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ARFTG Conference Digest, Spring 2002. 59th

Date 7-7 June 2002

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  • 59th ARFTG Conference Digest [front matter]

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): i - viii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Characterization of 40 Gb/s receivers using impulse response method

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Much work has gone into verifying the validity of using the impulse response for characterizing the frequency response of high-speed photodiodes and photo receivers. Here we expand on this work by showing its validity as applied to understanding 40 Gb/s digital receiver performance. We show that using a measured impulse response of a photo-receiver/50 GHz (or faster), sampling oscilloscope pair, 40 Gb/s eye diagrams can be accurately simulated. Simulation of eye diagrams is an extremely important step in understanding and predicting digital system performance. Using the impulse response method, impairments leading to eye closure can be detected without the need for expensive equipment required for experimental performance verification. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring clock jitter at 100 GHz from PM noise measurements

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    "Jitter" is the noise modulation due to random time shifts on an otherwise ideal, or perfectly on-time, signal transition. This paper presents ways of calculating timing jitter using phase-modulation (PM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) noise measurements of high-speed digital clocks. A 100 GHz case is used for illustration and based on actual measurements. In the absence of ultra-high speed jitter analyzers, spectrum analysis is an alternate noise measurement for timing jitter. A summary table is provided for mapping the results of these measurements in the Fourier frequency domain to jitter in the /spl tau/ domain for various random (specifically, power-law) noise types, spurs, vibration, and power-supply ripple. In general, one cannot unambiguously map back, that is, translate from jitter measurements to phase noise. Measurements of phase noise are typically much more sensitive to phase (or time) fluctuations than a jitter analyzer. View full abstract»

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  • Development of an empirical large signal model for SiC MESFETs

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (275 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the development of an empirical nonlinear model for silicon carbide MESFETs. The proposed channel current model is single piece, continuously differentiable and capable of accurately modeling the current-voltage characteristics of SiC MESFETs. The nonlinear model has been implemented in a commercial computer-aided-design (CAD) tool and its validity has been verified against DC I-V curves, S-parameters (up to 8 GHz) and load-pull power measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial neural network model for HEMTs constructed from large-signal time-domain measurements

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A methodology to construct behavioural models for microwave devices from time-domain large-signal measurements has been modified by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the multivariate fitting functions instead of polynomials. The behavioural models for the class of devices (microwave transistors) considered can be defined by expressing the terminal currents as functions of the state variables, the embedded voltages. In this work, we show that ANNs are valuable candidates to represent these relationships. They outperform models based on multivariate polynomials, because they can better model the typical physical characteristics of the devices considered. Experimental results are quantitatively confirmed by using comparison metrics. View full abstract»

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  • Slow dynamics: myth or reality?

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to measure the sensitivity of microwave components to memory effects caused by the DC-biasing circuit. This allows to determine the required (impedance) properties of the DC-biasing circuit to reduce slow dynamics under a certain level. The proposed measurement technique is based on the nonlinear vectorial network analyser (NVNA), which allows to measure not only the absolute magnitude but also the absolute phase relations between the waves. Superimposing a multisine excitation signal on the DC-bias allows to measure the slow dynamics caused by the DC-biasing circuit as a function of frequency and input power. Furthermore, it is verified whether or not the measured phenomena depend on the type of excitation signal. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric material characterization using rough surface transmission lines

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A transmission line characterization method based on S-parameters is presented and validated. As an example, the method was applied to a microstrip line to capture its frequency-dependent loss, dielectric constant, and loss tangent of substrate material. Also, the surface roughness effects on conductor loss and eventually on the loss tangent were studied. The results showed that the surface roughness effects are not negligible at high frequencies and affect tie value of loss tangent significantly. Therefore, the knowledge of RMS values of conductor surface RMS is required for any dielectric characterization methods using PCB samples with low loss tangent material. The validation of the method was achieved by comparing the new method to a direct measurement with Agilent 4291B operating below 1 GHz. For the direct measurement, a thin dielectric sheet made of the same substrate material was measured for both dielectric constant and loss tangent; therefore, there is no error associated with conductor loss or surface roughness. For the new method, two microstrip lines were designed on a substrate and the Agilent 8510C was used to acquire the S-parameters of the two lines. From the S-parameters, initially, the dielectric constant over a 45 MHz to 5 GHz range was extracted. Secondly, the conductor loss for perfectly smooth conductor was evaluated from the Ansoft HFSS with the dielectric constant that has been found. Thirdly, the surface roughness was accounted for using a empirical equation to come up with a total conductor loss. Finally, pure dielectric loss or loss tangent was found from the evaluated total loss and conductor loss. The comparison between two measurements at low frequencies is in very good agreement, indicating the validity of the method. The extended frequency sweep shows that the material has very desirable frequency response; i.e., constant dielectric constant and loss tangent over the frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • Time domain RF characterisation of a thin-film metamorphic HEMT under modulated backside illumination

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is shown in this paper how the opto-electrical interaction of a microwave device can be characterized by combining a large-signal network analyzer set-up with a modulated laser module. The concept is demonstrated by measuring a "thin film" M(etamorphic) HEMT under modulated optical (1550 nm laser light) illumination. The advantage of this approach is that the time-domain characteristics of the electrical currents, generated by the modulated laser light, can be visualised and analysed. View full abstract»

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  • A probe technology for 110+ ghz integrated circuits with aluminum pads

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 60 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a growing interest in probing Si-based RFICs and test structures with aluminum pads. Probing RFICs with aluminum pads is significantly more difficult than probing ICs with gold pads. This is because a thin layer of aluminum oxide (about 60 angstroms thick) naturally forms on the aluminum surface that impairs the electrical contact between the tips of the probes and the aluminum pads. Any measurement that is sensitive to a series resistance will be affected by contact resistance variations. Such measurements include inductor Q measurements and long characterization tests that require repeatable device contact for time periods beyond a few minutes (Schreurs, 2001). Conventional probes use tungsten tips to penetrate the aluminum oxide layer. Unfortunately, the tungsten itself also oxidizes and the aluminum oxide, after only a few contacts, accumulates on the tips of the probes, significantly increasing the contact resistance and hence resulting in measurement deterioration (Kister, 1998). As a remedy, frequent cleaning of the probe tips is obligatory. Worse, the operator is usually unsure of the precision of the measurements, due to the non-repeatable nature of the contact resistance. Recently probe card developments based on polyimide membrane technology showed superior performance on aluminum pads (Smith, 1999). In this paper, and based on this technology, we present a new single-port RF probe for aluminum pads that has a superior performance compared to conventional probes View full abstract»

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  • Modeling ground signal probe invasiveness and its effect on extracted inductor Q

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The invasive nature of the ground-signal wafer probe is modeled and its effect on extracted inductor Q is investigated. Data is presented demonstrating that the extracted Q of surface mount (SMT) inductors is lower when measured with ground-signal (GS) versus ground-signal-ground (GSG) coaxial wafer probes. We believe that the degradation in Q is caused by a quasi-TEM mode that effectively adds resistive loss to the inductor. A simple circuit model is proposed which accounts for the interaction of this mode with the inductor. View full abstract»

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  • An inverse technique to evaluate thickness and permittivity using reflection of plane wave from inhomogeneous dielectrics

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an easy to use method to estimate the thickness and permittivity of layered dielectrics. The reflection spectrum of plane electromagnetic wave incident upon multiple layers of dielectrics is analysed to determine the thickness and dielectric constant of one of the layers in a multi layered dielectrics system. The iterative procedure minimises the error between measured and computed spectrum. The minimisation is carried out using non-linear least square technique. Results obtained for layers of acrylic sheets are excellent. View full abstract»

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  • COM simplifies automated prototype testing for RF designers

    Publication Year: 2002
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    The Microsoft component object model (COM) allows separate programs to be simply connected together, such that functions in one program can be called by another. This paper shows that many software tools used by RF designers are COM-aware, and that it opens up an efficient way to create time-saving test sequences for the RF development environment. The technology is explained and a number of worked examples are given to illustrate the possibilities. This paper addresses the scenario where a small quantity of prototypes has to be tested and there would otherwise be insufficient payback in developing a manufacturing-scale ATE program. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of lrl(m), trm, trrm and tar, calibration techniques using the straightforward de-embedding method

    Publication Year: 2002 , Page(s): 93 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (382 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There is a growing interest in probing Sibased RFICs and test structures with aluminum pads. Probing RFICs with aluminum pads is significantly more difficult than probing ICs with gold pads. This is because a thin layer of aluminum oxide (about 60 angstroms thick) naturally forms on the aluminum surface that impairs the electrical contact between the tips of the probes and the aluminum pads. Any measurement that is sensitive to a series resistance will be affected by contact resistance variations. Such measurements include inductor Q measurements and long characterization tests that require repeatable device contact for time periods beyond a few minutes. View full abstract»

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  • Mixer conversion loss measurements using a dedicated frequency translation device test station

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new frequency translation device test station, the Anritsu ME7810A, is introduced and used to examine conversion loss performance over frequency and power variation for two commercially available mixers. The station is first successfully benchmarked against more traditional general-purpose instruments, and then used to explore conversion loss measurements over various combinations of LO and RF signal frequency and power. Results from the new station are seen to compare well with conversion loss measurements made with a power meter, network analyzer and a spectrum analyzer. The automated calibration and measurement features of the test station allow rapid acquisition of power-meter referenced mixer measurements over a wide range of stimulus conditions. Examination of such measurements help to build a better understanding of the overall performance of a mixer's conversion loss behavior under varied LO/RF frequency and power conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Inexpensive chip carriers for 10-port phase controlling MMIC's in the Ku band

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A solution for relatively inexpensive chip carrier for multi-port phase controlling MMIC's in the Ku band is presented in this paper. The basic aim of the chip carrier design is the achieving of high enough isolation between the relatively close situated 8 input and 2 output ports. First, the input ports are placed perpendicularly to each other. Second, fully grounded coplanar waveguide arrangement of the chip carrier embedding paths is used. The both, upper and bottom grounded metallization of the carrier are properly connected with optimized array of via holes. The input embedding signal paths on the carrier are additionally matched to the impedance of the single wire bonds with given lengths. Different types of interconnections to the antenna printed circuit board are also investigated and a lateral metallization is chosen due to its better manufacture reproducibility. The S-parameters of the embedding path of chip carriers on TMM10i substrate are estimated with custom designed chip phantoms. The measurement gives the following data: insertion losses -0.45 dB, return losses -22 dB, isolation better than -27.5 dB at the frequency 12.5 GHz. These results are very close to these obtained by 3D Ansofi HFSS simulator. On this base the conclusion is that the utilization of the considered chip carrier ensure acceptable RF performances practically for all packaged MMIC's, which are able to satisfy the dc and digital functionality test. The obtained statistical deviations for the MMIC parameters in the frequency range 12.2-12.7 GHz are /spl plusmn/ 0.5-0.6 dB for the insertion gain, /spl plusmn/ 2-3 dB for the return losses and /spl plusmn/ 5-10/sup 0/ for the insertion phase shift. The corresponding tolerances, which are connected to the own chip carrier parameters, are smaller - /spl plusmn/ 0.25 dB for IL and /spl plusmn/ 1.0 dB for RL. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of propagation constants of transmission lines using 1-port TDR measurements

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The propagation constants of transmission lines were measured from 1-port TDR measurements. Since the TDR measurement is a 1-port measurement, error can be smaller than 2-port measurement techniques. Moreover, the available frequency is determined by the rise time of the TDR step pulse unlike TRL methods. The propagation constant of a lossy transmission line was extracted from DC to 10 GHz. Simulation of the lossy transmission line using the extracted propagation constant shows good agreement with TDR measurement, demonstrating the accuracy of the TDR measurement technique. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of on-chip inductors for wireless applications

    Publication Year: 2002
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents characterization of on-chip inductors in giga Hertz range for wireless communication products. We compare several different on-chip inductors for self-resonant frequency and quality factor. The measurement data could be used for designing practical spiral inductors for wireless applications. We provide the equivalent inductor circuit parameters from the measured data. View full abstract»

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  • Experiences and applications of adopting the ARFTG MCP kit in the network analyzer measurement assurance program

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ARFTG Measurement Comparison Program (MCP) for various verification kits has been around for more than ten years. The calibration and accuracy of automatic network analyzers (ANA) depend on the calibration kit and its process. The verification kit is widely used as a check standard for verifying the performance of ANAs. However, the measurement accuracy of the ANAs can not be determined based on the verification process. It, in terms, provides the so-called "traceability" path for users and the industry. At our implementation of ARFTG MCP kits, we have found out the strength of this process. We are able to maintain some consistency of our measurement assurance program among the various users and types of ANAs and kits. This is an important experience for those calibration labs seeking for accreditation in the future. At Anritsu company, we have introduced assurance airline (i.e., beaded airline) for verifying the performance of ANAs. It played a key role of building the confidence with our ANAs and calibration process. With the help of ARFTG MCP kits and delicate analysis, we were able to understand the major sources of discrepancy in our measurement and standards for our key customer and focus on the primary problems of the measurement accuracy. This paper discusses the above points in details. View full abstract»

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  • Automated measurement setup for Ku band MMIC characterization

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An automated measurement setup for characterization of 10-signal port MMICs is described in this paper as an opportunity for fast, comparative and enough accurate 100-percent control of their important parameters: insertion gain, insertion phase, phase step and return losses. The particular application of the tested devices is phase control and signal summation in multi-layer antenna arrays in the Ku-band. A phantom verification of all the embedding paths combined with utilization of mixed measurement techniques (both frequency and time domain VNA options) is applied for the phantom parameter characterization. That allows better extraction of the reflected, as well as the transmitted S-parameters of the non-symmetrical 10-port test fixture used. The estimation of the measurement tolerances gives the following intervals for the standard deviation of the controlled parameters from the mean values caused by the measurement reproducibility: /spl plusmn/0.1 dB for the insertion losses and /spl plusmn/1.0 deg for the phase shift. These values are much smaller than the acceptable deviation for the MMICs parameters: /spl plusmn/0.55 dB and /spl plusmn/7.0 deg for the gain and phase, respectively. Therefore, the test procedure with the considered automated setup gives statistically significant results for a great number of controlled MMICs. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing the simulation accuracy of RF designs with consistent characterization and modeling techniques

    Publication Year: 2002
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high level of accuracy is demonstrated in simulating basic RF/microwave circuit designs, following a consistent approach based upon the use of accurate characterization techniques and advanced passive and active component models. A number of new or enhanced high-frequency component models have been employed in order to increase the simulation prediction capability and reduce the number of design/fabrication/test cycles. The paper presents the general features of some novel SMT capacitor and inductor models as well as those of high-frequency non-linear models for varactor and switching diodes. The accuracy of the models is thoroughly verified against experimental data in a number of tests performed on each individual component model, as well as in a more complex test carried out on a typical dual-band VCO tank circuit used in some modern communication systems. View full abstract»

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