric microwave devices. The model of a classic dielectric antenna is studied by adding a metal screen to a dielectric stem. The analysis of this antenna shows the necessity of taking into consideration the contributions of the disturbance domains and defining correctly the relative phase of the components of the characteristic of radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless and wireline MIMO testbed

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1913 - 1916 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) testbed for rapid characterization of practical MIMO wireless and wireline channels, as well as verification, performance evaluation and demonstration of newly developed transmission and signal processing algorithms in real life environments. The testbed is ideal for development of advanced software-defined radio (SDR), wireless and wireline SISO, SIMO, MSO and MIMO systems. Detailed architecture, specifications and operation of the MIMO wireless and wireline testbed, and some experimental results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm based on evolutionary programming for training artificial neural networks with nonconventional neurons

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1845 - 1848 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we exploit the capability of evolutionary programming for construction and training neural networks, independent of the applied models of the neurons. The main application of this algorithm is training neural networks with elaborated models for neurons. For instance when because of implementation limitations a deviation from ideal models is mandatory, this algorithm can be used to take these deviations into account during the training process. The functionality of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by training a neural controller with nonconventional neurons. View full abstract»

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  • A blind user identification for multiuser DS-CDMA based on subspace search

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1569 - 1572 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A blind scheme based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for user identification in a synchronous multiuser code division multiplex access (CDMA) is suggested. The scheme is blind in the sense that does not require prior knowledge of the spreading codes. Spreading codes and users power are acquired by the scheme. Eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) is performed on the received signal, and then all the valid possible signature sequences are projected onto the subspaces. However as a result of this process, some fake answers are also produced and the ambiguity seems unresolvable. Our approach is to apply a transformation derived from the results of the subspace decomposition on the received signal and then to inspect their statistics. It is shown the second order statistics of the transformed signal provides a reliable means for removing the fake answers. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of turbo decoders for UMTS systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1693 - 1698 vol.3
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    This article introduces channel coding in the 3G mobile communication system. The study relates initially to the conventional coding and is followed by a study on turbo code. A comparative study is carried out between convolutional coding and turbo coding and between different iterative coding algorithms (turbo coding). The study puts in evidence the contribution of the soft decoding methods (soft decision decoding) compared to the hard methods of decoding (hard decision coding), in the occurrence of the Viterbi algorithm. The AWGN channel (12 kbps) and the standard 3GPP (64 kbps) are thus utilised for the conventional and turbo coding respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach using artificial neural network and time series models for short term load forecasting

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1723 - 1726 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new approach for short-term load forecasting (STLF). Artificial neural network and time series models are used for forecasting hourly loads of weekdays as well as weekends and public holidays. In addition to hourly loads, daily peak load is an important data for system's operators. Most of the common forecasting approaches do not consider this issue. It is shown that the proposed approach provide very accurate forecast of the daily peak load. The input variables of the models have been selected based on their correlation coefficients. In addition, a new technique for selecting the training vectors is introduced. The valuable experience of expert operators is included in the modeling process. The model is simple, fast, and accurate. Obtained results from extensive testing on Ontario load data confirm the validity of the proposed approach. The mean percent relative error of the model over a period of one year is 2.066% including holidays. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid kinematics and dynamics analysis for a mobile modular manipulator

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1767 - 1770 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses issues of how to build the hybrid kinematics and dynamics models for a mobile modular manipulator. The traditional method to derive the robotic differential kinematics is called geometric Jacobian method, which is difficult to approach the mobile modular manipulator. This paper proposes a kind of direct differential method to analyze the kinematics of the mobile modular manipulator. The direct differential method is more accurate and easier to realize by computer simulation. An implementation example is illustrated and computer simulation results are obtained. As for the dynamics analysis, Lagrange formulation is used to set up the dynamics model. This paper will lay a good foundation for studying the behaviors of mobile modular manipulator. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of two dynamic link selection algorithms in ad hoc CDMA networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1783 - 1788 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a mobile ad hoc network, the connection between an arbitrary source and destination node can be established using intermediate nodes. Most of the mobile nodes heavily rely on the battery power to keep themselves alive. Therefore, the battery power (or battery lifetime) and the number of relaying nodes (or delay) play a major role in mobile ad hoc networking. In this paper we discuss three existing common algorithms, MHC, MTPR, and MBCR which are used to minimize the delay, power and nodal over-utilization respectively. This paper also proposes two new algorithms namely, MWBCR and MTP-WBCR and investigates their performance in terms of power and delay. These power-aware algorithms are simulated using JAVA. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithms require more transmission power and delay than others. However, it is expected that the fairness in utilizing relaying nodes in terms of in power and delay will be improved using the new algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A 5 GHz CMOS RF mixer in 0.18 μm CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1905 - 1908 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present in this paper a CMOS down-conversion double balanced mixer for 5 GHz radio applications. The mixer is derived from the basic Gilbert cell multiplier and has been implemented in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The proposed topology does not contain any tail current branches, but include on-chip bias circuit. It has been designed for low power highly integrated applications. It achieves a gain of 20.91 dB, input 1dB compression point of -19.71 dBm, noise figure (NF) of 9.1 dB, and IIP3 of -13.6 dBm, while dissipating 3.95 mW at 1.8 V. View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation of different interpolation filters for asynchronous upsampling

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 2059 - 2062 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Programmable transceivers are essential for efficient implementation of communication systems. This calls for implementation of various flexible signal processing blocks in the physical layer of a network. Rate conversion is an important functional block in programmable digital modems. In this paper, the implementation of an asynchronous interpolator for a digital modem is discussed and performances of three different types of interpolation filters are compared. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI implementation of DVB/RCS turbo code

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1581 - 1584 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, first different aspects of the implementation issues of the decoder with VLSI are explored, then a complete decoder VLSI design of nonbinary convolutional turbo code for DVB/RCS will be presented. With a new normalization approach, the decoder can be speeded up considerably. In order to save area, a practical simplification method of branch metric calculation is introduced, which makes the whole design much more efficient. From an architectural point of view, an optimal full pipelined structure is designed with the forward path metric and backward path metric recursive circuits being optimized for speed and other functions being optimized for area. In the last part of this paper, another pipelined area saving method is proposed. The design is synthesized on a single chip FPGA (Xilinx Virtex-E). According to the RTL level and gate level simulation results and the in-chip test result, the decoder can work up to 7 Mbits/s data rate at 6 iterations with VirtexE. This is constitutes a two-fold improvement over currently available products using the same FPGA family. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative multiuser detection and decoding for highly correlated narrow-band systems and heavily loaded CDMA systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 1643 - 1646 vol.3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When a soft-in soft-out (SISO) iterative multiuser detector cooperates with a bank of SISO single user decoders, the multiuser system performance can be shown to converge to that of the single user system. In this paper, we propose a novel SISO iterative detector which employs a decorrelator on the output of soft interference cancellation. By making use of advantages of decorrelating detection, the performance of our proposed system is improved only with a little complexity increase compared with pure soft interference cancellation. Performance improvement is reflected in lower bit error rates at low signal-to-noise ratios and the higher convergence speed. Therefore, our iterative detector is especially suitable for highly correlated narrowband systems and heavily loaded CDMA systems. Both performance analysis and simulation results are provided to show this improvement. Finally, the computational complexity of our detector is analyzed. View full abstract»

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