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Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • A commentary: the impact of the IEEE Transactions on rehabilitation engineering on the field of rehabilitation engineering and science

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 437 - 439
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 530 - 533
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject index

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 533 - 539
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • A navigation system for increasing the autonomy and the security of powered wheelchairs

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 490 - 498
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    Assistive technology is an emerging area where some robotic devices can be used to strengthen the residual abilities of individuals with motor disabilities or to substitute their missing function thus helping them to gain a level of independence at least in the activities of daily living. This paper presents the design of a navigation system and its integration with a commercial powered wheelchair. The navigation system provides the commercial wheelchair with a set of functions which increase the autonomy of elderly and people with motor disabilities. In general, a robot device must be adapted to assistive applications in such a way as to be easily managed by the user. Users, especially young ones, prefer to directly control the robotic device and this aspect of usability has to be managed without affecting the security and efficiency of the navigation module. These aspects have been considered as specifications for the navigation module of powered wheelchairs. Different autonomy levels of the navigation module and proper user interfaces have been developed. Two autonomy levels have been designed. Simple collision avoidance is also implemented in order to stop the mobile base when an obstacle is detected. The preliminary technical tests performed on the navigation system have shown satisfactory results in terms of security and response time. A modular solution for the navigation module was considered in order to simplify the adaptation of the module to different powered wheelchairs View full abstract»

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  • Implantable selective stimulator to improve bladder voiding: design and chronic experiments in dogs

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 464 - 470
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
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    Among the treatments to enhance the bladder voiding, the sacral roots neurostimulation is one of the most promising techniques. The electrostimulation of sacral nerves provokes a simultaneous contraction of the detrusor muscle as well as the external urethral sphincter (EUS). A new simplified-architecture implantable stimulator with its wireless controller have been designed to investigate high-frequency inhibition stimulation strategies. This innovative technique based on high-frequency inhibition reduces sphincter activity during stimulation. Low-frequency current pulses also applied to the sacral roots induces contraction of the detrusor muscle resulting in low pressure voiding. Chronic experiments were carried out on ten male mongrel paraplegic dogs. One cuff electrode was implanted along with each stimulator for eight months. The animals were stimulated twice a day using the prototypes of the authors' implantable selective stimulator while voided and residual urine volume were measured during the procedure. These experiments revealed that the proposed stimulation strategy enhances bladder voiding by more than 50% in comparison with low-frequency only stimulation. The residual urine volume was reduced to an average of 9% and low pressure micturition was achieved as shown by weekly cystourethrogram View full abstract»

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  • Electrotactile adaptation on the abdomen: preliminary results

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 499 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    Electrotactile (electrocutaneous) stimulation at currents greater than sensation threshold causes sensory adaptation, which temporarily raises the sensation threshold and reduces the perceived magnitude of stimulation. After 15 min of moderately intense exposure to a conditioning stimulus (10 s on, 10 s off), the sensation threshold elevation for seven observers was 60-270%, depending on the current, frequency, and number of pulses in the burst structure of the conditioning stimulus. Increases in any of these parameters increased the sensation threshold elevation. Adaptation and recovery were each complete in approximately 15 min View full abstract»

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  • Optimal spatial filtering of single trial EEG during imagined hand movement

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 441 - 446
    Cited by:  Papers (389)  |  Patents (2)
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    The development of an electroencephalograph (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) requires rapid and reliable discrimination of EEG patterns, e.g., associated with imaginary movement. One-sided hand movement imagination results in EEG changes located at contra- and ipsilateral central areas. The authors demonstrate that spatial filters for multichannel EEG effectively extract discriminatory information from two populations of single-trial EEG, recorded during left- and right-hand movement imagery. The best classification results for three subjects are 90.8%, 92.7%, and 99.7%. The spatial filters are estimated from a set of data by the method of common spatial patterns and reflect the specific activation of cortical areas. The method performs a weighting of the electrodes according to their importance for the classification task. The high recognition rates and computational simplicity make it a promising method for an EEG-based brain-computer interface View full abstract»

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  • Real-time EEG analysis with subject-specific spatial patterns for a brain-computer interface (BCI)

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 447 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (1)
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    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during right and left motor imagery allow one to establish a new communication channel for, e.g., patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Such an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) can be used to develop a simple binary response for the control of a device. Three subjects participated in a series of on-line sessions to test if it is possible to use common spatial patterns to analyze EEG in real time in order to give feedback to the subjects. Furthermore, the classification accuracy that can be achieved after only three days of training was investigated. The patterns are estimated from a set of multichannel EEG data by the method of common spatial patterns and reflect the specific activation of cortical areas. By construction, common spatial patterns weight each electrode according to its importance to the discrimination task and suppress noise in individual channels by using correlations between neighboring electrodes. Experiments with three subjects resulted in an error rate of 2, 6 and 14% during on-line discrimination of left- and right-hand motor imagery after three days of training and make common spatial patterns a promising method for an EEG-based brain-computer interface View full abstract»

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  • EMG-based prediction of shoulder and elbow kinematics in able-bodied and spinal cord injured individuals

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 471 - 480
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
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    The authors have evaluated the ability of a time-delayed artificial neural network (TDANN) to predict shoulder and elbow motions using only electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from six shoulder and elbow muscles as inputs, both in able-bodied subjects and in subjects with tetraplegia arising from C5 spinal cord injury. For able-bodied subjects, all four joint angles (elbow flexion-extension and shoulder-horizontal flexion-extension, elevation depression, and internal-external rotation) were predicted with average root-mean-square (rms) errors of less than 20° during movements of widely different complexities performed at different speeds and with different hand loads. The corresponding angular velocities and angular accelerations were predicted with even lower relative errors. For individuals with C5 tetraplegia, the absolute rms errors of the joint angles, velocities, and accelerations were actually smaller than for able-bodied subjects, but the relative errors were similar when the smaller movement ranges of the C5 subjects were taken into account. These results indicate that the EMG signals from shoulder and elbow muscles contain a significant amount of information about arm movement kinematics that could be exploited to develop advanced control systems for augmenting or restoring shoulder and elbow movements to individuals with tetraplegia using functional neuromuscular stimulation of paralyzed muscles View full abstract»

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  • WARD: a pneumatic system for body weight relief in gait rehabilitation

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 506 - 513
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB)  

    The paper presents Walking Assistance and Rehabilitation Device (WARD), a system for walking rehabilitation devised to relieve the patient of his/her body weight of a constant and prescribed amount by externally supporting the subject at the upper trunk and pelvis level by means of a harness. The system is based on a pneumatic actuator that has proved to be effective at maintaining a constant relief force. The constancy of this force that should be maintained even under high body weight support (BWS) conditions (70-80% of body weight) seems to be important for a correct motor pattern. A law has been identified that may be useful to adjust walking speed as a function of the prescribed BWS. WARD is simple to construct, practical to use, and has been characterized on healthy subjects View full abstract»

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  • Determination of generic body-seat interface shapes by cluster analysis

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 481 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The purpose of this study was to determine typical or generic shape patterns of the buttock-seat interface for elderly wheelchair users. The group of subjects was composed of 30 elderly people (aged 65 or older) and the shapes of the body-seat interface were measured by the electronic shape sensor (ESS). By analyzing the dissimilarity in geometrical shape descriptors or parameters, four distinct generic shapes were identified by means of the cluster analysis method. The results suggest that the generic shapes were mainly characterized by the lateral symmetry of the shapes. The determination of elderly people's seat interface shapes into distinct clusters may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the seat support interface and more effective seat cushion designs View full abstract»

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  • Patient-driven control of FES-supported standing up and sitting down: experimental results

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 523 - 529
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (2)
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    A patient driven control strategy for standing-up and sitting-down was experimentally tested on two paraplegic patients by applying functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the quadriceps muscle. The strategy-also known as “patient-driven motion reinforcement” (PDMR)-was developed by computer simulations reported in a former study. It is based on an inverse dynamic model (IDM) that predicts the stimulation pattern required to maintain the movement as it is initiated by the patient's voluntary effort. For reasons of safety and weight relief, the movement was supported by a seesaw construction. After some practice the patients were able to influence the stimulator output and to control the movement by their voluntary effort. Consequently, no pre-programmed reference trajectory was required. As a positive side effect, upper body effort could be minimized compared to trials without FES. To achieve a satisfactory performance of the PDMR controller a careful parameter identification of the inverse dynamic model was fundamental View full abstract»

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  • The use of selective electrical stimulation of the quadriceps to improve standing function in paraplegia

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 514 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) can benefit significantly from functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) systems for standing if manual tasks can be performed while upright. Using FNS to sufficiently activate the knee extensors to rise from a sitting position often results in inadvertent activation of the rectus femoris and/or sartorius, which flex the hip. In this study, intramuscular electrodes implanted in the vastus lateralis and medialis of four subjects with SCI were used to activate these muscles individually and simultaneously to measure knee extension moment. Support forces applied to the arms and feet were measured while upright to quantify the effects of recruiting rectus femoris and/or sartorius. In three of the four subjects, vastus lateralis, by itself, generated adequate knee extension moment for rising from a chair and to maintain static standing. Simultaneous activation of the vastus lateralis and medialis using a bifurcated electrode generated adequate knee extension moment in one subject, and was within 10% of the required moment in another. While upright, activation of the rectus femoris resulted in arm support force increases of 4-11% body weight, while deactivation resulted in arm support force decreases of 6-9% body weight. The results indicate that selective activation of the vastus lateralis, individually or in combination with vastus medialis, can improve current FNS standing systems by reducing the arm support forces required to remain upright View full abstract»

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  • Using time-dependent neural networks for EEG classification

    Publication Year: 2000 , Page(s): 457 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (112 KB)  

    This paper compares two different topologies of neural networks. They are used to classify single trial electroencephalograph (EEG) data from a brain-computer interface (BCI). A short introduction to time series classification is given, and the used classifiers are described. Standard multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) are used as a standard method for classification. They are compared to finite impulse response (FIR) MLPs, which use FIR filters instead of static weights to allow temporal processing inside the classifier. A theoretical comparison of the two architectures is presented. The results of a BCI experiment with three different subjects are given and discussed. These results demonstrate the higher performance of the FIR MLP compared with the standard MLP View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased publication in 2000. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabiliation Engineering.

Full Aims & Scope