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Bioengineering Conference, 2003 IEEE 29th Annual, Proceedings of

Date 22-23 March 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 170
  • Proceedings of the IEEE 29th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Cat. No.03CH37433)

    Publication Year: 2003
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 341 - 345
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Convective heat transfer during endometrial cryoablation using PFC fluid

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 237 - 238
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presents experimental and numerical studies of convective heat transfer inside a uterus model simulating the application of a Perfluoro-chemical (PFC) fluid into the endometrium cavity to achieve cryoablation. The numerical prediction is based on a 1-D finite difference method of the bio-heat equation using the Crank Nicolson scheme. The numerical method is first validated by a 1-D physical model by measuring temperature history at several locations within a silicone rubber sheet. The heat flux and heat transfer coefficient of PFC during the process are determined. View full abstract»

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  • Haptic controlled functional electrical stimulation of the lower extremities

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 287 - 288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (363 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With approximately 7,800 spinal cord injuries occurring in the United States a year it has become a goal of researchers, scientists, and engineers to develop an apparatus that will restore ambulation and sensation to the lower extremities. One proposition for paraplegic patients is to integrate haptic technology with functional electrical stimulation. Using currently available technology such as SensAble System's PHANTOMs and Electronic Data Systems' motion capture software, JACK, a prototype ringer guided haptic device with force-feedback will be developed. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of SELDI-ToF mass spectra of ovarian cancer serum samples using a proteomic pattern recognizer

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 130 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-throughput mass spectrometry technologies, such as surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-ToF-MS), generate large sets of complex data. The high dimensionality of these datasets poses analytical and computational challenges to the task of spectrum classification. In this paper, we describe a fast pattern recognition system for SELDI-ToF mass spectra, which hones in on spectrum subsets with high discriminatory power. The system incorporates a new filter for removal of common characteristics and noise. Our method is demonstrated on a set of 215 SELDI-ToF mass spectra of serum samples from ovarian cancer patients. We show that our system can extract the discriminatory subsets, and that the use of the new filter improves classification accuracy and computational speed. View full abstract»

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  • Motor learning in the binocular tracking system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 27 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Motor learning is the ability that the brain utilizes to optimize a task. The human brain has the ability to change its motor control strategy with the use of memory and learning. This study analyzed the latency of convergent and divergent eye movements from a predictable and nonpredictable stimulus. Two stimulus types, a single frequency sinusoidal wave and a multi frequency sinusoidal wave, were presented to the subject. The subject was asked to track the target and data were collected utilizing an eye movement monitor. The goal of the study was to determine If the feedback portion of the vergence system changed as a result of learning. Results show that the response-timing Index decreases and movements can occur before stimulus onset when learning Is utilized. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of efficacy of acute normovolemic hemodilution through mathematical modeling

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 239 - 241
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been proposed as a safe and cost-effective replacement for traditional blood transfusion techniques in hemorrhaging during surgery. Its practice is underutilized because its efficiency is unknown. Here, we present a mathematical modeling approach to determine the efficacy of ANH. View full abstract»

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  • Restoration of finger function in hemiparetic stroke patients using goal-directed therapy: coordination station

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 289 - 290
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this project was to develop a device that provides interactive, goal-directed finger therapy to individuals with hemiparetic stroke. The specific design requirements of the device were that it be safe, easy to use, adaptable to varying abilities, and able to record accurate force measurements. The device developed meets all of the design requirements, allowing hemiparetic stroke patients to perform repetitive, therapeutic exercises. We hypothesize that this type of therapy will lead to higher functional gains in stroke survivors, by re-establishing coordinated control over the finger muscles in the affected hand. The device can be used by therapists to track functional gains in hand function, and can be used at the clinic or at home. View full abstract»

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  • Human-machine system design optimization for nondeterministic spacecraft anomaly determination/resolution

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 110 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study addressed the issues of uncertainty inherent in satellite control and in optimizing the roles of the human in the combined human/machine system unit. Three different "Types" of tasks were defined. Each "Type" category was represented of the level of knowledge required to perform the task most effectively (low/moderate/high). Each task consists of resolving a unique satellite vehicle anomaly within pre-scripted scenarios. The role of human knowledge was examined and found to be significantly important. This result was more evident as the situation uncertainty or complexity of the task increased. View full abstract»

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  • Interaction of disparity and accommodative vergence

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 29 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To fixate on a target that moves from far to near, two systems become activated; accommodation and disparity vergence. The goal of this study is to investigate how these systems interact through a new signal-processing algorithm known as independent component analysis. Preliminary data suggest that three underlying neural subcomponents are present where the two components of disparity vergence initiate the movement and the accommodative portion is activated to facilitate the steady state portion of the response. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of heart rate variability in a rabbit model of heart failure using Karhunen-Loeve expansion

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 242 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A long-term experiment was conducted by the use of a doxorubicin rabbit model of heart failure. Heart failure was progressively induced in two groups of animals by weekly administrating doxorubicin in amount of 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg, respectively. Control animals were injected saline. The ECG was continuously recorded for three weeks prior to treatment and up to ten weeks post-treatment. In analysis, eleven time-domain and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were computed for every usable 5-minute segment for the entire period of recordings. Karhunen-Loeve expansion was utilized to track the changes of HRV as heart failure develops. The concept is extracting basis components of pretreatment HRV by using singular value decomposition and determining change of these basis components in posttreatment HRV by observing its coefficients. The results show changes in coefficient values in treatment animals, while it remains unchanged in control animals. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern recognition considerations for continuous sign language recognition

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 291 - 293
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines a specific area of human gesture recognition by computer, which is the interpretation of sign language. This is achieved by focusing on the key technology of continuous recognition, where considerations must include both linguistic and biomechanical principles. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of hydrogel nucleus implant on the mechanical behavior of the lumbar functional spinal unit: an experimental study

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 211 - 212
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Over five million Americans suffer from lower back pain, making it the leading cause of lost workdays in the United States. The origin of the low back pain is often the degenerated lumbar intervertebral disc. Current treatment options such as discectomy and/or spinal fusion fail to restore normal biomechanics of the spine. We are investing replacing the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc with polymeric hydrogel implant. The present study reports the effect of polymeric hydrogel implant on the mechanical behavior of the human cadaveric lumbar functional spinal unit in axial compression. The implantation of the hydrogel implant in the denucleated specimen significantly restores the compressive behavior of the functional spinal unit. This implantation of a hydrogel nucleus replacement shows promise in restoring the normal biomechanics of the spine. View full abstract»

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  • A cluster of workstations for on-line analyses of neurophysiological data

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 17 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, and biomedical engineering now allow for the analysis of large-scale neurophysiological data sets to be carried out on-line and in real time. Here, we described an on-going effort in our research laboratory to build a computer system that will allow for on-line, real-time analyses of the response properties of ensembles of neurons (as many as 256) recorded in the brains of awake animals that perform behavioral tasks. A cluster of workstations allows us to carry out sequential and simultaneous analyses of neuronal signals. This new methodology can be used to change a behavioral task on-line to test real-time decoding of brain signals. View full abstract»

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  • Model of upper airway flow restriction in children with obstructive sleep APNEA

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 217 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is correlated to anatomy of the upper airway. Segmented magnetic resonance images of airways from ten OSAS and ten matched control children were used to generate computer flow models. Steady turbulent axisymmetric flow models were solved at peak flow rate to estimate the effect of restricted airway area on pressure drop and resistance. OSAS patients had significantly higher pressure drop and resistance than controls. The magnitude of pressure drop was similar to reported critical airway closure pressures. A subset of OSAS patients had pressure drop and flow resistance similar to controls. Flow modeling may be a useful method to assess the role of anatomy in OSAS. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelet representation comparison for heart rate variability analysis

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 112 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wavelet time-frequency representation has become one of the most useful tools for research today. This paper presents a comparison of three different wavelets used for heart rate variability (HRV) studies. It is an attempt to reveal some underlying differences to readers about the wavelet representations. Topics introduced include the time-frequency plots obtained by using the Morlet, Daubechies 4 and Haar wavelets on the interpolated interbeat interval signal (IIBI) derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG) of a subject at rest breathing at 16 breaths per minute. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of cyclic exercise protocol in people having AIDS

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 138 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional exercise regimens are based on maintaining a prolonged increase in heart rate, followed by a single recovery period. The cyclic exercise protocol is a novel protocol that is designed to create a series of parabolic waves of exercise and recovery. It is a known fact that the magnitude of the ultradians and the heart rate variability are reduced in people having diseases. Ultradians are the waves that occur every one and half-hours in a 24-hour circadian rhythm. By implementing this cyclic exercise protocol on people having AIDS, an increase in the slope base parameter, is seen. This parameter is of considerable importance because, it directly reflects on the magnitude of the ultradians and therefore also on the magnitude of the circadian rhythm. View full abstract»

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  • Analog very large scale integration implementation of dendrite segment with voltage dependent spiking behavior

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 31 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a set of aVLSI circuits and a subsystem composed of these circuits that reproduce the electrical functionality of a dendrite. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of repolarization alternans with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 233 - 234
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been suggested that repolarization alternans (RPA) may be mechanistically linked to the onset of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and/or ventricular fibrillation (VF). The detection and control of RPA may therefore be important in the development of a defense against sudden cardiac death. Here we investigate whether RPA could be detected using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead prior to the onset of ischemia-induced VT or VF in pigs. In three animals, the RPA magnitude was computed from a signal acquired using an ICD lead placed in the right-ventricular apex. In each trial, the right main (n=2) or the left anterior descending (n=1) coronary artery was occluded for 10 min using a balloon catheter, followed by reperfusion for 30 min, and re-occlusion for 30 min. RPA magnitude was computed using the Modified Moving Average (MMA) method in a continuous manner over the entire duration of the experiment. RPA magnitude in each animal showed a sharp increase during the first occlusion phase. Two animals exhibited a prominent increase in RPA magnitude prior to the onset of VT or VF. In the one animal that did not show such an increase during re-occlusion, VT did not occur spontaneously. Our results thus indicate that it is indeed possible to detect and track the dynamics of RPA using an ICD lead in a consistent and robust manner. Furthermore, these results suggest that RPA occurs prior to VF during ischemia. In future ICDs, such an approach may be useful in formulating improved arrhythmia detection and control algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Novel protocol for random visual stimulation during visual evoked potential testing

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 258 - 259
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The standard method of studying the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of multiple visual stimuli is to separately record the VEP for each stimulus then compare the resultant signals. The resultant signals are subject to inter-presentation noise factors. These can include subject attention, electrode noise and subject movement. We have developed a technique, which allows all of the visual stimuli to be presented randomly in a single recording. The individual VEPs for each visual pattern are then extracted from the recorded signal. The method employs a custom written visual presentation program, which controls the video output and parallel port synchronization. By presenting all of the data during one experiment, the electrode noise, the subject's movement and attentiveness are more uniform for all recorded signals. In this study, we examined the VEPs to a square-wave grating pattern embedded in different degrees of spatial noise. For each subject, we recorded the VEP response to the different stimulus patterns using a random presentation of the stimuli. This method of stimulation produced viable trends within 30 trials which is 50% to 200% fewer trials than standard methods currently require. View full abstract»

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  • Introducing vision research and biomedical engineering to pre-college 8th grade girls

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 294 - 295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    The complex yet interesting field of vision research has been evolving in the past few decades within the Biomedical Engineering curricula. As more pre-college students are exposed to vision research, it can be anticipated that this field will bring in a new generation that will take part in the various studies of the visual and ocular system. NJIT's pre-college program FEMME, allows pre-college girls to have summer workshops studying many engineering majors. Our goal was to introduce and expose vision research to girls to stimulate their research interest. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of bone porosity by non-invasive nuclear magnetic resonance

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 213 - 214
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this study is to determine bone pore size by using a new, non-invasive method, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Current techniques, such as histomorphometry, i.e., scanning electron microscopy (SEM), used for such measurements are invasive and time consuming. Thus, we are analyzing bone porosity with NMR, and validating the data with SEM analysis. The comparison show there is a high correlation between NMR and SEM porosity. The results strongly indicate that NMR is a promising method for future bone porosity characterization. View full abstract»

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  • Rapid detection of inhomogeneity in a tissue phantom

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 85 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detecting inhomogeneity in a turbid tissue using an optical tomography technique as a non-invasive tool is of paramount importance in imaging and diagnosis of diseases and tissue abnormalities. In our approach, an ultrafast laser is used as the detecting source and the backscattered light signals are collected around the boundary of the target. We have developed a Monte Carlo program used to simulate time-dependent photon transport in inhomogeneous turbid media. As the laser pulse is attenuated by absorption and scattering, the detected temporal signal depends strongly on the optical properties of the medium and therefore leads us to the detection of inhomogeneity. Simulation results have shown that the presence of a small absorbing inhomogeneity in a highly scattering tissue will yield different log slopes in the temporal intensity profile. Further experimental studies in this paper yield similar results. View full abstract»

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  • Supporting the acquisition of hospital-care cost data to feed a refined DRG system for the Greek National Health System: status report

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 339 - 340
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of the project is the development of a simple on-line and quasi real-time system, supporting the acquaintance of the personnel of the involved public health-care facilities, to operational-cost monitoring procedures and facilitating the acquisition of the enormous amount of cost related data necessary to constitute an acceptable approximation for a refined Greek Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) system. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of fatigue on associating hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 174 - 175
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have proposed a replacement of the nucleus pulposus with a hydrogel blend of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). These hydrogels have been shown to be stable in physiological fluid due to physical crosslinks consisting of intramolecular hydrogen bonds within PVA crystallites and intermolecular hydrogen bonds between PVA and PVP. Much research involving hydrogels has focused on their ability to serve as drug delivery devices, releasing therapeutic agents at controlled release rates. However for a structural application, such as a nucleus pulposus replacement, the hydrogel must be able to withstand repeated loading cycles. Few studies have been conducted that investigate the fatigue behavior of hydrogel materials. Bagga et al. designed a pressurization chamber and compressed PVA hydrogels up to 40 million cycles and observed no changes in the water content or crystallinity of the gels as a result of the fatigue cycling. In this study we examine the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of cylindrical PVA/PVP hydrogels as a result of compressive fatigue cycling. View full abstract»

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