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Virtual Reality, 2003. Proceedings. IEEE

Date 22-26 March 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 60
  • Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality 2003

    Publication Year: 2003
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  • Combining head-mounted and projector-based displays for surgical training

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 110 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce and present preliminary results for a hybrid display system combining head-mounted and projector-based displays. Our work is motivated by a surgical training application, where it is necessary to simultaneously provide both a high-fidelity view of a central close-up task (the surgery) and visual awareness of objects and events in the surrounding environment In particular, for trauma surgeons it would be valuable to learn to work in an environment that is realistically filled with both necessary and distracting objects and events. In this paper, we motivate the use of a hybrid display system, discuss previous work, describe a prototype along with methods for geometric calibration, and present results from a controlled human subject experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 315 - 317
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  • The dichotomy of presence elements: the where and what

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 273 - 274
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the goals and defining characteristics of virtual reality systems is to create "presence" and fool the user into believing that one is, or is doing something "in" the synthetic environment. Most research and papers on presence to date have been directed toward coming up with the definitions of presence, and based on them, identifying key elements that affect presence. We carried out an elaborate experiment in which presence levels were measured (with subjective questionnaire) in test virtual worlds configured with different combinations of six visual presence elements. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction to VR technology

    Publication Year: 2003
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    This tutorial provides a fast paced introduction to the technologies of virtual reality, providing a foundation to comprehend the other activities at VR2003. Attendees will learn the component technologies that allow for the creation and experience of desktop and immersive virtual worlds. Each technology topic will provide a definition, brief introduction to the methods and issues, example systems, and references for further investigation (background, research, and commercial). Topics will include the basic hardware and software technologies and also touch on design issues such as usability and story elements. View full abstract»

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  • Desktop commodity-level immersive environments

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 312
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  • Hollywood meets simulation: creating immersive training environments at the ICT

    Publication Year: 2003
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    The Institute for Creative Technologies is a federally funded research center set up three years ago at the University of Southern California to advance the state of the art in immersive training. Teaming researchers in artificial intelligence, graphics, animation and immersive audio with Hollywood writers, directors and special effect artists, the ICT brings a unique mix of high-technology and professional storytelling esthetic to the problem of creating compelling immersive environments. This afternoon tutorial will consist of a panel presentation by top ICT affiliated researchers to discuss this wide range of technologies and skills and how they relate to the design of virtual environments. The panel will be followed by a tour of the ICT facilities and demonstrations of several virtual training systems. View full abstract»

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  • A comparative study of user performance in a map-based virtual environment

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 259 - 266
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a comparative study of user performance with tasks involving navigation, visual search, and geometric manipulation, in a map-based battlefield visualization virtual environment (VE). Specifically, our experiment compared user performance of the same task across four different VE platforms: desktop, cave, workbench, and wall. Independent variables were platform type, stereopsis (stereo, mono), movement control mode (rate, position), and frame of reference (egocentric, exocentric). Overall results showed that users performed tasks fastest using the desktop and slowest using the workbench. Other results are detailed in the article. Notable is that we designed our task in an application context, with tasking much closer to how users would actually use a real-world battlefield visualization system. This is very uncommon for comparative studies, which are usually designed with abstract tasks to minimize variance. This is, we believe, one of the first and most complex studies to comparatively examine, in an application context, this many key variables affecting VE user interface design. View full abstract»

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  • A virtual reality system for neurobehavioral and fMRI studies

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 312
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  • Evaluation of the ShapeTape tracker for wearable, mobile interaction

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 285 - 286
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe two engineering experiments designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Measurand's ShapeTape for wearable, mobile interaction. Our initial results suggest that the ShapeTape is not appropriate for interactions which require a high degree of accuracy. However, ShapeTape is capable of reproducing the qualitative motion the user is performing and thus could be used to support 3D gesture-based interaction. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive techniques for real-time haptic and visual simulation of bone dissection

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 102 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bone dissection is an important component of many surgical procedures. In this paper we discuss adaptive techniques for providing real-time haptic and visual feedback during a virtual bone dissection simulation. The simulator is being developed as a component of a training system for temporal bone surgery. We harness the difference in complexity and frequency requirements of the visual and haptic simulations by modeling the system as a collection of loosely coupled concurrent components. The haptic component exploits a multi-resolution representation of the first two moments of the bone characteristic function to rapidly compute contact forces and determine bone erosion. The visual component uses a time-critical particle system evolution method to simulate secondary visual effects, such as bone debris accumulation, blooding, irrigation, and suction. View full abstract»

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  • Toward the innovative collaboration between art and science: the task in the age of media culture through case studies in the contemporary field of media arts

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 159 - 160
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  • Binocular vision-based augmented reality system with an increased registration depth using dynamic correction of feature positions

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 271 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In vision-based augmented reality systems, the relationship between the real and virtual worlds needs to be estimated to perform the registration of the virtual objects. This paper suggests a registration method which increases the registration depth of video see-through augmented reality systems using binocular cameras. The method uses both monocular and stereoscopic vision-based techniques in order to perform the registration. Also, the registration method can be combined with a facultative correction of the 2D positions of the feature points. The correction increases the stability and the accuracy of the proposed registration method. View full abstract»

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  • Empirical studies for effective near-field haptics in virtual environments

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 287 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents results from two experiments into the use of vibrotactile cues for near-field haptics in virtual environments. In one experiment, subjects were tested on their ability to identify the location of a one-second vibrotactile stimulus presented to a single tactor of a 3-by-3 array on their back. We recorded an 84% correct identification rate. In a second experiment, subjects were asked to match the intensity of a vibrotactile stimulus presented at one location with the intensity at another location. We found that subjects could match the intensities to within 7Hz if the reference and adjustable stimuli were presented at the same location, but only to within 18Hz otherwise. View full abstract»

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  • Scalable 3D representation for 3D video display in a large-scale space

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 45 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors introduce their research for realizing a 3D video display system in a very large-scale space such as a soccer stadium, concert hall, etc. They propose a method for describing the shape of a 3D object with a set of planes in order to synthesize a novel view of the object effectively. The most effective layout of the planes can be determined based on the relative locations of an observer's viewing position, multiple cameras, and 3D objects. A method is described for controlling the LOD of the 3D representation by adjusting the orientation, interval, and resolution of planes. The data size of the 3D model and the processing time can be reduced drastically. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of latency on presence in stressful virtual environments

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 141 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previous research has shown that even low end-to-end latency can have adverse effects on performance in virtual environments (VE). This paper reports on an experiment investigating the effect of latency on other metrics of VE effectiveness: physiological response, simulator sickness, and self-reported sense of presence. The VE used in the study includes two rooms: the first is normal and non-threatening; the second is designed to evoke a fear/stress response. Participants were assigned to either a low latency (∼50 ms) or high latency (∼90 ms) group. Participants in the low latency condition had a higher self-reported sense of presence and a statistically higher change in heart rate between the two rooms than did those in the high latency condition. There were no significant relationships between latency and simulator sickness. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated virtual human interface system with portable virtual reality capability

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 311
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB)  

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  • MUVEES: a PC-based multi-user virtual environment for learning

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 163 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (913 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper summarizes our NSF funded project, a PC-based multi-user learning environment: Multi-User Virtual Environment Experiential Simulator (MUVEES). The goal of this project is to create and evaluate graphical multi-user virtual environments that use digitized museum resources to enhance middle school students' motivation and learning about science. Here, we discuss the design, implementation, and applications of MUVEES. We present its structure, efficient approaches that achieve more realistic avatar behaviors, and pedagogical strategies that foster strong learning outcomes across a wide range of individual student characteristics. Our preliminary results indicate that MUVEES is a powerful vehicle for collaboration and learning. We believe that our system and implementation methods will help improve future multi-user virtual environments. View full abstract»

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  • Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 180 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. The paper describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures that support collaboration, and guidelines for selecting appropriate synchronization and concurrency control schemes. View full abstract»

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  • The blue-c distributed scene graph

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 275 - 276
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a distributed scene graph architecture for use in the blue-c, a novel collaborative immersive virtual environment. We extend the widely used OpenGL Performer toolkit to provide a distributed scene graph maintaining full synchronization down to vertex and texel level. We propose a synchronization scheme including customizable, relaxed locking mechanisms. We demonstrate the functionality of our toolkit with two prototype applications in our high-performance virtual reality and visual simulation environment. View full abstract»

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  • High presence remote presentation in the shared immersive virtual world

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 289 - 290
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, a remote presentation system that can be used in the shared immersive virtual world was developed This system consists of several elemental technologies, such as the video avatar, a shared database, shared visualization tools and an i-mode interface, and can be used for both meeting-style and demonstration-style presentations. This system was applied to a presentation of collaborative research in the field of fluid dynamics analysis, and the effectiveness was evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Training for physical tasks in virtual environments: Tai Chi

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 87 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2141 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a wireless virtual reality system and a prototype full body Tai Chi training application. Our primary contribution is the creation of a virtual reality system that tracks the full body in a working volume of 4 meters by 5 meters by 2.3 meters high to produce an animated representation of the user with 42 degrees of freedom. This - combined with a lightweight (<3 pounds) belt-worn video receiver and head-mounted display - provides a wide area, untethered virtual environment that allows exploration of new application areas. Our secondary contribution is our attempt to show that user interface techniques made possible by such a system can improve training for a full body motor task. We tested several immersive techniques, such as providing multiple copies of a teacher's body positioned around the student and allowing the student to superimpose his body directly over the virtual teacher None of these techniques proved significantly better than mimicking traditional Tai Chi instruction, where we provided one virtual teacher directly in front of the student. We consider the implications of these findings for future motion training tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Design of the server cluster to support avatar migration

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 7 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We identified an important issue when supporting a large scale networked virtual environment (NVE) with a server cluster. This issue is similar to the process migration issue on the parallel computing study and we refer it as the avatar migration problem. That is, when an avatar of an NVE is moving from one region managed by a server to another region managed by a different server, the client site may perceive abrupt screen change due to the different contents managed by these two servers. This paper proposes equations to solve this problem and elaborates the proposed avatar migration mechanism with state diagrams. The implementing architecture is also given in this paper. Our experiments that successfully show the efficiency of the proposed mechanism are given at the last. View full abstract»

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  • Commodity clusters for virtual reality

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 307
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  • Human movement performance in relation to path constraint - the law of steering in locomotion

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 149 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We examine the law of steering - a quantitative model of human movement time in relation to path width and length previously established in hand drawing movement - in a VR locomotion paradigm. Participants drove a simulated vehicle in a virtual environment on paths whose shape and width were manipulated Results showed that the law of steering also applies to locomotion. Participants' mean trial completion times linearly correlated (r2 between 0.985 and 0.999) with an index of difficulty quantified as path distance to width ratio for the straight and circular paths used in this experiment. Their average mean and maximum speed was linearly proportional to path width. Such human performance regularity provides a quantitative tool for 3D human machine interface design and evaluation. View full abstract»

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