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Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, 2003. Sixth IEEE International Symposium on

Date 14-16 May 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 41
  • VisiTrack - video based incremental tracking in real time

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 193 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents VisiTrack, a novel approach for video based incremental tracking in real time. The major objectives in the development of VisiTrack was to design or select algorithms that are well suited for embedded real time computation. We had a special focus on latency reduction and storage minimization since the algorithms should run on mobile devices like PDAs with the appropriate extension, i.e. mainly a camera, in real time. The image analysis, position localization and error minimization of VisiTrack are explained in detail. For the image analysis algorithms of VisiTrack two major principles, linear processing and incremental concurrency, were defined and applied in order to fulfill real time constraints and reduce system latency. In order to meet real time requirements the position localization is based on a linear transformation between 3D world coordinates and 2D image coordinates. Afterwards a real time error minimization based on the Kalman filter is applied successfully. VisiTrack is applied in the Augmented Reality domain and in the field of robotic self localization. View full abstract»

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  • Basic program structures for avoiding priority inversions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 26 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Structuring real-time concurrent programs in the form of groups of fixed-priority processes is an old art which is appropriate for only a small fraction of modem real-time distributed computing application systems. However, it is still practiced on the basis of an insufficient technical foundation. One of the basic issues in using the fixed-priority process structuring approach is to avoid the priority inversion phenomenon. It is argued that priority inversions are essentially due to the inappropriate approach used for structuring programs including the specification of the policy for allocating resources. Several basic program structuring techniques which are effective means of avoiding priority inversions are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A dynamic shadow approach for mobile agents to survive crash failures

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 113 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault tolerance schemes for mobile agents to survive agent server crash failures are complex since developers normally have no control over remote agent servers. Some solutions inject a replica into stable storage upon its arrival at an agent server. However in the event of an agent server crash the replica is unavailable until the agent server recovers. This paper presents a failure model and a revised exception handling framework for mobile agent systems. An exception handler design is presented for mobile agents to survive agent server crash failures. A replica mobile agent operates at the agent server visited prior to its master's current location. If a master crashes its replica is available as a replacement. Experimental evaluation is performed and performance results are used to suggest some useful design guidelines. View full abstract»

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  • A cooperative simulation mechanism of distributed control systems based on object-oriented design patterns

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 83 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed control systems (DCSs) consisting of a plant, a controller composed of many devices, and an open network interconnecting devices, are now used in many automation areas. For assuring the control performance under the heavy traffic on the network, the simulation of DCS is strongly needed. In the case of DCSs for controlling a mechanical plant, the graphical and cooperative simulation between the controller model and the plant model becomes important to verify the sequence of motions of the plant. For this purpose, we propose a systematic object-oriented-based DCS modeling procedure to efficiently and uniformly develop the DCS simulation model. From this procedure, we can describe the formal description of DCS simulation model based on five object-oriented design patterns which describe the structure and behavior of the DCS. We also propose an event chain mechanism between the statechart-based controller model and the graphical plant model. Finally, the cooperative DCS simulation software is developed by using the Java 3D API. View full abstract»

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  • Redesigning legacy systems into the object-oriented paradigm

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 221 - 229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Object-oriented1 languages support many modern programming paradigms such as information hiding, inheritance, polymorphism, and dynamic binding. As a result, software systems implemented in OO languages are more reusable and reliable than those in non-OO. Many legacy software systems were created before OO programming became popular and needed to be redesigned and updated to OO programs. The process of abstracting OO designs from the procedural source code was often done manually or with limited assistance from program structural diagrams. Most reengineering focuses on the functionality of the original program, and the OO redesign often results in a completely new design based on the designers' understanding of the original program. Such an approach is not sufficient, for it not only takes time and effort for designers to become familiar with the original program, but the approach itself is also mistake-prone due to the human involvement. This paper presents a computer-aided semi-automatic method that abstracts OO designs from the original procedural source code. More specifically, it is a method for OO redesign based on program structural diagrams, visualization, and execution slice. We conducted a case study by applying this method to an inventory management software system. Results indicate that our method can effectively and efficiently abstract an appropriate OO design out of the original C code as well as re-generate part of the system in C++ code based on this new OO design. View full abstract»

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  • Issues with object orientation in verifying safety-critical systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Primus Epicrm is an all-new integrated avionics system for business, regional and general aviation. Honeywell International Inc. follows the Object Oriented paradigm and the programming language C+ +for certain software components on systems developed for the PRIMUS EPIC system. While C++ programming language offers several advantages, it also has several features that can make it undesirable for use in airborne systems. The, Object Orientation concept has several features that, if not controlled properly, can lead to unknown configurations of object code and unverified code. This is highly undesirable for avionics software that needs certification involving statement and code coverage. This paper highlights the issues with C++ certification for avionics and provides solutions for some of the issues. View full abstract»

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  • Challenges in building scalable network centric real-time information dissemination systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 203 - 210
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the DoD strives for a new Network Centric Warfare (NCW[1]) capability, a multitude of technical and organizational challenges are being faced. In large part, NCW can be classified as a collective large-scale information dissemination system that operates at multitudes of levels and will be implemented using different distributed technologies and architectural styles. This paper classifies the use of these different distributed technologies as layers of information abstractions and highlights their varied architectural uses as they are driven by latency, scalability, reconfiguration and seamless programming requirements. For example, the following technologies are contrasted: Peer to Peer and mobile networks, Web Services, Content-based Routing, and Real-Time CORBA, while addressing distributed Security and Fault Tolerance issues. Unique challenges for when and how these technologies can be used, as well as their attributes for addressing scalability are highlighted. These technology challenges are classified and contrasted using the models based on the Siena project[2] which has been extended for the real-time community and termed Siena+RT. These requirements are described in context of the Boeing Phantom Works[8] XIS (eXtensible InfoSphere) Scalability Testbed Framework. XIS is a set of hierarchal distributed technologies developed to support the diverse real-time requirements for collection and dissemination of information throughout a global information grid. View full abstract»

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  • A supervisory tool for real-time industrial automation systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 230 - 237
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (601 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Object-oriented techniques have been increasingly used during the development of real-time industrial automation systems, both in modeling and simulation frameworks used in problem domain analysis and requirements engineering, as well as for implementing SCADA (Supervisor.), Control And Data Acquisition) systems. However, mostly commercial available CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools do not supports the automatic code generation for SCADA systems. This paper proposes an architecture for integrating supervisory tools into object-oriented frameworks for industrial automation applications. The ideas proposed have been implemented and integrated with an object-oriented framework for real-time industrial automation applications. Real case studies have been developed, including the supervisory control of a chemical plant's prototype and the development of man-machine interfaces for food industry (pork processing plant). View full abstract»

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  • Implication of embedded Linux in Japanese embedded industries

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 41 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB)  

    In this short article, we introduce Japan Embedded Linux Consortium. Then, we show the impact of ubiquitous computing researches to embedded system industries, and show a brief overview of our research activities. View full abstract»

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  • A systems engineering approach for constructing certifiable real-time distributed systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 105 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a systems engineering methodology for constructing certifiable realtime distributed systems. In the proposed approach, an architectural and algorithmic solution to an application problem is designed by considering the "weakest" models including the weakest asynchronous computational model and multimodal arrival model. Furthermore, timeliness properties are described using Jensen's benefit accrual predicates. Once a system solution is designed, timeliness properties are established by constructing necessary feasibility conditions that are expressed as non-valued predicates. The predicates are quantified and verified to produce the specification of a certified solution. We illustrate the approach by considering a packet transmission problem that desire soft timeliness. We present a certifiable solution to this problem that consists of switched Ethernet, a soft real-time packet scheduling algorithm (that was previously developed), and feasibility conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A two-aspect approach for a clearer behavior model

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 213 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moving from code-oriented to model-oriented development facilitates significantly management of increasingly complex software. As explained in [1], clear separation of concerns during application development can drastically increase maintainability, reusability and complexity management. Although existing UML-based approaches for real-time systems development do help speed up software development, they still result in models that are hard to maintain and reuse. This drawback is mainly due to a failure to apply the principles of separating concerns. This paper presents an UML-based method using Aspect Principles and dedicated to the development of real-time embedded systems. It focuses mainly on how suitable separation of concerns may ease reusability and maintainability. Specifically, it depicts how application behavior can be clearly modeled applying separation of control and computation aspects of behavior in UML. View full abstract»

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  • Choir: a real-time middleware architecture supporting benefit-based proactive resource allocation

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 292 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Asynchronous real-time distributed systems are inherently non-deterministic. To deal with such non-determinism's, we have developed a family of proactive resource management algorithms that support benefit-function based, end-to-end QoS management. This paper describes a middleware implementation of these algorithms, called Choir. The Choir middleware allows the user express the task end-to-end timeliness requirements using Jensen's benefit functions. Furthermore, the middleware system can transparently replicate, and possibly migrate the computational subtasks to conquer uncertainties such as workload fluctuations, changes of system resources, so that the system aggregate benefit is maximized. Initial experimental results suggest the effectiveness the Choir middleware. View full abstract»

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  • Configuration and dynamic reconfiguration of component-based applications with Microsoft .NET

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 164 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dynamic reconfiguration provides of powerful mechanism to adapt component-based distributed applications to changing environmental conditions. We have designed and implemented a framework for dynamic component reconfiguration on the basis of the Microsoft .NET environment. Within this paper we present an experimental evaluation of our infrastructure for dynamic reconfiguration of component-based applications. Our framework supports the description of application configurations and profiles and allows for selection of a particular configuration and object/component instantiation based on measured environmental conditions. In response to changes in the environment, our framework will dynamically load new configurations, thus implementing dynamic reconfiguration of an application. Configuration code for components and applications has to interact with many functional modules and therefore is often scattered around the whole application. We use aspect-oriented programming techniques to handle configuration aspects separately from functional code. The timing behavior of dynamic reconfiguration depends heavily on properties of the underlying programming environment and the operating system. We have studied to which extend and with which performance impact the Microsoft .NET Platform1 supports dynamic reconfiguration. The paper thoroughly discusses our experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • General framework for the description of QoS in UML

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 61 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    UML is useful for modeling object-oriented systems, their behavior and interaction. However, UML currently does not support the modeling of quality of service (QoS) criteria, such as the reliability and accuracy (i.e., quality). A QoS framework provides support to ensure consistency in modeling various qualities of service. It supports a general categorization of different kinds of QoS; including QoS that are fixed at design time as well as ones that are managed dynamically. And it supports the integration of different categories of QoS for the purpose of QoS modeling of system aspects. Frequently the behavior of a system component is functionally correct, but the result it generates is nevertheless unacceptable because the result does not meet some QoS criteria. One way to enhance the capability of the system to deliver results of acceptable quality is to use flexible components that adapt their behavior depending on the resources available and the QoS required. View full abstract»

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  • Nested invocation protocol for object-based systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 238 - 245
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We discuss how to invoke a method on multiple object replicas in a quorum-based way. Suppose each instance of a method t on replicas of an object x invokes another method u on replicas in a quorum of an object y. Here, the method u is redundantly invoked multiple times on some replicas of the object y. If each instance of the method t issues a method u to its own quorum, more number of replicas are manipulated than the quorum number This is quorum expansion. We discuss a protocol to invoke methods on replicas in a nested manner without the redundant invocation and quorum expansion. We evaluate the protocol on how many replicas are manipulated and requests are issued. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to the TOPPERS project - open source RTOS for embedded systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 44 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The TOPPERS Project is to develop a series of open source real-time operating systems (RTOS) for embedded systems. The TOPPERS/JSP Kernel, which is the first product of the project, was released two years ago and is started to be used in industries. A technological basis of the TOPPERS Project is the ITRON Specification, which is a de-facto standard real-time kernel specification widely applied to consumer electronics, cellular phones, and other small-scale embedded systems in Japan. View full abstract»

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  • Implementing the multicast Inter-ORB protocol

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 135 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents our experiments for integrating OMG MIOP (Mullicast Inter-ORB Protocol) specifications into a CORBA ORB. We proposed an integration model which allows the coexistence of two different protocol stacks (IIOP/TCP/IP and MIOP/UDP/IP multicast), making possible a large spectrum of middleware support for distributed objects communication. That integration model is discussed in this paper, giving evidence of the compatibility of our approach with the CORBA specifications. We also do some considerations about the implementation of this model in a CORBA compliant ORB. View full abstract»

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  • Metrics and models for cost and quality of component-based software

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 149 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quality and risk concerns currently limit the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software components to non-critical applications. Software metrics can quantify factors contributing to the overall quality of a component-based system, and models for tradeoffs between cost and various aspects of quality can guide quality and risk management by identifying and eliminating sources of risk. This paper discusses metrics and models that can be used to alleviate quality concerns for COTS-based systems, enabling the use of COTS components in a broader range of applications. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing time triggered scheduling with value based overload handling and task migration

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 121 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Time triggered methods provide deterministic behaviour suitable for critical real-time systems. The), perform less favourably, however if the arrival times of some activities are not known in advance, in particular if overload situations have to be anticipated. In many systems, the criticality of only a subset of activities justify the cost associated with the time triggered methods. In this paper we consider distributed systems where a subset of critical activities are handled in a time triggered fashion, via an offline schedule. At runtime, the arrival of aperiodic tasks may cause overload that demands to be handled in such a way that i) time triggered activities still meet all their original constraints, ii) execution of high-valued tasks are prioritised over tasks with lower value, iii) tasks can be quickly migrated to balance the overall system load. We give a precise formulation of overload detection and value based task rejection in the presence of offline scheduled tasks, and present a heuristic algorithm to handle overload. To benefit from the distributed setting, the overload handling includes an algorithm that integrates migration of rejected tasks with resource reclaiming and an acceptance test of newly arrived tasks. Simulation results underline the effectiveness of the presented approach. View full abstract»

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  • Object-oriented middleware infrastructure for distributed augmented reality

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 156 - 163
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper describes design and implementation of software infrastructure for building augmented reality applications for ubiquitous computing environments. Augmented reality is one of the most important techniques to achieve the vision of ubiquitous computing. Traditional toolkits for augmented reality provide the high level abstraction that makes it easy to build augmented reality applications. However, the applications programmers need to contemplate distribution and context-awareness that make the development of applications very hard, but they are necessary to build ubiquitous computing environments. Our infrastructure provides the high level abstraction and hides distribution and context-awareness from programmers. Therefore, the cost to develop augmented reality applications will be reduced dramatically by using our middleware infrastructure. View full abstract»

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  • RTC: a real-time communication middleware on top of RTAI-Linux

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 19 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes RTC, a partially object-oriented middleware inspired on the ISO/OSI standard that implements a complete real-time communication platform on a cluster running under real-time Linux. Media Access Control (MAC) is implemented by means of a modified TDMA protocol, and at the application level a channel-oriented communication is provided. The RTC platform guarantees a bandwidth for each channel, which makes it attractive for multimedia applications, which currently is the main application considered. In addition, RTC supports non-real-time traffic using TCP/IP, for instance. The platform has two principal components: the communication protocols implemented as modules of the Linux/RTAI operating system and the user space API (Application Program Interface) implemented in a object-oriented manner and based on the LXRT feature of the RTAI. Furthermore, the non-real-time capabilities are supported by a software layer in the kernel of Linux. Currently, SCI is used as underlying communication network. SCI has been selected due to its low latency, low jitter and high bandwidth[6]. RTC, however has been designed to support other network technologies as well. Included in the paper are performance evaluation results that demonstrate the real-time properties of RTC. View full abstract»

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  • Embedded linux outlook in the PostPC industry

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 37 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of the future of Embedded Linux in the PostPC industry. This analysis is carried out by first examining the current forces at work in the PostPC market and how they effect Linux. Next, we look at the future trends in the PostPC market for the many types of devices we see in the market now and will see in the future and how well these trends can be addressed by Embedded Linux and other RTOSes in the marketplace. The third step in this analysis is to examine the qualities of Linux itself and what gives it an advantage in the marketplace as well as the challenges that accompany using Linux as an embedded platform. We address the challenges that Embedded Linux faces by proposing the need for the standardization of Embedded Linux. This means building a core standard for a kernel that is optimized for embedded systems, standard middleware profiles for powering different applications, and a standard for addressing intellectual property and software components. View full abstract»

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  • Design of SMIL browser functionality in mobile terminals

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 143 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    SMIL is a markup language which enables us to describe multimedia contents. This paper proposes a design model of SMIL browser functionality for mobile terminals whose resources are limited. We introduce SMIL Component, which is based on attachable software architecture to a pre-installed generic web browser. This leads to reduce memory size that SMIL Component consumes and bring high adaptability of SMIL Component for various web browsers. We implement SMIL Component and evaluate RAM sizes and presentation delays. As a result, we found out that SMIL Component can be useful for MMS presentations on mobile terminals. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling distributed autonomous robots using CHARON: formation control case study

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 93 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the modeling and analysis of distributed autonomous robots using the specification language for hybrid systems, called CHARON. Coordination between distributed autonomous robots has attracted researchers of embedded and hybrid systems, since there has been increasing demand for multiple robots working together in a dynamically changing or unknown environment to carry out missions such as search and rescue, cooperative localization, and scouting and reconnaissance. To maximize the capability of performing tasks collaboratively as a team, formation control is one of crucial parts in developing distributed autonomous robots. In this paper formation control of a team of robots is modeled using CHARON and the model is analyzed using simulation with assertion checking capability of the CHARON toolset. View full abstract»

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  • Towards model-based and CCM-based applications for real-time systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 75 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New advances in software component and modeling standards promise to ease the burden of development complexity while improving flexibility and reliability. These solutions raise the level of abstraction from object-oriented classes to coarser components and support the creation and configuration of systems using modeling or other specification standards. This paper outlines the challenges inherent in the original Bold Stroke component model developed in the late 1990's and then discusses an evolved component model that leverages work being done in the Object Management Group (OMG) and in government funded research that addresses these issues in a distributed real-time embedded (DRE) application context. View full abstract»

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