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Web Delivering of Music, 2002. WEDELMUSIC 2002. Proceedings. Second International Conference on

Date 11-11 Dec. 2002

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  • Proceedings Second International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music. WEDELMUSIC 2002

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  • Author index

    Page(s): 231
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  • Personal Orchestra: conducting audio/video music recordings

    Page(s): 93 - 100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Personal Orchestra lets anybody conduct an electronic orchestra at a new level of realism: users interact not with a synthetic, but an original audio and video recording of a real orchestra - the Vienna Philharmonic. Nevertheless, they can interactively control not only volume and instrumentation, but also tempo of the orchestra, using natural conducting gestures. A gesture tracking and predicting algorithm interprets user input, and a high-fidelity playback algorithm renders audio and video at variable speed without time-stretching artifacts such as pitch changes. The system was designed following a set of user interface design patterns for interactive exhibits. It is being used as the "Virtual Conductor" exhibit in the House of Music Vienna by hundreds of visitors every day. View full abstract»

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  • Using natural language input and audio analysis for a human-oriented MIR system

    Page(s): 74 - 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a MIR (music information retrieval) system using natural language as input for human-oriented queries to large-scale music collections. The outlined system is a full-fledged architecture combining state-of-the-art approaches from the fields of natural language and the automatic analysis of audio data. Our approach copes with meta tag construction, content-based classification of audio and uses music ontologies as a backbone for the representation of musical knowledge. On top of this architecture different prototypes for industrial applications are described including first results of real-life field tests. This work has been performed at the German Research Center for AI and the authors spin-off company, the Sonicson GmbH. View full abstract»

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  • The NEUMES Project: digital transcription of medieval chant manuscripts

    Page(s): 211 - 218
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    This paper introduces the NEUMES Project from a top-down perspective. The purpose of the project is to design a software infrastructure for digital transcription of medieval chant manuscripts, such that transcriptions can be interoperable across many types of applications programs. Existing software for modern music does not provide an effective solution. A distributed library of chant document resources for the Web is proposed, to encompass photographic images, transcriptions, and searchable databases of manuscript descriptions. The NEUMES encoding scheme for chant transcription is presented, with NeumesXML serving as a 'wrapper' for transmission, storage, and editorial markup of transcription data. A scenario of use is given and future directions for the project are briefly discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Musical style identification using self-organising maps

    Page(s): 82 - 89
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the capability of using self-organising neural maps (SOM) as music style classifiers from symbolic specifications of musical fragments is studied. From MIDI file sources, the monophonic melody track is extracted and cut into fragments of equal length. From these sequences, melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic numerical descriptors are computed and presented to the SOM. Their performance is analysed in terms of separability in different music classes from the activations of the map, obtaining different degrees of success for classical and jazz music. This scheme has a number of applications like indexing and selecting musical databases or the evaluation of style-specific automatic composition systems. View full abstract»

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  • A scientific approach to the music and musical education

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    Summary form only given. A modern approach to music and musical education devoted to children and boys (and also adults) should be, first based on real experimentations and/or computer simulations concerning the physics of sound, both acoustic and psychoacoustic. Due to the wide availability of personal computers and Internet technological advances, it is possible to draw children's attention to fundamental steps of the scientific method to approach the phenomenological world. A possible didactic itinerary is proposed in order to allow young middle-school students (aged 11-12) to analyse main features of the fundamental laws of the physics of sound. The paper considers the scheme of a didactic unit within a general project, carried out by RISMA. This project, based on the methodology of "learn and enjoy yourself", is directed at children and boys of elementary and middle school levels and devoted to deepening the acoustic peculiarities of sounds in order to build a scientific basis for more careful and conscious listening to music. The itinerary is essentially constituted by six steps. The first step consists of perception of an acoustic phenomenon in the classroom, generated by means of laboratory physical devices or musical instruments. In the second, pupils are invited to describe the phenomenon using spontaneous adjectives and their own language (brainstorming). Then, in the third step the teacher, by using suitable musical software and a personal computer, proposes experiments reproducing the phenomenon. The students are also invited, in the fourth step, to exploit Internet resources, in order to find new Web sites containing relevant information on the assigned topic. In the fifth step, reproduction of the phenomenon using their own creativity and computers is proposed to the pupils. Finally, in the last step, the teacher invites students to illustrate the overall experience by elaborating a short written presentation. View full abstract»

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  • Towards accessible multimedia music

    Page(s): 192 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the provision of music for the print impaired in the digital age. In recent years a number of key initiatives, such as those undertaken by EC funded projects like HARMONICA and WEDELMUSIC, have opened up new opportunities in the field of interactive multimedia music. The area of music encoding is moving towards greater unification and co-ordination of effort with the activities and strategies being pursued by the Music Network. For organizations providing support and alternative format materials for print impaired people this offers the exciting challenge of bringing together several disparate activities and building a far stronger future for coding activities in this field. This paper provides an overview of the current situation; a detailed description of the key emergent themes; information about recent technical initiatives; and some insight into the activities planned for the coming years. View full abstract»

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  • Audio digital watermarking based on hybrid spread spectrum

    Page(s): 150 - 155
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Watermarking is a technique used to label digital media, to protect copyright ownership, by hiding information into the signal. Watermarks must be imperceptible and robust against attacks. Besides, watermark robustness against several signal processing techniques can be ensured by exploiting a technique related to spread spectrum communications. In this paper, we propose a procedure based on frequential substitution using a BPSK modulation with an adaptive carrier frequency, the choice of which depends on the original signal features. A secret key, generated during the watermarking process, is used for retrieving hidden information. View full abstract»

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  • The music plagiarism digital archive at Columbia Law Library; an effort to demystify music copyright infringement

    Page(s): 133 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Columbia Law Library has developed the music copyright infringement online archive. This is a multimedia project which uses digital technologies to make available, without charge via the World-Wide Web, hundreds of documents associated with virtually all music plagiarism cases in the USA for which there is a published opinion. View full abstract»

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  • Audio coding and electronic distribution of music

    Page(s): 3 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Audio coding originally has been developed as a means for making digital radio possible and for distributing audio via phone lines. The most apparent application today is electronic distribution of music via the Internet. While legal services and copy protection methods have been around for seven years, the public attention and the bulk of actual use is still on unauthorized copying of music files. The talk will introduce the basic techniques for high quality coding of music and discuss some possibilities to reduce the unauthorized copying of music. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Composer: a tool for musical composition

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    The idea for Virtual Composer (VC) grew from the master course of composition that has been held by the first author since 1998. The main aim of this software is to be a composing assistant: a composer chooses architecture of composition, language styles, musical system and "engines" for generation and "modelling" of pitches, duration and timbre. The approach is object orientated. In this way the engines can both produce objects and modify properties of the objects themselves. Clementi developed the software while Ticari mainly prepared mathematical and stochastic engines. View full abstract»

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  • Perceptual analysis related to MPEG1-layer3 coding system

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    Digital audio compression plays a major role in music distribution (Internet or music education), and MP3 has become a standard format of compression. The methodology of such a codec includes removal of ultrasonic sound, stereo changing and masking effects. Psychoacoustical perception of compressed music has been assessed in this statistical study. Audiophiles (graduate musicians and music teachers) have shown a greatly developed ability to notice changes in sound compression, while the majority of music consumers haven't evolved such a capacity. Factors such as musical style and ear anatomy play a major role in detecting audio changes. Descriptive statistics, distribution of probability, hypothesis of contrast and analysis of variance have shown that professional musicians have developed a fixed ability for recognizing MP3 songs while occasional music consumers haven't evolved such a capacity. View full abstract»

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  • Restructuring reference works through multimedia content

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    This presentation is based upon a case study of the New Grove Dictionary of Music online edition. Described are some editorial issues surrounding the conversion of a music dictionary from print to online, and the integration of multimedia sound examples within its text. Strategies for selecting, creating and organising aural musical examples from printed copy are outlined Also considered is the possibility of interlinking and cross-referencing individual sound examples in order to create new, aural 'maps' of the Dictionary together with the existing cross-references between article texts. View full abstract»

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  • Subjective and objective quality evaluation of watermarked audio tracks

    Page(s): 161 - 167
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    This paper presents methods for the quality evaluation of watermarked audio data. Subjective and objective methods used in testing transparency as well as approaches rating the quality of the watermarked copies with regard to the original ones are presented. The various methods are discussed and detailed with regard to their applicability. According to the discussions two different kinds of tests were performed to test the quality of items watermarked with the algorithm presented in Arnold (2000). During the tests different settings of the so-called noise-to-mask ratio (NMR) were used. The first test is a subjective listener test which compares the quality of the original audio track with the watermarked one. The second test uses objective methods to rate the quality of watermarked audio tracks as well as compressed original audio tracks with the so-called objective difference grade (ODG). The results are compared to rate the quality of the watermarked items with respect to the compressed ones. View full abstract»

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  • Standardisation of the management of intellectual property rights in multimedia content

    Page(s): 125 - 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) management is a key issue for the deployment of real e-commerce and multimedia content distribution on the Web. The music market is well aware of this problem, and very different approaches are being considered to cope with it. One valid approach is to develop standards allowing interoperability of solutions, and MPEG is one international standardisation initiative trying to do this. In particular, the new MPEG-21 standard is proposing that the standardisation of a digital rights expression language and rights data dictionary would help to improve system and application interoperability. The main objective of the paper is to present our approach, that goes one step further than MPEG, since we are developing a semantic approach to represent and manage IPR. View full abstract»

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  • Music learning through visualization

    Page(s): 101 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a prototype music visualization system that shows the whole piece in a computer window, however long the piece and no matter how many parts it includes, as well as the selected part. The selected part is presented using either performed data or staff notation. Users can better understand performance expression by visualizing the performance with expressive cues of qualitative music terms. Based on this understanding, users can exchange comments with other users, recorded on visualized figures, through the Internet. Though still a prototype, we expect to make our system one that will enable users to better understand a musical piece and its performance, especially for a cooperative performance. View full abstract»

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  • Protecting digital music delivery and consumption using the OCCAMM project framework

    Page(s): 38 - 45
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    Several standardisation initiatives recognised that content has value to both the user and the owner, and to ensure that this value is preserved it must be protected. One of those initiatives is called OPIMA, an initiative in the Industry Technical Agreement (ITA) program of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). OPIMA specification was implemented and validated in OCCAMM, an EC IST funded project. In OCCAMM a full-fledged system based on OPIMA, for secure distribution of multimedia materials was set-up and trial scenarios were established. Thus, this paper describes the usage case established by the OCCAMM project, in which digital music is traded in an Electronic Commerce Platform and distributed to final users in a secure, conditional and protected way. Music consumption is also controlled in the client through the enforcement of content and usage rules by a specific developed player. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic identification of music notations

    Page(s): 203 - 210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The music scores of the 18th century and earlier were produced only in a manual way. The important problem of the current registration of old historical music scores lies in the identification of the corresponding writer to estimate who did the notation writing or drawing. We are developing efficient identification of a writer's hand. This identification is based on the automated image analysis approach. The theoretical manual identification is being developed at the Institute for Musicology at the University of Rostock. First tests of an analogue approach were applied on chosen music notations. These tests indicate that the recognition problem can be sufficiently solved only by computer-aided assistance. Our research activities are concentrated on the development of an automated identification of writers by analysing the notation graphic features. In our article we describe an approach for the automated image analysis and understanding as applied to digitised music scores. This approach is aimed at solving the automated identification of writers as a result of digital music notation matching. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time concepts for block-based watermarking schemes

    Page(s): 156 - 160
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we propose a concept to transfer a non real-time watermarking system into a watermarking system, which meets the requirements of a media-on-demand system. Several application scenarios requiring the embedding of watermarks with maximum speed are presented. The basic concept with assumptions concerning the underlying watermarking algorithms are discussed. The paper presents the necessary media preparation and the corresponding algorithm realizing the model. Enhancements of the fundamental principle concerning the distribution of MP3 files are demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Lossless audio coding with MPEG-4 structured audio

    Page(s): 184 - 191
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPEG-4 structured audio (SA) has been proposed as a flexible standard for generalized audio coding. Originating out of Netsound software developed at MIT SA is based on MIDI-synthesis of sound, but it is enriched with DSP algorithms so as to allow emulation of other types of coders designed for speech and audio signals. We have investigated the use of structured audio for lossless coding of audio signals, and have found that certain limitations of structured audio make implementations of lossless coders less straightforward than might be desired. In particular we have used SA to implement an MPEG-4 compliant version of the lossless audio coder AudioPaK. To implement and validate our new coder we used the software system Sfront, which translates MPEG-4 SA files into efficient C programs that render the audio signal. View full abstract»

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  • General blind watermark schemes

    Page(s): 143 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital watermarking is an active research area that has received a considerable attention in multimedia applications. For most watermark applications, it is often desired to retrieve the embedded information without access to the host data, which is known as blind watermark. Most previous blind watermark schemes either suffer significantly from host data interference or require expense of storage. Therefore, a simple and effective blind watermark scheme is needed urgently. In this paper, we attempt to resolve the problems. Here, we present two general blind watermark schemes, based on the lattice principle and property of periodic function, respectively. By using these schemes, the host data interference is eliminated entirely and only a little storage cost is needed. Thus, they have considerable advantages over previously proposed schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Multimedia music distribution and sharing among mediateques, archives and their attendees

    Page(s): 23 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Archives of mediateques, theatres, music schools, conservatories, universities, etc., are the most important sources of cultural heritage. Such institutions are interested in digitizing content to (i) improve the service towards their attendees, thus increasing the number of collections provided, (ii) add new functionalities to the service already provided, (iii) save fragile materials otherwise settled to time deterioration, such as tapes, disks, documents, etc. Publishers are interested in digitizing only content that guarantees a certain return of investment and at the same time they are inclined to limit the distribution of the content located in archives, so as to control its exploitation and to preserve the content ownership. WEDELMUSIC has been defined to allow content providers to share and distribute interactive music in the respect of the owner's rights. This means that networks of content sharing Mediateques can arise while respecting the owner's rights. Consequently, solutions, models and tools were defined and developed, including adequate protection and monitoring solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Security issues in high quality audio streaming

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    This paper briefly outlines an overview of security issues in high quality audio streaming environments along with practical solutions for securing high quality audio during transmission and storage. We describe multi-tier protection for widely accepted. MPEG 1 and 2 audio encoding formats, although it can easily be applied to any other Perceptual Audio Coding (PAC) standards. The approach consists of using adaptive bitstream encryption and watermarking to provide high-level security features for audio streams, independent of underlying network connections and their conditions. Security features are integrated with a packet loss protection encoder, which operates on the frame-level of an MPEG audio stream, designed to compensate against loss of streaming quality and unreliable network conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A study to design multimedia interactive software for the preparation of pre-service music educators

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    The purpose of this study was to adapt, identify, and develop curriculum relevant for future music educators. In field experiences, a critical task for students is the acquisition of successful teaching behaviors and the recognition of the characteristics of these behaviors. This study delineated the foundation and processes underlying a custom designed computer-based multimedia instructional program intended to provide pre-service music educators with teaching scenarios as a systematic means of identifying instructional problems. As part of this program, solutions to teaching scenarios and case studies were available for review. Teaching behaviors were remediated through discussion, analysis, criticism and practice. As part of this research, assessment criteria with associated descriptions and guidelines was determined and selected for identifying examples widely recognized by experienced music educators. Through the use of this program pre-service music teachers will experience the opportunity to observe, learn by doing, and practice the art of teaching. View full abstract»

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