By Topic

Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date Apr.-June 2014

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (263 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • From the Editor's Desk

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 2 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • When Computers Were Amateur

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 4 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)  

    This article examines the records of the Amateur Computer Society (1966-1976), a hobbyist organization whose newsletters chronicle an important corner in the history of computing. It argues for amateurism as an important foil to histories firmly ensconced in the firm or lab, often focused on technological artifacts. The author offers two readings of the newsletters: one that looks at the discussion of schematics as a contested representation of amateur expertise and the other that reveals the crucial links between amateur practice and domesticity. In addition to this portrait of early computer building hobbyists, the article sketches the amateur as a meaningful analytic category for the history of computing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Great Northern Machine Wars: Rivalry Between User Groups in Finland

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 16 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB)  

    The history of computing has been colored by "computer wars" that have raged between various companies competing in the market. The commercial wars have received a great deal of attention, whereas the clashes between supporters of different platforms remain largely undocumented. This article approaches the topic from a Finnish hobbyist perspective through three case studies, ranging from the emergence of affordable home computers and video game consoles in the early 1980s to modern-day wars. The results suggest that even though the social and technological landscape has changed significantly during the last 30 years, the essence of the computer wars has remained largely unchanged. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Arpanet IMP Program: Retrospective and Resurrection

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 28 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    People from Bolt Beranek and Newman and others have extensively documented the Arpanet technology, including the Arpanet Interface Message Processor (IMP). This paper sketches the history (not the previously described technology) of the IMP program as originally written in 1969 for the modified Honeywell 516 computer. A sequence of other systems, evolving from the original software system and running on a variety of hardware platforms, are also enumerated. In 2013 a faded 1973 line printer listing of the IMP program was run through a special OCR program optimized to process such historical artifacts; an assembler was recreated to assemble the IMP code (looking like the modified PDP-1 Midas assembler used in 1973); and a software emulator of the original IMP hardware platform was created. This article also describes the methods used to recover a digital copy and assemble and run again the 1973 IMP code. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Engineering "The Miracle of the ENIAC": Implementing the Modern Code Paradigm

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 41 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB)  

    In 1947 John von Neumann had the idea of converting ENIAC to the new style of programming first described in his celebrated "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC." By April 1948, Nick Metropolis, building on plans developed by Adele Goldstine and others, had implemented the conversion, making ENIAC the first computer to execute programs written in the new style, which we call the "modern code paradigm." Treating this as a case of user-driven innovation, the authors document the conversion process and compare capabilities of the reconstructed machine to those of the first modern computers. This article is the second in a three-part series. The first article, "Reconsidering the Stored Program Concept" (published in IEEE Annals, vol. 36, no. 1, 2014; http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.56), examined the history of the aforesaid idea and proposed a set of more specific alternatives. The third, "Los Alamos Bets on ENIAC: Nuclear Monte Carlo Simulations, 1947-1948" (to appear in IEEE Annals, vol. 36, no. 3, 2014; http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MAHC.2013.56), will examine in detail the first program run on the machine after its conversion to the new programming method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • John Womersley: Applied Mathematician and Pioneer of Modern Computing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 60 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1485 KB)  

    John R. Womersley's career epitomized how numerical and statistical methods came into widespread use from the 1930s, in Britain as in other Western countries. As an applied mathematician and then a manager of mathematicians and statisticians, in war and in peacetime, Womersley and his career reflect the major trends in British applied mathematics, statistics, and automated computation in the middle decades of the 20th century. Womersley made both significant scientific contributions in applied mathematics and managerial contributions to computer innovation. He was also involved at the beginning of electronic computers. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Grounding Digital History in the History of Computing

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 72 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB)  

    In this brief article, we use the relatively recent publication of a number of books on the subject as a launching point to argue that digital history should be grounded in the history of computing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Events and Sightings

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 77 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Early Token Ring Work at MIT

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 80 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Toward a History of Social Computing: Children, Classrooms, Campuses, and Communities

    Publication Year: 2014 , Page(s): 88
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (84 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

From the analytical engine to the supercomputer, from Pascal to von Neumann, from punched cards to CD-ROMs -- theIEEE Annals of the History of Computing covers the breadth of computer history.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lars Heide
Copenhagen Business School
Centre for Business History